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BELGIUM and HOLLAND, with 8 Maps and 17 Plans. 

Sixth Edition. 1881. 5 marks. 


Seven Mountains, Moselle, Volcanic Eifel, Vosges Mts., Black 
Fokest, etc.), with 22 Maps and 19 Plans. Seventh Edition. 1880. G marks. 

NORTHERN GERMANY, with 25 Maps and 33 Plans. Seventh 

Edition. 1881. 6 marks. 

gary and Transylvania, with 13 Maps and 24 Plans. 

Fourth Edition. 1880. 6 marks. 

THE EASTERN ALPS, including the Bavarian High- 
lands, THE TYROL, SALZKAMMERGUT, etc. With 21 Maps, 
10 Plans, and 7 Panoramas. Fourth Edition. 1879. 6 marks. 


Ravenna, and the Island of Corsica, and routes to Italy 

through Fkance, Switzerland, and Austria, with 8 Maps and 
32 Plans. Fifth Edition. 1879. 6 marks. 

CENTRAL ITALY and ROME, with 7 Maps, 27 Plans, and 

a Panorama of Rome. Seventh Edition. 1881. 6 marks. 

SOUTHERN ITALY, SICILY, and Excursions to the 
Lipari Islands, Tunis (Carthage), Sardinia, Malta, and 

CORFU with 24 Maps and 14 Plans. Seventh Edition. 1880. 7 marks. 

LONDON and its ENVIRONS, including Brighton, the 

ISLE OF WIGHT , etc. With 4 Maps and 14 Plans. Third 
Edition. 1881. 6 marks. 

NORWAY and SWEDEN, with 1 5 Maps and 3 Plans. 1879. 

9 marks. 

PARIS and its ENVIRONS, with Routes from London 

to Paris, and from Paris to the Rhine and Switzerland. With 
10 Maps and 30 Plans. Seventh Edition. 1881. 6 marks. 

SWITZERLAND, and the adjacent Parts of Italy, 

SAVOY, and the TYROL, with 26 Maps, 10 Plans, and 9 Panoramas. 
Ninth Edition. 1881. 7 marks. 

THE EAST. LOWER EGYPT, with the Fayum and the 

PENINSULA OF SlNAI, with 16 Maps, 29 Plans, 7 Views, and 76 
Vignettes. 1878. 15 marks. 

PALESTINE and SYRIA, with 18 Maps, 43 Plans, 

1 Panorama of Jerusalem, and 10 Views. 1876. 20 marks. 


English, German, French, and Italian. 3 marks. 

August 1881. 




(Comp. p. xiii.) 

Approximate Equivalents. 






Lire. Cent. 

Doll. 1 Cts. 

L. S. 

1 - ' 

Mk. 1 Pfo. 

Fl. 1 Kr. 

- \ 5 


1 |l - 

| _ 






5 — 










: 5 




















1 93/4 

















' — 















' 21| 2 




















9 3 (4 











71 2 








































































































7'| 2 





















































Distances. Since the consolidation of the Kingdom of Italy the 
French mitre system has been in use throughout the country, but the old 
Italian miglio (pi. le miglin) is still sometimes preferred to the new kilo- 
metre. One kilometre is equal to 0.62138, or nearly 5 'stlis, of an English 
mile. The Tuscan miglio is equal to 1.65 kilometre or 1 M. 44 yds.; the 
Roman miglio is equal to 1.49 kilometre or 1630 yds. 







With 1 Panorama, 7 Maps, and 27 Plans. 

Seventh revised Edition. 




The right of translation is reserved. 

"Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all." 



The objects of the Handbook for Italy, which consists 
of three volumes, each complete in itself, are to supply the 
traveller with some information regarding the progress of 
civilisation and art among the people he is about to visit, 
to render him as independent as possible of the services of 
guides and valets-de-place, to protect him against extortion, 
and in every way to aid him in deriving enjoyment and 
instruction from his tour in one of the most fascinating coun- 
tries in the world. The Handbook will also, it is hoped, be 
the means of saving the traveller many a trial of temper; 
for there is probably no country in Europe where the patience 
is more severely taxed than in some parts of Italy. 

The Handbook is based on the Editor's personal ac- 
quaintance with the places described, most of which he has 
repeatedly and carefully explored. As, however, changes 
are constantly taking place, he will highly appreciate any 
communications with which travellers may kindly favour 
him, if the result of their own observation. The information 
already received from numerous correspondents, which he 
gratefully acknowledges, has in many cases proved most 

The seventh edition of Central Italy and Rome, like its 
predecessor, has been carefully revised and brought down to 
date. For the description of the antiquities of Rome , the 
Editor is indebted to Professor H. Nissen of Strassburg. The 
introductory articles on art by Prof. M. KekuU of Bonn 
and Prof. A. Springer of Leipsic have been adapted for the 
use of English travellers with the kind assistance of Mr. 
J. A. Crowe, the eminent historian of art. Professor Springer 
has also contributed many valuable incidental remarks on 
modern art. 


The Maps and Plans, on which special care has been 
bestowed , will abundantly suffice for the use of the ordinary 
traveller. The Plan of Rome [scale 1 : 15,000) is divided 
into three sections with a view to obviate the necessity of 
unfolding a large sheet of paper at every consultation , and 
its use will be further facilitated by reference to the small 
clue-plan inside the cover at the end of the volume. 

Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 0,3048 
metre), and Distances in English miles (comp. p. ii). 

Hotels (comp. p. xxi). In no country does the treat- 
ment which the traveller experiences at hotels vary more 
than in Italy, and attempts at extortion are perhaps no- 
where so outrageous. Besides the modern palatial and ex- 
pensive establishments, the Handbook also contains a selec- 
tion of modest, old-fashioned inns, where gentlemen trav- 
elling alone will not unfrequently find good accommodation 
at moderate charges. The asterisks indicate those hotels 
which the Editor has reason to believe from his own ex- 
perience, as well as from information supplied by numerous 
travellers, to be respectable, clean, and reasonable. The 
value of these asterisks, it need hardly be observed, varies 
according to circumstances, those prefixed to town-hotels 
and village-inns signifying respectively that the establish- 
ments are good of their kind. At the same time the Editor 
does not doubt that comfortable quarters may occasionally 
be obtained at inns which he has not recommended or even 
mentioned. Although changes frequently take place , and 
prices generally have an upward tendency, the average 
charges stated in the Handbook will enable the traveller to 
form a fair estimate of his probable expenditure. 

To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and cour- 
tesy towards travellers forms the sole passport to his com- 
mendation, and that advertisements of every kind are strictly 
excluded from his Handbooks. 


Introduction. Page 

I. Travelling Expenses. Money xiii 

II. Season and Plan of Tour xiv 

III. Language xv 

IV. Passports. Custom-house. Luggage xvi 

V. Public Safety. Begging xvi 

VI. Intercourse with Italians xvii 

VII. Conveyances xviii 

VIII. Hotels xxi 

IX. Restaurants, Cafe's, etc xxii 

X. Sights, Shops, etc xxiv 

XI. Post Office. Telegraph xxv 

XII. Calculation of Time xxvi 

XIII. Climate. Health ... xxvi 

XIV. Dates of Recent Events xxviii 

Ancient Art, by Prof. Ii. Kekule xxx 

Mediieval and Modern Roman Art, by Prof. A. 

Springer xliv 

First Section. 

S. Tuscany. Umbria. The Marches. 


1 . From Leghorn or Pisa to Rome by the Maremme ... 1 

1. From Leghorn to Civita Vecchia by sea 1 

2. Piombino and Populonia 2 

3. From Grosseto to Eusellae 3 

4. Orbetello. Monte Argentario 4 

5. From Montalto to Vulci 4 

6. From Corneto to Toscanella 6 

7. From Civita Vecchia to La Tolfa 7 

2. Volterra. From Leghorn to Volterra. From Volterra to 
Siena 8 

1. From Saline to Monte Cerboli 9 

2. From Volterra to the copper-mines of Monte Catini . . 12 

3. Elba and the Tuscan Islands 13 

4. From Florence to Siena and Chiusi by Empoli .... 14 

1. From Poggibonsi to San Gimignano 15 

2. From Asciano to Grosseto. Monte Amiata .... 17 

3. Pienza 20 

5. Siena 21 

1. Excursions from Siena. L'Osservanza, S. Colomba, etc. 35 

2. Monte Oliveto Maggiore 36 

6. From Florence by Arezzo and Terontola (Chiusi, Rome) 

to Perugia 37 

From Arezzo to Monte Sansavino 42 


Route Page 

7. Perugia 46 

1. From Perugia to the Upper Valley of the Tiber. Citta di 
Castello. Borgo S. Sepolcro 55 

2. From Perugia to Narni by Todi 56 

8. From Florence by (Arezzo) Terontola and Chiusi to Rome 5 1 

1. From Chiusi to Citta della Pieve. Cetona .... 58 

2. From Borghetto to Civita Castellana. Falerii. Mount 
Soracte. Nepi °3 

9. From Orvieto to Rome by Bolsena , Monteflascone , and 
Viterbo 64 

Excursions from Viterbo. Castel d'Asso. Vetralla. Nor- 

chia. Sutri 68 

10. From Perugia to Foligno and Orte (Rome). Assist. Spo- 
leto. Waterfalls of Terni 70 

11. From Bologna to Rimini, Falconara (Rome), and Ancona 81 

Excursion to Urbino 88 

12. From Fano through the Furlo Pass to Fossato. Gubbio 93 

13. Ancona and its Environs. Osimo. Loreto 97 

14. From Ancona to Foligno (Orte, Rome) 101 

1. From Fabriano to Sassoferrato 102 

2. High Eoad from (Ancona) Civitanova to Foligno (Rome) 103 

Second Section. 


Preliminary Information : — 

Arrival. Police. Embassies and Consulates. Hotels . . 104 

Pensions. Private Apartments. Restaurants .... 105 

Osterie. Cafes. Confectioners. Gratuities Baths . . . 106 

Climate. Physicians. Chemists. Bankers. Booksellers . 107 

Libraries. Reading-Rooms. Newspapers 108 

Teachers of Italian. Music. Studios 108 

Art-dealers. Shops 109 

Theatres 110 

Cabs. Omnibuses Ill 

Tramway. Railways. Post Office. Telegraph .... 112 

English Churches. Church Festivals 112-114 

Popular Festivals. Street Scenes. Garrison . . . Ill, 115 

Collections, Villas, etc 115 

Diary. Duration of Stay 118 

Principal Attractions. Plan" for a Fortnights Visit. Orien- 
tation Drive . 119 

History of the City of Rome 121 

Chronological Table of Roman Emperors and Popes . 131 

Topography 135 

J. Strangers' Quarter and Corso 139 

Piazza del Popolo. S. Maria del Popolo^ 139 

The Pincio 141 

Villa Medici. SS. Trinita de' Monti 142 

Casa Zuccari-Bartholdy 143 

Piazza di Spagna. Propaganda 143 

S. Andrea delle Fratte. Fontana di Trevi 144 

The Corso. S. Carlo al Corso 145 

S. Lorenzo in Lucina. Post and Telegraph Office. Pal. Chigi 146 

Piazza Colonna. Column of Marcus Aurelius .... 147 

Piazza di Monte Citorio. Camera de' Deputati. Dogana di Terra 147 


(Rome) p a „ e 

Palazzo Sciarra-Colonna. S. Ignazio. Collegio Romano. . 148 

Museo Kircheriano j^q 

S. Marcello. S. Maria in Via Lata. Palazzo Doria . . . 151 

SS. Apostoli. Palazzo Colonna 155 

Palazzo di Venezia iry? 

Palazzo Torlonia. S. Marco 153 

Monument of Bibulus. Gesii 159 

Villa Borghese jgg 

II. The Hills of Rome. Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline . . 162 

Piazza Barberini ig.) 

S. Maria della Concezione. Villa Ludovisi igij 

Gardens of Sallust. Porta Salara. Villa Albani. . . . 1(54 

Palazzo Barberini 107 

Piazza del Quirinale (di Monte Cavallo) ° igg 

Palazzo Regio al Quirinale igg 

Palazzo Rospigliosi. S. Silvestro al Quirinale .... 170 

ViaNazionale. S. Agata in Suburra. S. Lorenzo in Paneperna 171 

S. Bernardo. Acqua Felice. S. Maria della Vittoria. Porta Pia 172 

Villa Patrizi. S. Agnese Fuori le Mura, S. Costanza . . 173 

Thermse of Diocletian. S. Maria degli Angeli .... 174 

Railway Station. Wall of Servius 175 

Campo Militare. S. Pudenziana 170 

S. Maria Maggiore I77 

S. Prassede. Arch of Gallienus \ 179 

S. Eusebio. S. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura. S. Bibiana. . . Igo 

Temple of Minerva Medica. Porta Maggiore l<-o 

S. Croce in Gerusalemme. Amphitheatrum Castrense . . 183 

S. Martino ai Monti. S. Pietro in Vincoli 184 

III. Rome on the Tiber (Left Bank) 185 

Mausoleum of Augustus 186 

Palazzo Borghese jgg 

Palazzo Lancelotti. S. Agostino 192 

S. Luigi de' Francesi 193 

Universita della Sapienza. Piazza della Rotonda. Pantheon 194 

S. Maria sopra Minerva 19g 

Palazzo Madama igo 

Piazza Navona. S. Agnese. S. Maria dell' Anima ... 198 

S. Maria della Pace igg 

Palazzo Vidoni. S. Andrea della Valle 200 

Pal. Massimi alle Colonne. Pal. Braschi. Piazza del Pasquino' 201 

C'hiesa Nuova 202 

Palazzo della Cancelleria. S. Lorenzo in Damaso. Palazzo 

Farnese 203 

Palazzo Spada alia Regola 204 

S. Giovanni de' FioreDtini 205 

S. Carlo a Catinari. Palazzo C'ostaguti 206 

Palazzo Mattei. S. Caterina de n Funari. S. Maria in Cam- 

Pitelli 207 

Ghetto. Portico of Octavia. Theatre of Marcellus . . . 208 

S. Niccolo in Carcere 209 

IV. Ancient Rome 209 

The Capitol 209 

S. Maria in Aracosli 211 

Piazza del Campidoglio. Palazzo del Senatore .... 212 

Collections of the Capitol. Palace of the Conservatori . 213 

Capitol ine Museum 217 

Tarpeian Rock. Tabularium 222 

Forum Eomanum 223 

Temple of Saturn 226 

Colonnade of the Twelve Gods . Temple of Vespasian . . 227 


(Rome) P %%<L 

Temple of Concordia. Triumphal Arch of Septimius Severus iM 

Comitium. Column of Phocas f28 

Basilica Julia ~gj 

Temple of Castor and Pollux. Temple of Cfesar. , . ■ •»! 
Temple of Faustina. Career Mamertinus. SS. Luca e Mar- 
tina. S. Adriano 231 

The Velia ic51 

SS. Cosma e Damiano 232 

Basilica of Constantine. S. Francesca Romana .... 233 

Triumphal Arch of Titus. Temple of Venus and Roma . 234 

Colosseum 234 

Triumphal Arch of Constantine. Thermae of Titus ... 237 

Fora of the Emperors. Academy of St. Luke . . . 238 

Forum of Nerva 238 

Forum of Augustus 239 

Forum of Trajan. Trajan's Column 240 

The Palatine 241 

Palatine Museum. Buildings of Caligula 243 

Buildings of Tiberius. Private House 244 

Palace of the Flavii 245 

Temple of Jupiter Victor. Palace of Septimius Severus. 

Stadium 247 

Psedagogium 248 

Velabrum and Forum Boarium 249 

S. Teodoro. Janus Quadrifrons. S. Giorgio in Velabro . 249 

Cloaca Maxima. S. Maria in Cosmedin 250 

Round Temple. S. Maria Egiziaca 251 

House of Crescentius or Rienzi. Ponte Rotto. . . . 251 

Via de' Cerchi (Circus Maximus) 252 

The Aventine 252 

Marmorata 252 

Protestant Cemetery. Pyramid of Cestius. Monte Testaccio. 258 

S. Sabina. S. Alessio 254 

S. Maria Aventina. S. Prisca. S. Saba 255 

S. Paolo Fuori le Mura 256 

The Via Appia within the City 258 

S. Balbina 258 

Thermae of Caracalla 258 

SS. Nereo ed Achilleo 259 

S. Cesareo. Tomb of the Scipios 260 

Columbaria. Arch of Drusus 261 

The Cailius 261 

S. Gregorio 261 

SS. Giovanni e Paolo. Villa Mattei 262 

S. Maria in Domnica. S. Stefano Rotondo 263 

S. Clemente 264 

SS. Quattro Coronati 267 

Piazza S. Giovanni in Laterano. Scala Santa .... 268 

S. Giovanni in Laterano 269 

Baptistery 271 

Palazzo del Laterano. Gregorian Museum 272 

Christian Museum 275 

Villa Massimo 276 

Villa Wolkonsky 277 

Quarters of the City on the Right Bank 277 

The Borgo 277 

Ponte S. Angelo. Castello S. Angelo 278 

Palazzo Giraud 279 

Piazza di S. Pietro 280 


(Rome) Page 

S. Pietro in Vaticano 281 

Cimitero dei Tedeschi 289 

The Vatican 289 

A. Paintings: — 

Sistine Chapel. Sala Eegia. Sala Ducale. Pauline Chapel . 291 

Raphael's Stanze and Loggie. Cappella Niccolina . . . 297 

Picture Gallery 304 

B. Antiquities : ■ — 

Museo Pio-Clementino. Museo Chiaramonti. Braccio Nuovo 307 

Egyptian Museum. Museo Etrusco. Raphael's Tapestry . 319 

C. Library of the Vatican 322 

The Longara 324 

S. Onofrio. Museo Torlonia 325 

Museo Tiberino 32G 

Villa Farnesina 327 

Palazzo Corsini 328 

Trastevere 329 

Ponte Sisto S. Pietro in Montorio 330 

Acqua Paola. Porta di S. Pancrazio 332 

Villa Doria Pamphilj 332 

Isola di S. Bartolommeo 333 

S. Bartolommeo. S. Crisogono 334 

S. Maria in Trastevere 335 

S. Cecilia in Trastevere 336 

The Catacombs 337 

Third Section. 

Environs of Rome. 

/. Short Excursions in the Campagna 345 

From the Porta Portese : Grove of the Arvales .... 346 

From the Porta S. Paolo : Tre Fontane 347 

From the Porta S. Sebastiano: Via Appia. Domine Quo Va- 

dis. S. Sebastiano. Circus of Maxentius. Tomb of Csecilia 

Metella. Temple of the Deus Rediculus. Grotto of Egeria. 

S. Urbano 348 

From the Porta S. Giovanni : Via Latina. Porta Furba . . 353 

From the Porta Maggiore: Torre Pignattara. Tor de' Schiavi 354 

From the Porta S. Lorenzo : 355 

From the Porta Pia 350 

From the Porta Salara: Fidense 356 

From the Porta del Popolo: Acqua Acetosa. Via Flaminia 356 
From the Porta Angelica : Monte Mario. Tivoli. Villa Mellini. 

Villa Madama 358 

//. Longer Excursions from Rome to the Mountains and 

the Sea 359 

The Alban Mountains 359 

Frascati 360 

Grotta Ferrata 362 

Marino 363 

Rocca di Papa. Monte Cavo. Palazzuola. Alba Longa 364, 365 

Albano 365 

Castel Gandolfo. Lake of Albano. The Emissarius. Ariccia 367 

Genzano. Lake of Hemi 368 

Nemi. Civita Lavinia. Veiletri. 369 

The Sabine Mountains 369 

Tivoli 369 

Subiaco 374 



Palestrina. Olevano ~*J? 

Monte Gennaro. Valley of Licenza *> u 

The Volscian Mountains ^°J- 

Velletri. Cori 381 

Norma %°- 

Segni 3 ~ 

Etruscan Towns D ™ 

Veii 383 

Galera '. 385 

Bracciano **| 

Caere 386 

The Sea-coast of Latiiim W 

Porto. Fiumicino 387 

Ostia 388 

Porto d'Anzio 390 

Nettuno. Astura 391 

Index 392 

List of the most important Artists mentioned in the Hand- 
book 406 


1. Map of Italy, facing title-page. 

2. The Roman Campagna, p. 344. 

3. Knvikons of Rome, p. 340. 

4. The Alean Mountains, p. 360. 

5. The Sabine Mountains : Plate I. : Tivoli and Valley of the 
Teverone, p. 370. 

G. The Sabine Mountains: Plate II.: Roviano, Subiaco , Capranica, 

p. 374. 
7. The Sabine Mountains: Plate III.: Tivoli, Palestrina, Olevano, 
p. 378. 

1. Volteeea, p. 8. — 2. Siena, p. 20. — 3. Akezzo, p. 39. — 4. Coetona, 
p. 43. — 5. I ekugia, p. 46. — 6. Okvieto, p. 60. — 7. Assisi, p. 71. — 8. 
Terni and its Environs, p. 79. — 9. Forli, p, 84. — 10. Rimini, p. 85. — 
11. Anoona, p. 96. — 12. Large Plan of Rome and — 13. Clue Plan of 
Rome, both at the end of the book. — 14. Ancient Rome, p. 208. — 
15. Palace of the Conservatoei, p. 216. — 16. Capitoline Museum, p. 
217. — 17. Forum Romanum, p. 222. — 18. Palaces of the Emperors on 
the Palatine, p. 240. — 19. Therm/e of Caracalla, p. 259. — 20. Section, 
and — 21. Ground-plan of S. Clemente, p. 265. — 22. S. Giovanni in Late- 
rano, and Lateran Museum, p. 268. — 23. S. Pietro in Vaticano and the 
Vatican Palace (survey-plan), p. 280. — 24. S. Pietro in Vaticano (Bra- 
mante's ground-plan), p. 282. — 25. Ground-plan of S. Pietro in Vaticano 
in its present state, p. 284. — 26. Vatican Palace, S. Wing (Sistine Cha- 
pel, Raphael's Loggie and Stanze), p. 292. — 27. Vatican Palace, N. Wing 
(Museum of Antiquities), p. 316. 

Panorama of Rome (from S. Pietro in Montorio), p. 330. 


R. = Room, B. = Breakfast, D. = Dinner, A. = Attendance, L. = 
Light. — r. = right, 1. = left; also applied to the banks of a river with 
reference to the traveller looking down the stream. — N., S., E., W. the 
points of the compass and adjectives derived from them. — M. = English 
miles ; ft. = English feet. 

are employed as marks of commendation. 


'Thou art the garden of the world, the home 
Of all Art yields, and Nature can decree ; 
E'en in thy desert, what is like to thee? 
Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes' fertility, 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced.' 


I. Travelling Expenses. Money. 

Expenses. The cost of a tour in Italy depends of course on the 
traveller's resources and habits , but , as already stated in the first 
part of this Handbook , it need not exceed that incurred in the 
more frequented parts of the continent. The average expenditure of 
a single traveller may be estimated at 25 francs per day, or at 12-15 
francs when a prolonged stay is made at one place ; but persons 
acquainted with the language and habits of the country may easily 
restrict their expenses to still narrower limits. Those who travel as 
members of a party effect a considerable saving by sharing the ex- 
pense of guides, carriages, and other items. When ladies are of the 
party, the expenses are generally greater. 

Money. The French monetary system is now in use throughout 
the whole of Italy. The franc (lira or franco) contains 100 centesimi ; 
1 fr. 25c. = Is. = 1 German mark = 50 Austrian kreuzers. The 
precious metals are rarely seen in Italy. In copper (bronzo or rame) 
there are coins of 1, 2, 5, and 10 centesimi. A piece of 5 c. is 
called a soldo, or sou , and as the lower classes often keep their ac- 
counts in soldi, the traveller will find it useful to accustom himself 
to this mode of reckoning. See also the Money Table opposite the 

Banknotes. Since the introduction of a paper currency during 
the war of 1866, at a compulsory rate of exchange , gold and silver 
have entirely disappeared from ordinary circulation , and bundles of 
small notes have taken their place. For these the purses used in 
most other countries are quite unsuitable , but one adapted for the 
purpose may be bought in Italy for 172-2 fr. ; in addition to which 
a strong pouch for copper will be found useful. The endless 
variety of banknotes with which the country was formerly inun- 
dated has been replaced by the Biglietti Consorziali ('/ 2 , 1 , 2, 5, 
10, and 20 lire) , issued in common by six banks (the Banca Na- 
zionale, the Banca Nazionale Toscana, the Banca Toscana In- 


dustriale e Cornmerciale, the Banca Romana, the Banca di Napoli, 
and the Banca di Sicilia), to which the right of issuing paper money 
is restricted. The traveller should he on his guard against the 
forged imitations of these notes which are occasionally met with. 

Exchange. English circular notes , as well as gold and silver, 
are worth considerably more than Italian banknotes of nominally the 
same value. Of late years the gain on the exchange has averaged 
10-15 per cent (a napoleon, for example, realising 22-23 fr., and a 
sovereign 27!/ 2 -283/ 4 fr.). If the traveller makes a payment in gold 
he is entitled to decline receiving banknotes in exchange, unless the 
difference in value he taken into account , but the full rate of ex- 
change is rarely given except by respectable money-changers (J-cam- 
biavaluta'~). As a rule , those money-changers are the most satis- 
factory who publicly exhibit a list of the current rates of exchange. 
The traveller should always be provided with an abundant supply 
of small notes (1 , 2, and 5 fr.) , as it is often difficult to change 
those of large amount. When a railway fare has to be paid it is a 
wise precaution to be provided with the exact sum beforehand, in 
order that mistakes or imposition may be prevented. Besides the 
small notes, 1-1 V2 fr- in copper should also be carried in a separate 
pocket or pouch. 

Best Money fob. the Tour. Before entering Italy the traveller 
should obtain a moderate supply of French Oold in France or Ger- 
many. Sovereigns are received at nearly the full value (i. e. they 
are reckoned at 26-28 fr. instead of 25 fr.) by the principal hotel- 
keepers, but not in out-of-the-way places. Circular Notes, obtain- 
able at the principal English banks , form the proper medium for 
the transport of large sums , and realise the most favourable ex- 
change. English and German banknotes also realise more than 
their nominal value. 

Money Orders payable in Italy, for sums not exceeding 10l., are 
now granted by the English Post Office at the following rates : not 
exceeding 2l., 9d. ; bl., Is. 6d. ; ll., 2s. 3d. ; 107., 3s. These are 
paid in gold. The identity of the receiver must be guaranteed by 
two well-known residents. The charge for money orders granted 
in Italy and payable in England is 40 c. per ll. sterling. 

II. Season and Plan of Tour. 

Season. The season selected for the tour must of course depend 
on the traveller himself, but the colder months are those usually 
preferred. Most travellers bound for the South cross the Alps in 
September and October, and arrive in Rome about the beginning of 
November. Rome is the favourite winter-residence of strangers till 
the Carnival, but most of them leave it in Lent for the gayer scenes 
Of Naples , and at Easter it is comparatively deserted , as the chief 


attractions of the festival are now gone. As summer approaches 
most travellers prepare to quit the country , but even during the 
hot season tourists are not unfrequently met with. In this vast and 
ever-varying influx of travellers the English element is always greatly 

No month in the year can be pronounced absolutely unfavourable 
for travelling in Italy, but the seasons recommended are from 15th 
Sept. to 15th Nov., and the months of April and May. The rainy 
winter months should, if possible , be spent in one of the larger 
cities, of which Rome is unquestionably the most interesting. June, 
July, and August are hardly suitable for a tour. The scenery indeed 
is then in perfection, and the long days are hailed with satisfaction 
by the active traveller; but the fierce rays of an Italian sun seldom 
fail to sap the physical and mental energies. This result is not 
occasioned so much by the intensity, as by the protracted duration 
of the heat, the sky being frequently cloudless, and not a drop of 
rain falling for many weeks in succession. The heat generally mod- 
erates about the end of August, when the first showers of autumn 
begin to refresh the parched atmosphere. 

Flan. The plan of a tour in Italy must of course be framed in 
accordance with the object which the traveller has in view. In 
Central Italy the principal attraction is Rome itself, and of the 
other towns described in the present volume the next in importance 
are Siena and Perugia, both of which afford good summer quarters 
owing to their elevated situations. Two other places of great in- 
terest are Orvieto and Assisi, a short visit to which should not be 
omitted. Arezzo, Cortona, Spoleto, Terni, with its imposing water- 
falls, and Chiusi and Cometo, with their Etruscan antiquities, are 
also interesting points, situated near the railway. Volterra, S. Oi- 
mignano , Montepulciano , and Viterbo , though less conveniently 
situated, are also well worthy of a visit. With regard to the towns 
lying on the coast of the Adriatic, comp. p. 81. Besides these 
points of attraction there are many others in the less frequented 
districts of the interior , which the traveller who desires more than 
a superficial acquaintance with Italy should not fail to explore ; and 
the farther he diverges from the beaten track , the more he will 
learn of the characteristics of this delightful country. 

III. Language. 

The time and labour which the traveller has bestowed on the 
study of Italian at home will be amply repaid as he proceeds on his 
journey. It is quite possible for persons entirely ignorant of Italian 
and French to travel through Italy with tolerable comfort ; but such 
travellers cannot conveniently deviate from the ordinary track, and 
are moreover invariably made to pay 'alia Inglese' by hotel-keepers 
and others, i. e. considerably more than the ordinary charges. French 


is very useful, as the Italians are very partial to that language, and 
it may suffice for Rome and some of the main routes ; but for those 
who desire the utmost possible freedom, combined with the lowest 
possible expenditure, a slight acquaintance with "the language of the 
country is indispensable, f 

IV. Passports. Custom-house. Luggage. 

Passports, though not required in Italy, are occasionally useful. 
Registered letters, for example, will not be delivered to strangers 
unless they exhibit a passport to prove their identity. In the remote 
districts, too, where the public safety demands a more rigorous 
supervision, the traveller is sometimes asked for his credentials. 
The Italian police authorities are generally civil and obliging. 

Custom-House. The examination of luggage at the Italian 
custom-houses is usually lenient. Tobacco and cigars are the articles 
chiefly sought for. At the gates of most of the Italian towns a tax 
(dazio consumo) is levied on comestibles, but travellers' luggage is 
passed at the barriers (limlte daziario) on a simple declaration that 
it contains no such articles. 

Luggage. If possible, luggage should never be sent to Italy by 
goods-train, as it is liable to damage, pilferage, and undue custom- 
house detention. If the traveller is obliged to forward it in this 
way, he should employ a trustworthy agent at the frontier and send 
him the keys. As a rule it is advisable , and often in the end less 
expensive, never to part from one's luggage, and to superintend the 
custom-house examination in person. 

V. Public Safety. Begging. 
Brigandage. Italy is still sometimes regarded as the land of 
Fra Diavolo's and Rinaldo Rinaldini's, and the impression is fostered 
by tales of travellers, and sensational letters to newspapers; but 
the fact is , that travelling in Northern and Central Italy is hardly 
attended with greater hazard than in any of the northern European 

t 'Baedeker's Manual of Conversation in English, French, German, and 
Italian, with Vocabulary, etc' (Stereotype Edit., Baedeker, Leipsic), which is 
specially adapted for the use of travellers, with the addition of a pocket- 
dictionary, will soon enable the beginner to make himself understood. — 
A few words on the pronunciation may be acceptable to persons unac- 
quainted with the language. C before e and i is pronounced like the 
English ch; g before e and i like j. Before other vowels c and g are 
hard. Ch and gh, which generally precede e or »', are hard. Se before e 
or i is pronounced like sh ; gn and gl between vowels like nyi and lyi. 
The vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronounced ah, a , ee, o, oo. — In ad- 
dressing persons of the educated classes 'Ella 1 or 'Lei 1 , with the 3rd pers. 
sing., should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro' with 
the 3rd pers. pi.). 'Voi' is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc., 'tu' by 
those only who are proficient in the language. 'Voi' is the usual mode of 
address among the Neapolitans, but is generally regarded as inelegant or 


countries, while Southern Italy is unsafe in its more remote recesses 
only. The 'Brigantaggio', strictly so called, is a local evil, which 
may easily be avoided. In Tuscany, Umbria, the Marca , and in- 
deed in the whole of the districts to the N. of Rome , it is quite 
unknown , and even the Roman Canrpagna can now scarcely be 
looked on as less safe than lonely districts in the neighbourhood of 
other large cities. For information as to the safety of the roads the 
traveller should apply to the Carabinieri, or gensdarmes (who wear 
a black uniform , with red facings and white shoulder-straps , and 
cocked hats) , a respectable and trustworthy corps , the strength of 
which is now 3300 men. The traveller should avoid the poorer 
and less frequented parts of Rome and other towns after night- 

Weapons, which for the ordinary traveller are a mere burden, 
cannot legally be carried without a license, obtainable through the 
traveller's consul or ambassador. Those of a secret character, such 
as sword-sticks and stick-guns, are entirely prohibited and are liable 
to confiscation. 

Begging, which was countenanced and even encouraged under 
the old system of Italian politics, still continues to be one of those 
national nuisances to which the traveller must habituate himself. 
The present government has adopted energetic measures for its sup- 
pression, but hitherto with only partial success. The average Italian 
beggar is a mere speculator, and not a deserving object of charity. 
The traveller should therefore decline to give anything, with the 
words, 'non c'e niente', or a gesture of disapproval. If a donation 
be bestowed, it should consist of one of the smallest possible copper 
coins. A beggar, who on one occasion was presented with 2c. and 
thanked the donor with the usual benedictions, was on another pre- 
sented with 50c; but this act of liberality, instead of being grate- 
fully accepted, only called forth the remark in a half-offended tone : 
— 'Ma, sign ore, e molto poco!' 

VI. Intercourse with Italians. 

In Italy the pernicious custom of demanding considerably more 
than will ultimately be accepted has long been prevalent; but 
a knowledge of the custom, which is based on the presumed igno- 
rance of one of the contracting parties, tends greatly to mitigate the 
evil. Where tariffs and fixed charges exist, they should be carefully 
consulted. In other cases, where a certain average price is establish- 
ed by custom, the traveller should make a distinct bargain as to 
the article to be bought or service to be rendered, and never rely on 
the equity of the other party. Nor should any weight be attached to 
the representations of waiters , drivers , and guides in matters in 
which they have an interest, and with whom even the inhabitants 
of the place often appear to act in concert. 

Baedeker. Italy II. 7th Edition. b 


Individuals who appeal to the generosity of the stranger, or to 
their own honesty, or who, as rarely happens, are offended by the 
traveller's manifestation of distrust, may well be answered in the 
•words of the proverb, 'patti chiari, amicizia lunga\ The equanimity 
of the traveller's own temper will greatly assist him if involved in 
a dispute or bargain , and he should pay no attention whatever to 
vehement gesticulations or an offensive demeanour. The slighter 
his knowledge of the Italian language is, the more careful should he 
be not to involve himself in a war of words , in which he must ne- 
cessarily be at a great disadvantage. 

In a country where trifling donations are in constant demand, the 
traveller should always be provided with an abundant supply of 
copper coins. Drivers, guides, porters, donkey-attendants, etc. in- 
variably expect, and often demand as their right a gratuity (buona 
mano, mancia, da here, bottiglia, caffe, fumata), in addition to the 
hire agreed on, varying according to circumstances from 2-3 sous to 
a franc or more. The traveller need not scruple to limit his dona- 
tions to the smallest possible sums , as liberality is often a source 
of annoyance and embarrassment. Thus if half-a-franc is bestowed 
where two sous would have sufficed , the fact speedily becomes 
known, and the donor is sure to be besieged by numerous other 
applicants whose demands it is impossible to satisfy. 

The demeanour of the stranger towards the natives should be 
somewhat modified in accordance with their various natural char- 
acteristics. The Italians of the North resemble the inhabitants of 
the South of France, and those of Italian Switzerland. The char- 
acter of the Tuscans is more effeminate , their language and man- 
ners more refined. The bearing of the Roman is grave and proud. 
"With these , the stranger will find no difficulty in associating ; and 
acts of civility or kindness will not be misplaced, even when con- 
ferred on persons of the lower orders. 

VII. Conveyances. 

Bailways. With the exception of the Bologna and Ancona line, 
the whole of the railways in Central Italy belong to the Ferrovie 
Romane company. As already remarked in the first volume of the 
Handbook, the rate of travelling is very moderate , and the trains 
are often behind time. The first class carriages are tolerably com- 
fortable, the second are inferior to those of the German railways 
and resemble the English and French, while the third class is 
chiefly frequented by the lower orders. Among the expressions 
with which the railway-traveller will soon become familiar are — 
'■pronti 1 (ready), 'partenzd (departure), c si cambia convoglio' (change 
carriages), and 'uscita (egress), which are shouted by the officials 
with characteristic vigour. 

When about to start from a crowded station, the traveller will 


find it convenient to have as nearly as possible the exact fare ready 
before taking tickets. In addition to the fare a tax of 5c. is payable 
on each ticket, and the express fares are 10-12y 2 per cent higher 
than the ordinary. It is also very important to he at the station 
early, as, in accordance with the regulations, the ticket-office closes 
5 min., and the luggage-office y 4 hr. before the departure of the 
train. At the end of the journey tickets are given up at the uscita, 
except in the case of the very large stations, where they are collected 
before the passengers alight. 

The traveller is recommended to ascertain the weight of his lug- 
gage, if possible, before going to the station, in order to guard 
against imposition. No luggage is allowed free (but see below, inter- 
national through-tickets) , except small articles taken by the pas- 
senger into his carriage. Porters who convey luggage to and from 
the carriages are sufficiently paid with a few sous, where there is no 
fixed tariff. Those who intend to make only a short stay at a place, 
especially when the town or village lies at a considerable distance 
from the railway, had better leave their heavier luggage at the 
station till their return (dare in deposito, or depositare, 10c. per 
day for each article). 

The best collection of time-tables is the 'Indicatore Ufficiale 
delle Strade Ferrate 1 , etc. (price 1 fr.) , with which every traveller 
should be provided. The local time-tables of the Tuscan , Roman, 
and Neapolitan lines, which may be procured at the railway stations 
for a few sous, are also useful. 

Through Tickets to different parts of Italy are issued in London 
(at the principal railway-stations ; by Messrs. Cook & Son, Ludgate 
Circus; etc.), in Paris, and at many of the principal towns in Ger- 
many and Switzerland. They are generally available for 30 days, 
and each passenger is allowed 56 Engl. lbs. of luggage free. "When 
through tickets are taken from Italy to Switzerland, Germany, etc., 
that portion of the journey which lies beyond the Italian frontier 
must be paid for in gold. Travellers about to cross the frontier in 
either direction are strongly recommended to superintend the custom- 
house examination of luggage in person. 

Circular Tickets (viaggi circolari) to the principal towns in 
Italy , available sometimes for 50 days , may be purchased in Lon- 
don, in France, and in Germany, as well as in Italy, at a reduction 
of 45 per cent (but usually without a free allowance of luggage). 
Farther particulars will be found in the time-tables , or at the 
'■agenzie' , or railway-offices in the larger towns. For Central Ttaly 
alone there are five different circular tours , for which 10-30 days 
are allowed. These tickets require to be stamped at the office at 
each fresh starting-point. 

Return Tickets may often be advantageously used for short 
excursions, but they are generally available for one clay only. It 



should also be observed that if the traveller alights at a station short 
of his destination he forfeits the whole of the rest of his ticket. 

Steamboats. There are now so many different railway routes 
from N. Italy to Rome that few travellers will care to travel by 
steamer from Genoa or Leghorn to Civita Vecchia, or from Trieste 
to Ancona , although many will still prefer the sea-voyage to the 
long railway-journey if bound for Naples direct (see vol. iii. of the 
Handbook). In fine weather , especially in summer , when sea- 
sickness need rarely be apprehended, a voyage on the Mediterranean 
is very enjoyable, but as the steamers generally ply at night the 
finest parts of the scenery are often missed. 

Civita Vecchia , the seaport of Eome (p. 7), is at present touched by 
the vessels of A. & L. Fraissinet & Co. (office at Eome at Kosati's, Via 
Condotti 6) on their way to Naples, and by those of Rubattino <fr Co. (office 
at Home in the Piazza di Monte Citorio, 131) on the voyage to Sardinia. 

Ancona (p. 97) is touched once weekly by a vessel of the Peninsular 
and Oriental Company and by another of Florio &■ Co., from Trieste and 

Tickets should be purchased by the traveller in person at the office of 
the company. The ticket is furnished with the purchaser's name and de 
stination, the fare, the name of the vessel, and the hour of departure. The 
saloons and berths of the first class are comfortably and elegantly fitted up, 
those of the second tolerably. Passengers of the second class have free 
access, like those of the first, to every part of the deck. Officers of the 
Italian and French armies, up to and including those of the rank of captain, 
are entitled to second-class berths only. 

Luggage. First-class passengers are allowed 100 kilogr. (2 cwt.), second- 
class 60 kilogr. (135 lbs.), but articles not intended for the passenger's private 
use are prohibited. 

Food of good quality and ample quantity is included in the first and 

fenerally in the second-class fare. The steward's fee for a voyage of 12- 
4 hrs. is usually 1 fr. 

Embarcation, with luggage, generally 1 fr. for each person (comp. 
pp. 1, 7). The fare should not be paid until the passenger and his lug- 
gage are safe on deck. Passengers should be on board an hour before the 
advertised time of starting. 

Diligences. As several of the most interesting places described 
in the following pages lie at some distance from the railway (such 
as Urbino, Gubbio, Viterbo, and S. Gimignano), the traveller must 
visit them by carriage or by diligence. The Corriere , which carries 
the mails, has seats for 2-3 passengers only, and the fares are high. 
The Biligenza, or ordinary stage-coach, conveys travellers with tol- 
erable speed, and generally at the same fares as similar vehicles in 
other parts of the continent. They are in the hands of private specu- 
lators, and where several run in competition, the more expensive are 
to be preferred. When ladies are of the party the coupe" (fare one- 
third higher) should if possible be secured. The drivers and ostlers 

generally expect a few soldi at the end of each stage. p or a 

party of two or four persons the expense of a carriage with one or 
two horses hardly exceeds the diligence fares, while the travellers 
are far more independent. A carriage with one horse may generally 
be hired for 3 / 4 -l fr. per miglio, and a single seat in a carriage may 
often be obtained- 

HOTELS. xxi 

Walking Tours. An Italian rarely walks if he can possibly drive ; 
and how walking can afford pleasure is to him an inexplicable mas- 
tery. The remark has frequently been made to the Editor : '■Lei e 
signore e va a piedi ? ! ' In the more frequented districts , however, 
such as the vicinity of Rome , the natives are accustomed to this 
mania of foreigners , and are no longer surprised to find them ex- 
ploring the Campagna and the Sabine and Alban Mts. on foot. 
There seems, however, to be a growing taste for walking among 
the Italians themselves , as a great many stations of the Italian 
Club Alpino have recently been established for the purpose of ren- 
dering the Apennines more accessible to travellers. Cool and clear 
weather should if possible be selected , and the scirocco carefully 
avoided. The height of summer is of course unsuitable for tours of 
this kind. 

Riding. A horse (cavallo) or donkey (sommaro), between which 
the difference of expense is slight , will often be found serviceable, 
especially in mountainous districts. The attendant (pedone) acts as 
a guide and servant for the time being. Riding is now common 
among the Alban and Sabine Mts. , where animals are provided for 
the use of ladies also. A previous bargain should be made , tulto 
compreso, a gratuity being added if the traveller is satisfied. 

VIII. Hotels. 

First Class Hotels , comfortably fitted up , are to be found at 
Rome, Siena, Perugia, and at most of the principal resorts of tra- 
vellers in Central Italy. Several of those at Rome are kept by Swiss 
and German landlords. Room 2 l /2-bii., bougie 75 c. to 1 fr., atten- 
dance 1 fr., table d'hote 5 fr., and so on. Families, for whose re- 
ception the hotels are often specially fitted up , should make an 
agreement with the landlord with regard to pension (8-1 5 fr. each 
person per day). Visitors are expected to dine at the table d'hote ; 
otherwise the charge for rooms is raised , or the inmate is informed 
that they are required for some one else. The cuisine is a mixture 
of French and Italian. 

The Second Class Hotels are thoroughly Italian in their ar- 
rangements , and they are rarely very clean or comfortable. The 
charges are little more than one-half of the above. There is no 
table d'hote, but there is generally a trattoria connected with the 
house , where refreshments a la carte or a dinner a prezzo fisso 
may be procured at any hour. These inns will often be found con- 
venient and economical by the voyageur en garfon, and the better 
houses of this class may even be visited by ladies. As a rule, it is 
advisable to make enquiries as to charges beforehand. A dinner, 
for example at 2-3 fr. , may be stipulated for, and in bargaining as 
to the charge for a room the 'servizio e candela' should not be for- 
gotten. Exorbitant demands may generally be reduced without dif- 


Acuity to reasonable limits, and even when no previous agreement 
has been made an extortionate bill may sometimes be successfully 
disputed, though never without long and vehement discussion. 

The best hotels have fixed charges. Attendance, exclusive of 
boots and commissionnaire, is charged in the bill. This is not the 
case in the smaller inns, where 1 fr. per diem is usually divided 
between the waiter and the facchino , or less for a prolonged stay. 
Copper coins are never despised by such recipients. 

Hotels Garnis and Private Apartments are recommended 
for a prolonged residence. A distinct agreement as to rent should 
be made beforehand. "When a whole suite of apartments is hired, a 
written contract on stamped paper should be drawn up with the aid 
of some one acquainted with the language and customs of the place 
(e.g. a banker), in order that 'misunderstandings' maybe prevented. 
For single travellers a verbal agreement with regard to attendance, 
linen, stoves and carpets in winter, a receptacle for coal, and other 
details will generally suffice. 

The popular idea of cleanliness in Italy is behind the age , dirt 
being perhaps neutralised in the opinion of the natives by the bril- 
liancy of their climate. The traveller will rarely suffer from this 
shortcoming in hotels and lodgings of the best class ; but those who 
quit the beaten track must be prepared for privations. Iron bedsteads 
should if possible be selected, as they are less likely to harbour the 
enemies of repose. Insect-powder (polvere di Persia , or Keating's) 
or camphor somewhat repels their advances. The zanzare, or gnats, 
are a source of great annoyance , and often of suffering , during the 
autumn months. Windows should always be carefully closed before 
a light is introduced into the room. Light muslin curtains (zan- 
zarieri) round the beds, masks for the face, and gloves are employed 
to ward off the attacks of these pertinacious intruders. The burning 
of insect powder over a spirit-lamp is also recommended, and pas- 
tilles may be purchased at the principal chemists' for the same 

IX. Restaurants, Cafes, Osterie. 

Restaurants (trattor'ie) are chiefly frequented by Italians and 
gentlemen travelling alone, but those of the better class maybe 
visited by ladies also. Dinner may be obtained ft In carte, and 
sometimes a prezzo fisso, at any hour between 12 and 7 or 8 p. m., 
for 2-f) fr. ; the waiters expect a gratuity of 2-5 soldi. The diner 
who wishes to confine his expenses within reasonable limits, should 
refrain from ordering dishes not mentioned in the bill of fare. 
Besides the old-fashioned trattorie, a number of 'restaurants' of a 
better class have recently been opened in Rome. The cookery is 
generally French, and the charges and arrangements are similar to 
those in the other Kuropean capitals. The waiter is called came- 


Were, but the approved way of attracting his attention is by knock- 
ing on the table. 

A late hour for the chief repast of the day should be chosen in 
winter, in order that the daylight may be profitably employed, but 
an early dinner is preferable in summer when the midday heat pre- 
cludes exertion. 

List of the ordinary dishes at the Italian restaurants : — 

Mineslra or Zuppa, soup. 

Consume, broth or bouillon. 

Zuppa alia Sante , soup with green 

vegetables and bread. 
Gnocchi, small puddings. 
Riso con piselli, rice-soup with peas. 
Risotto (alia Milanese), a kind of rice 

pudding (rich). 
Maccaroni al burro, with butter; al 

pomidoro, with tomatos. 
Manzo, boiled beef. 
Frit to, fried meat. 
Frittiira mista, a mixture of fried 

liver, brains, and artichokes. 
Frittata, omelette. 
Arrosto, roasted meat. 
Arrosto di vitello , or di mongana, 

Bistecca, beefsteak. 
Coscetto , loin. 

Testa di vitello, calf's head. 
Fegato di vitello, calf s liver. 
Braccioletta di vitello, veal- cutlet. 
Costoletto alia minuta , veal -cutlet 

with calves 1 ears and truflles. 
Palate, potatoes. 
Quaglia, quail. 
Tordo, field-fare. 
Lodola, lark. 
Sfoglia, a kind of sole. 
Principi alia tavola, or piattini , hot 


Funghi, mushrooms (often too rich). 

Presciutto, ham. 

Salami, sausage. 

Polio, or pollastro, fowl. 

Gallotta, turkey. 

Umido, meat with sauce. 

Stufatino, ragout. 

Erbe, vegetables. 

Carciofi, artichokes. 

Piselli, peas. 

Lenticchi, lentils. 

Gavoli fiori, caulilln wer. 

Fave, beans. 

Fagiiioliiti, French beans. 

Mosfarda, simple mustard. 

JSenape, hot mustard. 

Ostriche, oysters (^oud in winter only). 

Giardinetto or frutta, fruit-desert. 

Crostata di frntti, fruit-tart. 

Crostata di pasta sfoglia , a kind of 

Fragole, strawberries. 
Pera, pear. 
Melo, or porno, apple. 
Persiche, peaches. 
Uva, bunch of grapes. 
Limone, lemon. 
Arancio or portogallo, orange. 
Finocchio, root of fennel. 
Pane francese, bread made with yea st 

(the Italian is made without). 
Formaggio, cacio, cheese. 

Wine (nero or rosso, red; bianco, white; dolce , sweet-, asciutto , dry; 
del paese, wine of the country) is usually placed on the table in large 
bottles at the Tuscan restaurants and charged for according to the quantity 
drunk. At Rome and some other places the visitor is asked if he wishes 
un mezzo litro or un quinto ('/&th litre). 

Cafes are frequented for breakfast and lunch, and in the evening 
by numerous consumers of ices. 

Gaffe nero , or coffee without milk, is usually drunk (1045c. per 
cup). Gaffe latte is coffee mixed with milk before being served (20-30c); 
or caffe e latte, i.e. with the milk served separately, may be preferred 
(30-40c). Mischio is a mixture of coffee and chocolate ('20-30c), considered 
wholesome and nutritious. 

The usual viands for lunch are ham, sausages, cutlets, beefsteaks, and 
eggs (uova da bere, soft; toste, hard ; uova al piatto^ fried). 

Ices (sorbetto or gelato) of every possible variety are supplied at the 
cafes at 30-90c. per portion; or a half portion (mezzo) may be ordered. 
Qranita, or half-frozen ice {limonata, of lemons ; aranciata of oranges), 13 
much in vogue in the forenoon. The waiter, who expects a sou or more, 


according to the amount of the payment, is sometimes inaccurate in chang- 
ing money if not narrowly watched. 

The principal Parisian newspapers are to be found at all the larger 
cafes, English rarely. 

Wine Shops (osterle), especially at Rome, are a favourite haunt 
of the lower classes, who bring their own eatables from the pizzi- 
carolo, or dealer in comestibles. The rooms are generally dirty and 
uninviting, but the wine is often good. 

Cigars in Italy (.Sicily excepted) are a monopoly of Government, 
and bad ; those under 3-4 soldi scarcely smokable. Good imported 
cigars may be bought at the best shops in Rome for 25-60 c. — 
Passers-by are at liberty to avail themselves of the light burning 
in every tobacconist's, without making any purchase. 

X. Sights, Shops, etc. 

Churches are open in the morning till 12or 12.30, and generally 
again from 4 to 7 p.m. , while some of the most important remain 
open the whole day. Visitors may inspect the works of art even 
during divine service , provided they move about noiselessly, and 
keep aloof from the altar where the clergy are officiating. On the 
occasion of festivals the works of art are often entirely concealed 
by the temporary decorations. The verger (sagrestano , or nonzolo) 
receives a fee of i/ 2 fr- or upwards, if his services are required. 

Museums, picture-galleries, and other collections are usually 
open from 10 to 3 o'clock. By a law passed in 1875 all the col- 
lections which belong to government are open on week-days at a 
charge of 1 fr., and on Sundays (and sometimes on Thursdays also) 
gratis. They are closed on the following public holidays : New 
\ ear's Day, Epiphany (6th Jan.), the Monday and Tuesday during 
the Carnival, Palm Sunday, Easter Sunday, Ascension Day, Whit- 
sunday and Whitmonday, Fete de Dieu (Corpus Christi), the Festa 
dello Statuto (first Sunday in June), Assumption of the Virgin 
(loth Aug.), and on Christmas Day. A good many other days are 
also sometimes observed as holidays, such as the Thursday before 
the Carnival and the day sacred to the local patron saint. 

Valets de Place (servitori di piazza) may be hired at 5-6 fr. per 
day. They are generally respectable and trustworthy, but, as they 
are seldom good judges of what is really worth seeing , the traveller 
should specify to them the places he desires to visit. Their services 
may generally well be dispensed with by those who are not pressed 
for time. Purchases should never be made, nor contracts with vet- 
turini or other persons drawn up , in presence or with the aid of a 
commissionnaire, as any such intervention tends considerably to in- 
crease the prices. 

Theatres. Performances in the large theatres begin at 8, 8.30, 
or 9 , and terminate at midnight or later , operas and ballets being 
exclusively performed. The first act of an opera is usually sue- 


ceeded by a ballet of three acts or more. Verdi is the most popular 
composer. The pit (platea) is the usual resort of the men, while the 
boxes and sometimes the stalls fpoltrone or posti distinti) are fre- 
quented by ladies. A box (palco) must always be secured in ad- 
vance. — A visit to the smaller theatres, where dramas and com- 
edies are acted, is recommended for the sake of habituating the 
ear to the language. Performances in summer take place in the 
open air, in which case smoking is allowed. — The theatre is the 
usual evening-resort of the Italians, who never observe strict silence 
during the performance of the music. 

Shops rarely have fixed prices. As a rule, even where prezzi 
fissi are professed, two-thirds or three-quarters of the price de- 
manded is a fair offer. The itinerant dealers often ask double and 
more the value of their wares. With artizans and drivers there is the 
same necessity for bargaining. On these occasions the expression 
l Non volete?' (then you will not?) will generally have the effect of 
bringing the matter to a speedy adjustment. Purchases should never 
be made in presence of valets-de-place, as these individuals, by tacit 
agreement, receive at least 10 per cent of the purchase-money, 
which of course comes out of the pocket of the purchaser. 

XI. Post Office. Telegraph. 

Letters (whether 'poste restante\ Italian 'ferma in posta\ or to 
the traveller's hotel) should be addressed very distinctly, and the 
name of the place should be in Italian. "When asking for letters the 
traveller should present his visiting card instead of pronouncing his 
name. Postage-stamps (francobollo) are sold at the post-offices and 
at many of the tobacco-shops. — Letters of 15 grammes (i/ 2 oz., 
about the weight of three sous) to any of the states included in the 
postal union (now comprising the whole of Europe) 30c; post-card 
(cartolina postale) 15c; book-packets per 50 grammes 7c. ; re- 
gistration-fee (raccomandazione) 30c. 

Letters by town-post 5c; throughout the kingdom of Italy 20c. 
prepaid, or 30c. unpaid. Post-card 10c 

In the larger towns the post-office is open daily from 8 or 9 a.m. 
to 10 p. m. (also on Sundays and holidays); in smaller places it is 
generally closed in the middle of the day for two or three hours. 

Telegram of 20 words to London 9 fr., to other parts of Great 
Britain 10 fr., France 4, Germany 5, Switzerland 3 , Austria 3 or 
4, Belgium 5, Denmark 7 l / 2 , Russia 11, Sweden 8, Norway 8 l / 2 fr. 
— To America 10 words 50 fr. 

Within the kingdom of Italy, 15 words 1 fr. , each additional 
word 10 c. ; telegrams with special haste (telegrammi urgenti, which 
take precedence of all others), whether for inland or foreign places, 
may be sent at five times the above rates. 


XII. Calculation of Time. 

The old Italian reckoning from 1 to 24 o'clock is now disused in 
all the larger towns, but is still used by the priests and by the lower 
classes, especially in Central and Southern Italy. The ordinary 
reckoning of other nations is called the ora francese. The moment 
of the sun's disappearance below the horizon is 'half past 23 o'clock'; 
the twilight lasts about half-an-hour, after which it is '24 o'clock', 
or the close of the day, when 'Ave Maria' is rung. The following 
hours are usually termed 'un ora di notte', 'due ore di notte', etc. 
This troublesome mode of calculation would necessitate a daily 
alteration of every time-piece in the kingdom, but it is thought 
sufficiently accurate to alter the hour of Ave Maria by a quarter of 
an hour about once a fortnight. The following table shows the Italian 
compared with the ordinary hours at Rome. 



By Ital. time 

"i ~? h 

By Ital 

. time 

i *? t. 

& 51 












< ° 




Jan. 1-13. 

1S3( 4 

63| 4 

5i| 4 

Julv 1-14. 

153| 4 





6' |., 

5'| 2 






18i| 4 



Aug. 1-10. 




I'ebr. 1- 7. 

18i| 4 


53| 4 



4i| 2 

7i( 2 






163| 4 





G3| 4 

Gi/ 4 

Sept. 1- 7. 




March 1- 0. 









I7i| 2 


6-| 2 



5i( 2 

61( 2 






173| 4 

53| 4 


April 1. 


5i| 4 


Oct. 1- 3. 



61 4 










lG3f 4 





6'( 4 



16'| 2 

4i| 2 

7>| 2 



61 2 


May 1-10. 

16' lu 

4>| 2 

7i ! 2 

Nov. 1- 3. 

18i 2 

6i| 2 

5i| 2 


16>| 4 


73| 4 



63( 4 










June 1-10. 




Dec. 1-27. 












XIII. Climate. Health. 

The climate of Home is determined by its situation in the Cam- 
pagna, almost equidistant from the Apennines and the sea (14 M 1 
and about 100 ft. above the level of the latter. The most favour- 
able month for a visit to Rome is October, during which the average 
temperature is about 63° Fahr. The rain that then falls is drunk 
in greedily by the parched earlh, and all nature seems to awaken 
to a second spring. November, with a mean temperature of 54° and 
an average of 12!/ 2 days of rain, is also often a pleasant month. In 
December the N. and S. winds contend lor mastery, and wet weather 
alternates with cold, the mean temperature being 47° and the 
average number of rainy days eleven. January (mean temp. 451/0 


wet days H 1 /^), and February (mean temp. 46 I / 2 °, wet days 10), 
during which the Trarnontana or N. wind prevails , are the two 
coldest months. Travellers arriving at this season from the Riviera, 
where the mean temperature in these months is from 48° to 54°, 
should he careful to guard against the sudden change by warmer 
clothing. March (mean temp. 50'/-2°, rainy days 10), though often 
cold, and as usual in the S. the windiest month of the year, seldom 
passes without some charming spring days. After October April and 
the first half of May form the pleasantest time for visiting Rome. 
The heat then rapidly increases, and from the end of May till Octo- 
ber it is almost insufferable ( June 72 °, July 76 °, August 75 °, Sept- 
ember (id 1 ;*° F.~). 

Health. Malaria or Roman fever is, of course, most prevalent 
in summer, particularly from the middle of August till the begin- 
ning of September, but also occurs in spring and even in the milder 
and damper months of winter. Large parts of the city, however, 
enjoy an almost perfect immunity from it. The most conspicuous 
of these is the central district bounded towards the "W. by the Via 
del Babuino, the Via Sistina, and the Via delQuirinale, extending 
on the S. to 8. Pietro in Vicoli and the Capitol, and on the E. al- 
most reaching the Tiber. The streets on the Esqttiline, Palatine, 
and Caelius are , on the other hand , all dangerous in summer, 
and few of the inhabitants of the S. E. district between the 
Colosseum and the Monte Testaccio escape an annual visitation 
of fever. Some of the suburban districts, such as the W. slopes 
of the Pincio, and many of the streets on the Viminal, are now com- 
paratively healthy, while on the right bank of the Tiber the neigh- 
bourhood of the Piazza S. Pietro and the quarter between the Ponte 
Sisto and the Ponte Botto are considered almost exempt from the 

The visitor should exercise some care in choosing his apartments 
and in seeing that they are supplied with all needful comforts. Car- 
pets and stoves are indispensable. A southern aspect is absolutely 
essential for the delicate, and highly desirable for the robust. An 
Italian proverb says : 'Dove non va il sole, va il medico\ Rooms on 
the upper floor are dryer than those on the ground-floor. Windows 
should be closed at night. 

Inhabitants of more northern countries generally become unusu- 
ally susceptible to cold in Italy, and therefore should not omit to be 
well supplied with warm clothing for the winter. Even in summer 
it is advisable not to wear too light clothing. Flannel is strongly 
recommended. The visitor should be careful not to drive in an open 
carriage after dark, or to sit in the evening in such malarial places 
as the Colosseum. Exposure to the summer-sun should be avoided 
as much as possible. According to a Roman proverb, dogs and for- 
eigners (Inglesi) only walk in the sun , Christians in the shade. 
Umbrellas or spectacles of coloured glass (grey, concave glasses to 


protect the whole eye are best) may be used with advantage when a 
walk in the sun is unavoidable. Blue veils are recommended to 
ladies. Repose during the hottest hours is advisable, and a siesta of 
moderate length is often refreshing. 

The drinking-water of Rome is very palatable, but strongly im- 
pregnated with lime, which makes it unsuitable for those suffering 
from gout, and sometimes causes constipation. Persons with delicate 
chests often find a winter in Rome very beneficial. It is less dusty 
than the Riviera, and not so windy as the Sicilian health-resorts. — 
Typhus Fever does not occur in Rome as an epidemic. 

There are several good English and German doctors in Rome, 
but it is sometimes wise, in the case of maladies arising from local 
causes, to employ native skill. German and English chemists, where 
available, are recommended in preference to the Italian. For- 
eigners frequently suffer from diarrhoea in Italy, which is generally 
occasioned by the unwonted heat. Ice and rice are two of the com- 
monest remedies. The homoeopathic tincture of camphor may also be 
mentioned. In such cases, however, thorough repose is the chief 

XI V. Chronological Table of Recent Events. 

1846. June 16. Election of Pius IX. 

1848. March 18. Insurrection at Milan. 

22. Charles Albert enters Milan. 

22. Republic proclaimed at Venice. 

May 15. Insurrection at Naples quelled by Ferdinand II. 
('Re Bomba'). 

29. Radetsky's victory at Curtatone. 

30. Radetsky defeated at Goito ; capitulation of 

July 25. Radetsky's victory at Custozza. 
Aug. 6. Radetsky's victory at Milan. 

9. Armistice. 
Nov. 15. Murder of Count Rossi at Rome. 
25. Flight of the Pope to Gaeta. 

1849. Febr. 5. Republic proclaimed at Rome. 

17. Republic proclaimed in Tuscany, under Guerazzi. 
March 16. Charles Albert terminates the armistice (ten 
days' campaign). 

23. Radetsky's victory at Novara. 

24. Charles Albert abdicates (d. at Oporto, July 
26th); accession of Victor Emmanuel II. 

March 26. Armistice; Alessandria occupied by the Aus- 

31. Haynau captures Brescia. 

April 5. Republic at Genoa overthrown by La Marmora. 


1849. April 11. Reaction at Florence. 

30. Garibaldi defeats the French under Oudinot. 

May 11. Leghorn stormed by the Austrians. 

15. Subjugation of Sicily. 

16. Bologna stormed by the Austrians. 
July 4. Rome capitulates. 

Aug. 6. Peace concluded between Austria and Sardinia. 
22. Venice capitulates. 

1850. April 4. Pius IX. returns to Rome. 

1855. Sardinia takes part in the Crimean War. 

1856. Congress at Paris. Cavour raises the Italian 

1859. May 20. Battle of Montebello. 
June 4. Battle of Magenta. 

24. Battle of Solferino. 
July 11. Meeting of the emperors at Villafranca. 
Nov. 10. Peace of Zurich. 

1860. March 18. Annexation of the Emilia (Parma , Modena, 


22. Annexation of Tuscany. 

24. Cession of Savoy and Nice. 
May 11. Garibaldi lands at Marsala. 

27. Taking of Palermo. 
July 20. Battle of Melazzo. 
Sept. 7. Garibaldi enters Naples. 

18. Battle of Castelfldardo. 

29. Ancona capitulates. 
Oct. 1. Battle of the Volturno. 

21. Plebiscite at Naples. 
Dec. 17. Annexation of the principalities, Umbria, and 
the two Sicilies. 

1861. Febr. 13. Gaeta capitulates after a four months' siege. 
March 17. Victor Emmanuel assumes the title of King of 

1864. Sept. 15. Convention between France and Italy. 

1866. June 20. Battle of Custozza. 
July 5. Cession of Venetia. 

20. Naval battle of Lissa. 

1867. Nov. 3. Battle of Mentana. 

1870. Sept. 12. Occupation of the States of the Church by Italian 
20. Occupation of Rome. 
1878. Jan. 9. Death of Victor Emmanuel II. ; accession of Hum- 
bert I. 
Febr. 7. Death of Pius IX. 

20. Election of Leo XIII. 

Ancient Art. 

An Historical Sketch, 

from the German of 
Prof. Reinhard Kekule. 

"As the streams lose themselves in 
the mightier Ocean , so the history of 
the peoples once distributed along the 
Mediterranean shores is absorbed in that 
of the mighty Mistress of the World". 

The traveller who would not wander through the galleries of 
Rome in mere vacant wonderment may bear in mind these words of 
Niebuhr. As a preface to the following pages, they will not only 
help the intelligent observer to a worthy appreciation of the master- 
pieces presented to him, but enable him to invest them with appro- 
priate historical associations. 

Amongst the crowd of statues which fill the galleries and cham- 
bers of the Vatican and Capitol of Rome are to be seen the noblest 
examples of Antique Sculpture. These do not, however, stand in 
the same relation to Imperial Rome as, for example, the frescoes of 
Fiesole in the Cloisters of St. Mark, or those of Andrea del Sarto in 
the Church of the Annunziata to Florence, or as the master-pieces 
of Raphael and Michael Angelo to mediaeval and pontifical Rome. 
These latter originated, so to speak , with her, were her peculiar 
attributes, the fitting emblems of her ecclesiastical supremacy. The 
genius which created them, she inspired, fostered , and rewarded. 
On the other hand, Rome, the mistress of the World, the Rome 
of ancient history, though attracting to herself the accumulated 
treasures of entire epochs of Greek art, though through her inter- 
position names , which otherwise must have remained mere phan- 
tom sounds , survive to receive individually the homage due to 
their transcendent genius , had nevertheless as little influence 
on the marvellous development of Greek art , as London had upon 
the Italian Renaissance, on Giotto and Masaccio , on Raphael and 
Michael Angelo. In fact, those particular works, which, while they 
Jill the mind with a wonder akin to awe, minister to our noblest 
gratification, and in the presence of whose marvellous perfection all 
subsequent efforts are dwarfed into insignificance, occupied in Rome 
ages ago, and still occupy, a place corresponding to that which 


the master-pieces of the Italian and other schools of painting fill in 
the galleries of London, Paris, and Dresden. Winekelmann was the 
first to trace in bold and comprehensive outline the history of Art 
amongst the Ancients , from its infancy and earlier growth to its 
maturity and gradual decline. Following in the wake of Winckel- 
mann, unceasing research, patiently and persistently pursued, has 
served to confirm and extend his survey, and to supply, in addition, 
a host of particulars pregnant with interest. Those indeed, who have 
conducted this laborious quest , stimulated and directed by the for- 
tunate recovery of monuments and various relics of antiquity, have 
been the means of determining the history of Antique Art, so far at 
least as Sculpture and Architecture are concerned ; and this not only 
in its more salient features , but with an elaboration of detail , so 
careful and so well authenticated, that the authorship of numerous 
works is clearly established , and the interest and value of their 
discoveries in so far unspeakably enhanced. Much indeed remains 
to be done, and the path of the explorer is beset with doubt and 
difficulty ; but the future promises farther encouragement , if not 
complete solution. 

In Art, the Greeks were content to learn from nations whose 
civilisation preceded theirs. Long before the first image was graven 
by Grecian hands, the Egyptians, as far as history acquaints us, had 
been the first to overcome those difficulties in the choice of a suitable 
form of expression inseparable from every fresh manifestation of Art. 
They had established a well defined system, a traditional style, 
which was exemplified as well in their Sculpture as in their Archi- 
tecture. On the other hand the richly elaborated Art of the Baby- 
lonians and Assyrians, with its sumptuous wealth of decoration, must 
also of necessity have had its influence on the Greeks of Asia Minor. 
Grecian Art had , to begin with , not only adopted the method, 
implements, and workmanship of their predecessors ; it had possess- 
ed itself of their forms and not unfrequently of the motives of 
their imagery. Greece did not, however, accept this heritage of 
art in the spirit of slavish imitation. Architectural models were not 
adopted in their entirety. Bach part separately, each ornament in 
itself, became the centre of a new conception, and this conception 
once embodied became a distinct type , the expression of a taste 
purely Greek. In like manner they treated the conventional render- 
ing of the human form transmitted to them. This, by constant 
reference to the living model , they continued to manipulate and 
modify until they attained to that profound and comprehensive 
grasp of nature, which to this day remains the subject of wonder 
and delight to our greatest artists. The way thus traversed was 
long and wearisome. It carries us back through an incalculable suc- 
cession of ages into the impenetrable past. The oldest Ionic and 
Doric temples, although well-nigh of prehistoric antiquity, exhibit 
in all essential particulars a clearly defined architectural system ; 


and, let it be borne in mind, the architecture of the Greeks did not 
start into being as Athena from the head of Jupiter, fully armed 
and equipped. Careful observation will detect in the Orders associ- 
ated in name with the two principal Hellenic races evidences of a 
very gradual development. Subsequently, to these two orders was 
added a third, known as the Corinthian. It was inevitable that in 
the practice of Sculpture as well as Architecture divergences arose 
which may be characterised as provincialisms ; and it is equally 
intelligible that as Art in Greece assumed more and more majes- 
tic proportions , these provincialisms should have become less and 
less observable. 

They were finally obliterated by the glories of what may be distin- 
guished , in reference to art , as the Age op Pericles ; glories 
associated with the talismanic names of Phidias and Polycletus in 
Sculpture , and of Ictinus and Mnesicles in Architecture. The 
golden age of the Italian Renaissance , when Raphael filled the 
world with rapturous wonder, can alone be compared to a time 
which witnessed the surpassing achievements of art in Greece. Of 
the painters of this period, of Polygnotus for example, who flourished 
somewhat earlier, little can be ascertained. Their works have 
perished ; and all that we can learn of them is at best too hypothe- 
tical to be worthy of record. 

The name of Polycletus belongs to the Peloponnesus. The con- 
noisseur of his day claimed for him the merit of having presented 
the human form complete in its minutest details, correct in pro- 
portion, perfect in symmetry. One of his works in particular, the 
figure of a powerful youth armed with a spear (Doryphorus), 
was upheld as an example of the master's peculiar excellence, 
and hence was surnamed the Canon. As a counterpart to the Dory- 
phorus, and in like manner regarded as a type or model, is the figure 
of a youth of distinguished beauty, who with both hands folds a 
band round his head (Diadumenus). Of one of his Amazons it was 
said, that it surpassed even the Amazon of Phidias in beauty. 
Finally, especial glory was claimed for his statue of Hera placed 
in a temple dedicated to this goddess at Delphi. — Myron's chief 
delight was to pourtray the human form in action, but his success 
was, to say the least of it, partial. Thus he represents his Disco- 
bolus actually doubled up in the act of throwing the discus. In 
a group on the Acropolis at Athens the same artist has chosen for 
his subject the incident of Marsyas in the act of seizing the pipes 
which the Goddess Athena has rejected, and on which he plays 
while dancing with delight. He recoils in terror and bewilderment 
as the Goddess, suddenly appearing, dashes the pipes from his hand. 
Finally the Cow of Myron was especially popular. It was boasted 
of her that so life-like was she that she deceived both man and beast : 
nay imposed even on a living calf. But mightiest amidst this 
sculptor band was Phidias. His colossal Statue of Zeus excited 

ANCIENT ART. xxxiii 

wonder even in Olympia. It was accounted a reproach not to have 
seen it. His principal works were, however, devoted to the adorn- 
ment of his native city Athens. The colossal figure of Athens' tute- 
lary deity, the virgin goddess Athena in the Parthenon, was from 
the hand of Phidias. With him, we may assume , originated those 
plastic decorations of her temple the remains of which are preserved 
in Athens and in London; and in all that his friend Pericles under- 
took with a view to enhance the beauty and glory of their native 
city, the creative genius , if not always the hand of Phidias was 
active. So completely indeed had he subjected to his irresistible 
will the resources of his art, so far had he distanced all competi- 
tors, whether in the present or past, that the force of his genius, 
overstepping the narrow confines of Attica, imposed its sway upon 
successive generations of artists. Alcamenes and his favourite Ago- 
racritus were his most distinguished and successful pupils. The 
Statue of a Victor in the pentathlon by Alcamenes was, in a simi- 
lar way to the Doryphorus of Polycletus , distinguished by the title 
of 'Enkrinomenus', or 'the classical'. 

In the history of Art, as in the history of Poetry, there usually 
succeeds to what Winckelmann terms the 'lofty style', which 
delights rather in depicting the sublime and majestic, a reaction in 
favour of a vein of sentiment more tender, more expressive of beauty 
in her gentler and more graceful aspects ; while at the same 
time freer and more forcible utterance is given to joy and anguish, 
and generally to the emotions and passions. Tenderness and grace 
were the divine attributes of Praxiteles and the family of whom he 
was chief. At this time when Athens, weaTy of conflict with the 
Hellenic confederacy, longed for peace , one of the family, Cephiso- 
dotus (the Elder) , produced his Irene and Plutus , the Goddess of 
Peace bearing in her arms the infantine god of riches, of which there 
is a copy in the Glyptothek in Munich. Praxiteles himself belongs 
to a succeeding generation.. Above all his Eros in Thespia, his (Satyr 
and the Aphrodite in Cnidus , were the wonder and delight of anti- 
quity. His sons Cephisodotus (the Younger) and Timarchides had 
also considerable repute. Scopas is usually regarded as the re- 
presentative of the more pathetic and impassioned expression in 
Art ; and amongst his numerous works a Qroup of Sea Deities and 
fantastical Sea Monsters are accounted particularly impressive. — 
The Niobe and her Children , afterwards carried to Rome , was at- 
tributed variously to Praxiteles and Scopas. Leochares, another 
contemporary of Scopas, is believed to be the author of a group re- 
presenting Ganymede borne to Olympus on the wings of an eagle. 

It is said that Alexander the Great would entrust the execu- 
tion of his portrait to none other than Lysippus of Sycium in the Pe- 
loponnesus : and with the name of Lysippus is associated a revolution 
in taste which culminated in this period. The painter and sculptor 
Euphranor, a contemporary of Lysippus, but older than he, whose 

Baedeker. Italy II. 7th Edition. <j 


especial delight it was to celebrate heroic exploit , had already 
with purpose and deliberation modified the recognised rules of pro- 
portion. Lysippus moulded the head smaller, and the figure rela- 
tively taller than had hitherto been the practice. In posing the 
figures too, either standing or in movement, as well as in the entire 
conception and rendering of Nature, he appears to have developed 
anew and with dazzling effect what hitherto had not been more 
than suggested. His forms, though of unmistakably Greek charac- 
ter, are more in conformity with modern taste than those of earlier 
artists. Among the best known works of Lysippus is the Apoxyomenus, 
the figure of a youth fresh from a struggle in the Palaestra, in the 
act of using the scraping iron. Gods and heroes, scenes of war and 
the chase, furnished him with subjects for a host of other works. 
Among his sons and pupils Laippus, Boedas, and Euthycrates, the 
last is most highly esteemed. Not only those of their generation but 
posterity agreed that Lysippus and the painter Apelles had reached 
the highest attainable point in the truthful rendering of nature, 
as well as in the more technical mastery of their art. The influence 
of Lysippus endured throughout and beyond the end of the follow- 
ing century. His method sufficed for the schools which succeeded 
him because the new spirit in which they worked had already 
triumphed in Lysippus. 

The conquests of Alexander and all that followed in their train 
— the glories and treasures of the East unfolded, mighty monarchies 
founded , stately cities built, and growing into centres of wealth and 
luxury, new forms of worship consequent upon a more intelligent 
study of nature — afforded conditions both material and other, 
which stimulated afresh the arts of Architecture and Sculpture. 
Henceforward Greek art vied , in the splendour of its colossal pro- 
portions, with that of the East. The deeds of victorious monarchs 
were her favourite theme : she was indefatigable in the contrivance 
of new forms of luxury and fresh splendour for city, mansion, and 
palace. Meanwhile, however, the Past was losing its hold upon her. 
The traditions of the Periclean age, which told how art was content 
to serve the household Gods with simple piety and to adorn domestic 
life, were but feebly remembered. Places once instinct with art 
life were lost in the new and overwhelming growth of cities, now 
the emporiums of the world's commerce : Alexandria in Egypt, 
Antioch on the Orontes in Syria, Pergamum, and Rhodes. — As an 
example of what Greek art was doing about this time in Egypt, we 
may mention the reclining figure of the River-god of the Nile. Around 
this colossal personage , so benignant in aspect , play, with true in- 
fantine grace, sixteen cherub-like children. These are symbols of 
the 16 cubits, the measure of that periodical rise in the Nile's 
waters which annually submerges the land and endows Egypt with 
perennial fruitfulness. — A pupil of Lysippus, one Eutychides, re- 
presented the city of Antioch in a group of considerable grace. The 


tutelary deity (Tyche) of the city is seated on a rook. In her right 
hand she holds ears of corn , and on her head she wears a mural 
crown ; while at her feet appears, in the shape of a youth rising out 
of the earth, the river-god Orontes (the river actually flows under- 
ground for some distance). 

The sculptors of Pesgamum celebrated the victories of their kings 
over the Celts. The statue of the Dying Gaul (the so called 'dying- 
gladiator') in the museum of the Capitol, and the Group of Gauls 
in the Villa Ludovisi are most impressive examples of the manner 
in which they were inspired by the theme. The northern barbarian, 
differing widely as he did in configuration, costume, and habit from 
the Greek, was a study of engrossing interest to the sculptor, and 
was reproduced with physiological accuracy. At the same time, 
that the fame of the victor might be magnified to the utmost, the 
sculptor sought to embody all that was admirable in the character 
of the vanquished: his ill-trained but chivalrous valour, his 
inflexible determination to die rather than suffer disgrace. So late 
as the 4th century A.D. there was still to be seen on the Acropolis 
a votive offering of King Attalus in the shape of a group with 
numerous figures representing the struggles of the gods with the 
giants, of the Athenians with the Amazons, of the Athenians with 
the Persians, and Attalus himself with the Celts. Quite recently, 
figures have been recognised as belonging to these groups in the 
collections of Venice, Rome, and Naples. — Of the Rhodian School 
we have examples in the so-called Farnese Bull in the museum of 
Naples, and in the Laocoon. The date of the Laocoon has not been 
established. Since the days of Winckelmann, who assigned it to 
the time of Alexander , and of Lessing, who maintained that it 
belonged rather to that of Titus, there has been a constantly 
recurring controversy on the subject. It is, however, highly im- 
probable that the Rhodian School retained, as late as the reign of 
Titus, the vitality necessary for the production of so considerable 
a work. 

From the preceding pages it will be gathered how many crises 
and how varied a development had been experienced by Greek art 
down to the time when Borne herself came to be included within 
the charmed circle of Greek culture. Transplanted to strange lands, 
and subjected to new influences and associations, Greek art ex- 
changed its distinctive Greek character for one universal and cos- 
mopolitan. Rome had not been, it may be remarked, without an art 
she could call her own. The old City- Walls raised in the time of 
the Kings, the Career Mamertinus, and the Cloaca Maxima prove 
that the Romans could in times comparatively remote carry out 
architectural works on a grand scale, although principally for utili- 
tarian purposes. The rudiments of Sculpture they probably acquired 
from Etruscan artists , whose earliest attempts would be the exe- 
cution of images of the gods in wood and clay. In Ktruria, 


where Greek influence had long been active, considerable proficiency 
as well as activity prevailed in the pursuit of art. although but 
scanty traces of the purity and elevation of Greek taste are dis- 
cernible. In Rome, however, the Greeks of Southern Italy grafted 
their art on that of the Etruscans. A bronze toilet casket (the so 
called Ficoronian Cista) found in Palestrina, which was executed in 
the workshop of Novius Plautius in the 3rd century B.C. , exhibits 
in its tracery a purity of design unmistakably Greek, although 
differing little in shape and plastic accessories from the very ordin- 
ary and often rude vessels of the period. The Romans highly esteem- 
ed faithful Portraits. Likenesses of ancestors were preserved in wax 
masks, and displayed on occasions of ceremony. The plastic art of 
the Etruscans gives evidence of a certain grasp of portraiture, which, 
though not profound, was still effective. As Roman rule extended 
itself over Southern Italy and Sicily, and later to Greece and the 
Asiatic continent, a constantly increasing number of works by Greek 
artists found their way to Rome, for the most part, probably, as spoil 
of war. Presently, too, the wealthy patrician, following the bent of 
his individual taste or the prevailing fashion, gave commissions for 
works to be executed in Greece, or in Rome itself, to which ne- 
cessity had brought many artists. Rome thus became the recognised 
centre of a taste and fashion which she could call her own. Both 
stood in close relation, not only in point of time, but in a community 
of idea and aspiration , to the art of a period immediately following 
the reign of Alexander. There is no doubt, however, that a vast 
number of works are accepted as specifically Roman only because all 
traces of the Greek models have been lost. From these, it may be 
taken for granted, the artists of Imperial Rome derived the designs 
or at least the suggestion of works of utility, as well as of buildings 
devoted to mere display , such as temples , palaces , triumphal 
arches, and tombs. 

The student familiar with the three orders of Architecture, viz. 
the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, as they are to be seen in Athens, 
and comparing these examples with their reproductions in Rome, 
will have little difficulty in detecting a divergence which cannot 
be explained by differences either in forms of worship or in the 
general scope of the design (a conspicuous basement with flights of 
steps in front). The delicate modelling of the best period of Greek 
art was in Roman hands either simplified, and so denuded of its true 
artistic significance — looking in short like the work of the handi- 
craftsman • — or so overloaded as to become hopelessly confused. 
Even in their most admirable buildings a mere profusion of super- 
ficial decoration is substituted for that perfect harmony pervading 
and animating the Greek structure, whether as a whole or in its 
minutest detail, which we find in the Parthenon for example. The 
Doric and Ionic orders found comparatively little favour with the 
Romans, and where they appear, it is rather in the form of mural 

ANCIENT ART. xxxvii 

columns than entire shafts. The exquisite taper of the shaft was 
thus sacrificed, the capitals were not happily disposed, and the 
Doric column instead of springing, as with the Greeks, direct from 
the flooring received a separate base. The favourite style was the 
more ornate Corinthian ; and the Romans thought yet to add to the 
wealth of ornament by superimposing upon the capital already 
veiled with the graceful form of the acanthus leaf, the volute and 
abacus of the Ionic capital. The entablature of the earlier orders 
is easily distinguished. In the Doric the architrave rests on the 
column and is unarticulated, while the frieze above the architrave 
receives the triglyphs at short, regular intervals. The Ionic archi- 
trave on the other hand is divided into three horizontal courses, 
the frieze being without triglyphs. The Corinthian entablature re- 
sembles the Ionic , but the cornice is more richly articulated , cor- 
bels are substituted for the indentations , and the whole is richly 
wreathed with acanthus leaves and other ornamentation. 

The noblest, happily also the best preserved building of old Rome 
is unquestionably the Pantheon of Agrippa, built in the time of Au- 
gustus. In spite of much disfigurement received in later times, this 
vast edifice, comprised in its interior within the precincts of one 
majestic circle, and obtaining the light of heaven from the centre 
of its wondrous dome , continues to impress the beholder with un- 
failing, overwhelming effect. Therefore it is that the Pantheon, hav- 
ing survived the period of art's extinction and revival, better re- 
presents the solidity, the daring, and the splendour of Roman archi- 
tecture than the stupendous remains of palace, bath, and circus. 

An important innovation which Plastic Art experiences in the 
latter days of the Roman republic remains to be mentioned. The 
introduction of Eclecticism may be attributed toPASiTELES, a native 
of Southern Italy. It would appear that he had striven, by way of 
protest against the unrest and violence apparent in the works of 
his predecessors of the Rhodian School , to restore to art something 
of her primitive simplicity, and to combine the excellences of the 
older schools while he avoided their errors. His aim was to revert 
to the stern simplicity and thoroughness of the earliest sculptors. 
At the same time he studied nature independently and carefully ; 
while he was not neglectful of the minor graces of his art. Ste- 
phanus was his pupil, whose pupil again was Menelaus, from 
whose chisel we have a group now in the Villa Ludovisi, com- 
monly known as Electra and Orestes. Though the real intention 
of the author will probably never be known , this work serves to 
teach us how earnest was the endeavour, and how happy the result of 
art study in the school ofPasiteles. It is not, however, given to eclectic 
schools to exercise a powerful or enduring influence. Accordingly 
we find a comparatively small number of works belonging to the 
school of Pasiteles. 

That school of art, too, which was especially encouraged by the 

xxxviii ANCIENT ART. 

Emperor Hadrian, adopting as it did not only Greek but also Egyp- 
tian models, was eclectic in the most extended sense of the word. 
Amongst its tetter known works is the figure of Hadrian's favourite 
Antinous, in which with undoubted "beauty of form is combined a 
somewhat lugubrious solemnity together with a smooth glossy and 
superficial elegance little to the taste of the modern connoisseur. 
Far more attractive are the basrelief's on various public monuments 
— such as the Arch of Titvs and Trajan's Column — celebrating 
the triumphs of Roman arms. With Greek artists a characteristic 
mode of representing in relief the triumphs, actual or mythical, 
of their heroes was to express battle by means of isolated groups 
of single combatants. And not only are the more stirring incidents 
of the battle thus signalised. Appeal is made to the gentler emo- 
tions : a dying warrior is carried off the field ; or the victor spares 
the life of a prostrate adversary. For plastic purposes this was 
found to be the most effective mode of representation, serving as 
it does to awaken the interest and rivet the attention of beholders. 
The Assyrians had, however, already executed reliefs in which 
the effect of pitched battle was rendered with more literal accuracy; 
and that the Greeks, too, could on occasion meet the requirements 
of this more arbitrary taste, we learn from the friezes of the so- 
called Nereid monument discovered in Lycia, where the con- 
tending hosts close with each other in elaborate order of battle. 
The painter, favoured by conditions more submissive to his will, had 
already grouped the combatants in larger and denser masses. How 
admirably they contrived along with the crowd and confusion of 
battle, to give effect to traits of individual heroism and to give to 
single and central figures their appropriate expression, is exem- 
plified in the celebrated mosaic to be seen in Naples of the Battle 
of Alexander, which, there is no doubt, was copied from a painting of 
the period. It may be premised therefore that this condensed and 
elaborated treatment in relief — obviously akin to painting — in 
which the marches, battles, and triumphs, the operations of Roman 
armies and their imperial chiefs, were set forth with the utmost 
attainable accuracy, with all detail of equipment and armament of 
camp and battle-field, was not the newly gathered fruit of Roman in- 
ventiveness , but must rather be ascribed to the age of Alexander 
and his successors. And the same may be assumed of the archi- 
tectural form of these monuments. In Portraits, too, whether of full 
length or only busts, of emperors and empresses, warriors and states- 
men, as of persons of less exalted position, there were not wanting 
impressive examples in Greek art; and here again Roman taste 
coincides with that of the Diadochan age. It may be conceded 
however, that owing to the interest long taken in portraiture by the 
Romans and to the attention which this branch of art had so long 
received in Rome and Etruria, it had acquired a more distinctly 
Roman and Italian character, and so had a perceptible influence 


on Greek artists resident in Rome. Thus is it that portraits of the 
Emperors exhibit a degree of power in execution and expression 
scarcely to be looked for at so late a period. Not unfrequently the 
Emperors were represented in the costume proper to religious cere- 
monies ; or in fashion like to the gods themselves, and invested with 
their attributes. Most commonly, however, they appear in the 
costume and character of a general in the act of haranguing his 
cohorts. We have striking examples of these imperial portraits in 
the equestrian statue in bronze of Marcus Aurelius on the Capitol, 
and in the marble statue of Augustus in the Vatican. This latter 
gives unmistakable evidence of having been painted. From the 
reliefs on the richly ornamented armour which set forth with due 
regard to historical accuracy the more conspicuous and familiar in- 
cidents of a reign especially favoured by the gods, we are justified 
in the conclusion that this figure was executed about the year 17 
B.C. In his treatment of the female figure, too, whether seated or 
standing , the sculptor knew how to impart a distinguished and 
imposing view by a sumptuous arrangement of the drapery. There is 
a peculiar gratification in finding, after a careful study of these 
portraits — many of them of personages famous in history — an exterior 
so closely corresponding to the picture of the historian. Many of the 
heads, indeed, which thusimpress thebeholderhavenot been identi- 
fied. In portraiture, the Greek sculptor adopted the Hermean form, 
while the work of the Roman is recognised almost infallibly in the bust 
form. Thelatter largely preponderate, although amongst the collective 
works of sculpture preserved, the Greek element is considerably in 
excess of the Roman. An attentive observer will not fail to mark 
this distinction , and learn also to detect the handiwork of the 
modern restorer which too often disfigures these antique marbles. 

The same tendency which led the wealthy citizens of Rome to 
adopt the literature and culture of Greece was observable in the taste 
displayed in the works of art they chose for the decoration of their 
palaces and villas, whether executed in Rome itself or in Greece. 
In other respects they appear to have been attracted by the same 
objects of interest as English collectors of the present day. Antique 
art taken as a whole would probably fail to interest the average 
man of rank, unless it were associated with some historical inci- 
dent , some names of renown, or some startling anecdote. But of 
such works as the figures of the Three Graces in bas-relief (though 
rigid in execution) which the ciceroni of the Acropolis shew as the 
work of Socrates , and the group of Harmodius and Aristogiton, the 
Tyrant slayers, in the market place of Athens, of archaic antiquity, 
which had been carried off by Xerxes and restored to its wonted place 
by Alexander : — of works such as these copies at least would be in 
request. The powerful development displayed in the figures of Po- 
lycletus, and the action expressed in those of Myron, appear to have 
possessed greater attractions for the Romans than the works of Phi- 


dias. Numbers of statues belonging to the Periclean age have come 
to light in Rome, replicas for the most part of Victors in the Games 
and of Amazons. Figures of the Gods, with few exceptions, belong 
to a later period. The most numerous, and also very charming, were 
the graceful forms of more recent Attic art, represented by Praxiteles 
and his compeers ; also the elegant and animated creations of the 
Lysippian and post-Lysippian schools. It is hardly conceivable that 
in the museums of Rome, filled as they are with works of sculpture 
collected on the spot, no original works are to be found. Assuredly 
there has been a time when they have not been wanting in Rome: 
and it seems improbable that one and all should have been lost 
in the devastation which has more than once made wreck of the 
Eternal City. Certain it is , however , that the greater part of what 
we now see are either replicas or copies. This fact is determined 
by the material. The great statues of Phidias and Praxiteles set 
apart for the temples were of gold and ivory, while Polycletus and 
Lysippus worked in bronze. In Attica, too, this costly material was 
preferred by the earlier sculptors. It was only by degrees that 
marble came into use for groups as well as single figures. The 
'Discus thrower' of Myron, as well as the groups of Marsyas 
and Athena were originally in bronze. In the Palazzo Massimi 
alle Colonne there is to be seen a striking figure readily recogni- 
sed as that of Myron's 'Discus thrower', but it is in marble. In 
like manner the Marsyas in the Lateran is of marble, and so also is 
the Apoxyomenus in the Vatican museum. Just as we moderns 
delight in the copy or engraving of some celebrated picture, the 
amateur of old gave his commission for the copy of some favourite 
statue, to be executed in bronze, or, more frequently, in marble. 
At any rate comparatively few works in bronze , of importance in 
point of size, are preserved. It was not enough to have simply 
repeated the celebrities of sculpture. The artists of the so-called 
New Attic School, which flourished in the last century B. C, wefind 
reproducing the works of their predecessors very effectively with 
such departures from the original as are to be seen in a more arti- 
ficial and highly wrought arrangement of drapery, a more decorative 
rendering of the detail generally, and an attempt to impart increased 
animation to the figure as a whole. Such piracies, when tolerably 
successful , became in their turn models for numerous imitations. 
The results of this process are exactly what the connoisseur will 
be prepared to find , and such as present themselves in the collec- 
tions of antique art in Rome. He must not expect to find himself in 
the presence of the simplicity and directness as well as grandeur of 
aim characteristic of Greek art in her loftiest moods : but rather of 
her attenuation in the shape of imitations and adaptations, the 
growth of the Imperial age. Antique art, however, exhibits through- 
out its career an astonishing vitality and continuity. The spirit of 
the Greek is mighty even in expiring.- and nowhere can the course 


of her marvellous development be studied with the same complete- 
ness as in Rome. 

Monumental works, inconspicuous and unfamiliar as they so of- 
ten are, appeal less powerfully to the imagination than statuary, 
where dazzling beauty enthrals the senses. These monuments, 
however , will have a charm of their own for the discriminating 
observer. In the Egyptian department of the Vatican he can con- 
template the relics of a primaeval antiquity, while in the Gregorian 
Museum he is reminded of the mysterious Etruscans. It will he 
interesting to compare the attitude and proportions of Egyptian 
with Grseco-Roman figures , and to discover in the Sphinxes of the 
Villa Albani, in the Lions by the approach to the Capitol, as well 
as in the numerous obelisks , to be seen in the piazzas of Rome, 
evidence of the mastery acquired by the Egyptian in Art. And their 
works were in the Roman's eye fitting objects wherewith to celebrate 
his triumphs, and adorn the capital of an empire including within 
its far reaching bounds people of almost every race and climate. 

In the Gregorian Museum the portrait busts in terracotta by the 
Etruscans exhibit a mode of expressing individuality peculiar to 
themselves ; the bronze vessels display that skill in the working of 
metals for which they had long been famous; while the large copies 
of mural paintings which adorned the tombs brin g to light the m ethod 
of painting as practised by the Etruscan as well as , in the choice 
of subject, their preference for scenes of sensualism and bloodshed. 

Here, too, is to be seen a collection of Painted Greek Vases ex- 
ceedingly rich and beautiful, discove ed, it is true, inEtruria, but, 
as is evident from the subjects represented, from the drawing, but 
chiefly from the inscriptions, imported from Greece — the greater 
partindeed from Athens. It is not difficult to distinguish those speci- 
mens, which, though borrowed from the Greeks, were of Etruscan 
manufacture. They are inferior in taste and execution, as well as 
in design and modelling, and are not to be mistaken for the work 
of artists. But the Greek vases themselves vary in character; those 
for instance having the black figures on a red ground being of earlier 
date than those showing the reverse arrangement of these colours. 
Nevertheless the painters of these vases, mere handicraftsmen as we 
must suppose them to have been , could render mythological subj ects , 
and scenes of everyday life, with a vivacity and poetry of conception ; 
they knew so well how to draw, and, with means and resources 
necessarily very limited, were so far masters of expression, that — 
despised though theymaybe bythe superficial and ignorant — they 
bear not only remarkable testimony to the quality of workmanship 
then prevailing in Attica, but afford a glimpseat the artof their day 
in Athens as seen through the eyes of these unpretending artificers. 

Finally there remain to be noticed the Sarcophagi, which, vari- 
ously ornamented with reliefs, are to be seen in museum, in villa, 
and in palace court. The only specimen preserved to us from the old 


Roman time is the Sarcophagus of L. Cornelius Soipio Barbatus in 
the Museum of the Vatican. It resembles an altar both in shape and 
style of ornamentation, and is almost the counterpart of one still 
standing in Pompeii. It is only consistent with the then prevailing 
religious rites that sepulchral monuments should have been thus 
architectural in character. In Greece itself this -was conspicuously 
the case: all sarcophagi which have been discovered within the con- 
fines of Geece proper showing a distinctly architectural treatment. 
The Roman sarcophagi combine much that is essentially Greek with 
adaptations from the funeral urns of Etruria. They give signs, how- 
ever, of an independent development, and although including a di- 
versity of shapes and decoration, have for the most part their bas- 
reliefs arranged onthefrontand sides(and, where extraordinary rich- 
ness of effect was desiderated, on the back also) as a frieze or band. 
One naturally endeavours to trace in the decoration bestowed on 
these repositories of the dead, some indication of their purpose. In 
many instances, however, it is evident, that appropriateness of design, 
if originally acknowledged as indispensable, was presently lost in a 
promiscuously lavish decoration. Certainly there is no obscurity in 
such allusions to the goal of life as we discover in Cupids rowing te 
the lighthouse tower, or when we see them careering round the goal in 
the circus. In such symbolical figures as those of the seasons we are 
taught to reflect on the inevitable course of creation, existence, and 
decay succeeding to maturity. AsHylas is borne away by the Nymphs, 
and Ganymede by the eagle, so we may fancy the soul begrudged 
from its earthly existence. Hippolytus may serve to recal the virtues 
of such as came to an untimely end, Niobe, the grief of the survivors ; 
sleeping Cupids may symbolise sleep favoured by the Gods, while 
Ariadne discovered by Dionysus, Endymion visited by Selene 
present death itself as but sleep in unfamiliar guise. On the 
other hand scenes of Bacchanalian revelry can hardly be accepted as 
allusions to the future state; and even in a less degree are Nereids 
and Medeahs, and more of the like, in bas-relief, capable of such 
interpretation: and rarely, too, does any reference of a distinctly per- 
sonal character go beyond a mere vague allusion to life and death. 
It is tolerably certain that these sarcophagi were made in large 
numbers, in advance of immediate requirements. A somewhat extra- 
ordinary expedient for introducing a reference to particular indi- 
viduals, was that of bestowing the lineaments of the departed upon 
such heroes of mythology as were made to figure in these reliefs. 
Thus it is we find portraits of the deceased in such mythical per- 
sonages as Admetus andAlcestis, in Hippolytus. and, what is more 
remarkable, in Phsedra herself. In a considerable number of cases 
these reliefs are almost identical, and are evidently made after one 
model, with such modifications as might be effected by the intro- 
duction or omission of single figures or groups, showing nevertheless 
more or less of artistic intelligence and resource. They form a 


group displaying the established forms and traditional models, 
which in respect of means of expression and motive are the 
worthy inheritance of Greek art at its best. Yet these sarcophagi, 
regarded even as Roman works, are by no means of early origin. It 
must not, however, be forgotten in estimating the quality of work 
bestowed upon the sarcophagus, that it was not intended to be 
closely inspected by the light of day, but would be consigned to the 
twilight of the tomb, where a stray gleam of light might but for 
a moment reveal its detail. Hence, in the execution of these reliefs 
the object was to give prominence to leading features, without an 
overscrupulous nicety of finish, and this end has been attained 
with a success worthy of all admiration. It has been ascertained 
beyond doubt, that the introduction of the sarcophagus as described 
above was coeval with a mode of burial which became the fashion 
in Imperial times ; otherwise the artistic merits of these monuments 
might well have misled us in computing their age. The great 
majority of Roman sarcophagi belong to the 2nd and 3rd centuries 
after Christ, and to an even later period. 

The Early Christian Sarcophagi simply repeat and perpetuate 
preceding pagan models. It is a peculiar coincidence that these in- 
conspicuous memorials should have contributed to the revival of art 
in the middle ages. Niccolo Pisano found a fertile source of inspi- 
ration in the Roman sarcophagi of the Campo Santo in Pisa ; nor 
did Peruzzi and Raphael disdain to use them as models. 

With this passing glance at the homage thus done by Raphael and 
his compeers to the art of antiquity, these pages may fitly conclude. 
The endeavour has not been to fetter the judgment of the reader, 
but rather so to direct his observation and stimulate his interest as 
to give him that self-reliance which alone will arouse in him an 
intelligent interest, and afford him a genuine pleasure in what 
he sees. To praise the creations of great artists in empty or mere 
conventional phrase would simply offend. They alone will exper- 
ience the full measure of delight to be derived from the contem- 
plation of these treasures , who rely upon their own judgment and 
cultivate to the utmost the delicacy of their perceptions. 

Roman Art, 



Prof. A. Springer of Leipsic. 

Rome as Mistress of the world became the centre of contempora- 
neous culture. Art had found with her a new term: and Greece as 
fitting tribute to the conqueror laid at her feet the accumulated 
wealth of ages — the treasures of her art, which long had embodied 
the loftiest conception of the beautiful. 

Her supremacy secured, Rome became the chief resort of artists, 
and their liberal patron. She dictated the tone, alike in taste and 
fashion , and determined the destinies of art. Down to mediaeval 
times Rome continued to receive the proud title of 'Caput mundi'. 
Presently, however, she laid claim to supremacy in another realm 
than that of art; and this latter, as the ancient traditions 
were gradually outlived, finally fell into neglect. In more recent, 
as in former times Rome has failed to create for herself, as the out- 
come of her individuality, an art peculiar to and a part of herself. 
Her destiny seems to have been to gather from external sources 
the wealth in which she revelled, with the difference that while 
ancient Rome furnished nothing "beyond a magnificent arena for 
the art of her day, in later times the artist found in Rome herself 
his sources of inspiration , compelled as he was to contemplate 
perfection reflected in the dazzling mirror of antique art. Ten 
centuries , however , elapsed ere Rome resumed this proud pre- 
eminence. A glance may now be directed to the interval between 
the fall of old Rome and the period when, animated with a new 
life, Rome drew to herself the foremost representatives of the 
Renaissance, to whom she afforded inspiration for their grandest 
efforts. It is not, however, the 16th century, not the glories of 
the Renaissance, that give to the Rome of our day her distinctive 
character, but rather the new and imposing exterior which she re- 
ceived at the hand of her architects in the 17th century. The mind 
must be disenchanted before the veil can be penetrated and the 
Rome of antiquity adequately comprehended. 

The protracted suspension of all activity in art makes it appa- 
rent that Roman art has a history distinct from Italian art. For 


several centuries the towns of Tuscany were the principal abodes of 
a natural art life. But just as in Rome Italian art achieved its 
most signal triumphs in the persons of Raphael and Michael Angelo 
and the masters of that period : so in Roman ground we find that Chris- 
tian art first took root and attained to its most important dimen- 
sions. In Rome then we find the strongest inducements as well as 
the richest opportunity for the study of Early Christian Art. 

In the 4th century heathendom, long tottering to its fall, was, in 
appearance at least,, absorbed in the younger Christian world. A new 
era in art is inaugurated. Not that we are to assume the simulta- 
neous extinction of the pagan art of ancient Rome , nor that it was 
at once superseded by an altogether new style provided as it were 
for the emergency. The eye and hand are to a greater extent crea- 
tures of habit than the mind. New views and altered conceptions 
of the Supreme Being as well as of the destiny of man found 
acceptance. But to embody them the artist had to resort to the old 
established forms. Then heathen rules were by no means uni- 
formly hostile to Christianity (the period of bitterest persecution 
began with the 3rd century A. D.); and that the new doctrine 
should have expanded and taken root, should have been permitted 
to organise itself in the very midst of heathen society , is evidence 
that it was received even with favour. 

As a consequence of these conditions it will be observed that 
the art of the early Christians presents no remarkable con- 
trast to that which precedes it, and that they were content to adopt 
and perpetuate the traditions of the antique. The Roman Cata- 
combs afford abundant proof of this. Encircling the city as with 
a subterranean trench, they were originally far from being what 
they subsequently became — secret, carefully concealed places of 
refuge for the early Christians ; but rather their regularly ordained 
and publicly accessible places of burial (e. g. the Catacomb of Nico- 
medus and that of Flavia Domitilla), and were first designedly con- 
signed to darkness and concealment during the 3rd century, a period 
of constantly recurring persecution. The Christian community, 
reared as it was in the midst of Roman paganism, probably did 
not dream of subverting the principles of antique art. In the adorn- 
ment of the Catacombs they retain the types transmitted to them ; 
so also in the particulars of drawing and colour the precedent of 
the Antique is closely followed. Christ represented as the Good 
Shepherd, Orpheus as the symbol of Christ, and evidences of the long 
standing repugnance to any rendering of the Passion-history, afford 
proofs of the readiness to accept the art heritage of their precursors. 
The older these catacomb paintings are the more closely they ap- 
proximate to the types of antiquity. Even the Sarcophagus 
Sculpture of the 4th and 5th centuries differs in purpose only, not in 
technical rendering of form, from the typical reliefs found on pagan 
tombs. It was only in the latter half of the 6th century that a 

xivi ROMAN ART. 

new style declared itself in painting which like other branches of 
plastic art had more or less fallen into a state of decay meanwhile. 
Architecture adapted itself to the exigencies of Christian worship, 
and in allying itself to the new architectural forms , painting 
acquires a new character. 

The term Basilica is understood to apply to Christian temples 
up to the 10th century. The subsequent belief that a more inti- 
mate relation than that suggested by a common name subsisted 
between these early Christian edifices and the forensic Basilica 
of ancient Rome, was altogether an erroneous one. The latter 
were in fact the Roman courts of law and places of public meet- 
ing. They had a place in most of the towns of the Roman em- 
pire and were erected in the forum , but have nothing, whether of 
origin or form , essentially in common with the early Christian 
temple or church. These forensic basilicas were not adapted to 
purposes of Christian worship , nor did the old Roman basilica 
serve as a model for the building of Christian places of worship. 
In proof of the one assertion may be adduced the fact that the 
forensic basilicas at the end of the 4th century retained intact 
their original destination , and in individual cases have been 
restored; while the other will be justified by an unprejudiced exam- 
ination of the various parts of the Christian basilicas , which 
give evidence of having sprung from another source than that of 
the old Roman basilica. Neither did the Temple of antiquity fur- 
nish the model for churches built by the early Christians. The 
church of SS. Cosma e Damiano, of the 6th century, is the earliest 
example of a pagan temple applied to Christian use. The Chris- 
tian basilica may be said rather to have grown out of the Roman 
dwelling-house, where at first the community was in the habit 
of assembling. The plan for future ecclesiastical edifices was 
acquired by simply extending the proportions of the dwelling-house. 
The church of S. Clemente in Rome is relatively the most perfect 
example existing of the architectural properties and internal arran- 
gement of the early Christian basilica. A small portico supported 
by pillars leads to the outer court (atrium), enclosed by a colonnade 
and having in its midst a fountain (cantharus). The eastern colon- 
nade leads into the interior of the church which was usually divi- 
ded into three aisles. Two rows of columns divide the side aisles 
from the loftier one in the centre known as the nave ; the nave 
and aisles abut upon a half circle or apse. At right angles to 
these aisles, between them and the apse , was sometimes inter- 
posed a third space — the transept; the altar stood within the apse 
and apart beneath a canopy supported by pillars , and in its front, 
enclosed by rails or cuncetti, was the choir for the officiating priests 
and two pulpits (ambones), one used for reading the Gospel, the other 
the Epistles. In marked contrast to the temple of antiquity, little 
care was bestowed upon the external architecture of these early 

ROMAN ART. xlvii 

Christian basilicas , the most impressive effect being reserved ior 
the interior. And to this end , especially in earlier mediaeval times, 
a ready expedient for supplying decorative material was adopted in 
the plunder of the monuments of antiquity. Columns were carried 
off and set up in Christian churches without regard to congruity 
of material or consistency of style. Thus in the churches of 
S. Maria in Trastevere and S. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura are to be seen 
pillars of different material and workmanship. The churches of 
<S. Sabina, S. Maria Maggiore and others give evidence of similar 
depredations. Crosses and lustres in metal, tapestries bestowed by 
papal piety contributed to the ornate effect of these interiors. But 
the principal decorative feature were the pictures in mosaic which 
covered the recess of the apse in particular as well as the arch which 
connected the apse with the nave (the Triumphal Arch). These 
Mosaic Pictures, as far, at least, as the material was concerned, 
demanded a novel artistic treatment, massive and monumental in 
character. In them we find the traditions of antiquity abandoned, 
giving place to a style which from its harshness as well as austere 
solemnity of conception has been confounded with the Byzantine 
style. In reality the art was of indigenous growth ; and its salient 
characteristic may be defined as the substitution of the real for the 
symbolical in general treatment. Now for the first time the pop- 
ular mind t became thoroughly imbued with ecclesiastical senti- 
ment, of which the crucified Saviour was the chief embodiment. 
The oldest mosaics, composed of glass cubes, are to be seen in 
the church of S. Pudenziana. They date from the 4th century 
like those in S. Costanza and the Baptistery of Naples ; while those 
in S. Maria Maggiore and S. Sabina belong to the 5th century. 
The mosaics in SS. Cosma e Damiano in the Forum (526-30) may- 
be pronounced as the most beautiful. 

The rudiments of Christian art are to be found in Rome ; but 
its further development was promoted in an equal degree by other 
Italian states. Building was still active in the 9th century , while 
the Popes, especially Leo III. , of the 7th and 8th centuries 
did good service in church decoration. But during this period 
there is no evidence either of progress or continuous develop- 
ment in the Mosaic art and as little in architecture itself. The 
experiment (as seen in S. Prassede, 9th century) of combining piers 
with the pillars of the nave as a support to the walls and of con- 
necting these with transverse arches was not repeated. Finally it 
may be said of the Mosaics (<S. Prassede, SS. Nereo ed Achilleo, 
S. Marco), that, while they bear a superficial resemblance to the 
works of the 5th and 6th centuries, they show unmistakable signs of 
corruption and decline. This may be accounted for to some extent 
by the evil times which had fallen upon Rome since the 9th century, 
culminating in a conflagration — the work of an incendiary Guis- 
cardo — which laid waste the entire southern quarter of the city, 

xiviii ROMAN ART. 

extending from the Forum to the Lateran and to the slopes of the 
Esquiline. The chief employment of the architect was the con- 
struction of fortified towers and places of strength rendered neces- 
sary by the ceaseless warring of factions within the city. In 1257 
Branealeoni demolished 140 of these strongholds, the majority of 
which had been erected on the ruins of some monument or other of 
antiquity. The most striking example of the rudeness of early 
mediaeval architecture is to be seen in the Casa di Pilato or di 
Rienzi. Built by one Nicolao , son of Crescentius (probably in the 
12th century), its chief ornamentation consists of marble fragments 
apparently picked up at random and put together in the wildest 

At the close of the 12th century brighter days dawned for 
Roman art. 'Magister Romanus' now became a title which the 
artist was proud to append to his surname. A speciality in decora- 
tive art appeared in Rome about this time which did not connect 
itself, it is true, with the traditions of antique art, though ready 
to utilise its material, without, however, resort to the depredations 
of a bygone age. And material was still at hand in richest abun- 
dance, in an endless array of shattered marbles. These were divided 
and subdivided, cut or sawn into minute slabs, arranged in patterns, 
enlivened by the introduction of stained glass and gold leaf, pre- 
senting as a whole a richly coloured decorative effect. These marble 
mosaics adorn the flooring of churches, altar sides, episcopal chairs, 
pulpits, and doorways ; they enliven monumental sculpture, they 
fill the flutings of the elegantly twisted columns which bore the 
Easter candles or adorn the entablature of cloistered courts. This 
art became the monopoly of particular families and was regularly 
transmitted from generation to generation. The monumental 
marbles of this time are generally known as Cosmato Work, a name 
derived from two members of a family thus privileged. Such work 
is frequently to be met with in Rome. Conspicuous among the 
mosaic floorings are those of S. Maria Maggiore, S. Maria in Tras- 
tevere, and S. Lorenzo Fuori le Mura (12th century). S. Clemente 
and S. Giorgio possess altar tabernacles of Cosmato work and S. 
Lorenzo the finest example in its pulpit. Of similar work in cloisters 
($. Sabina, Lateran) the best specimen is in the convent of S. Paolo 
(13th century). Cosmato work is not infrequently found elsewhere 
than in Rome. It is uncertain how far this Roman work is connected 
with kindred examples to be met with in Southern Italy. In tech- 
nical detail some differences are to be detected, such as the more 
copious use of the glass pastes by the artists of the South. On the 
other hand we fancy that the identity of pattern in the mosaics of 
the Cappella Palatina in Palermo with those of S. Lorenzo cannot be 

Along with this decorative mosaic work , the .Mosaic Painting 
of apse and choir -arch had since the 12th century successfully 

ROMAN ART. xlix 

asserted itself. That impress of the antique borne by the early 
Christian mosaics is gone ; the drawing has lost its incisiveness as 
well as its traditional typical character, and in lieu of this, receives 
a new and more lively impulse from colour and wealth of ornament. 
The mosaics in front of the church of 8. Maria in Trastevere, in 
the apse of 8. Clemente (12th century), those in the altar-tribune of 
the Lateran (13th century) and finally those in the apse of S. Maria 
Maggiore , the work of Jacobus Torriti in 1295 , are examples of 
this mosaic painting., — Wall-Painting also came once more into 
use as we see from paintings discovered in 1858 in the lower 
church of S. Clemente — that basilica which in 1 108 was lost by a new 
structure being built upon it. — And, if church-architecture was con- 
fined to the rehabilitating of older edifices or the mere reproduction 
of earlier types , the numerous Belfries (the best is that of S. 
Maria in Cosmedin) show an abundant fertility of resource in the 
architects of that period. They tower aloft, story upon story follow- 
ing in light and airy succession, relieved by flights of slender pillars, 
and stand, eloquent tributes to the genius of mediaeval Rome. 

The condition of art in Rome , however (particularly in the 
14th century) , was far behind that of Tuscany. While in Tuscany 
popular forces directed by the municipalities provided an ample field 
for the cultivation of artistic tastes , Rome was distracted by the 
incessant war of factions and families , or the quarrels of the 
popes. Strangers were invited to execute works which where beyond 
the ordinary resources of art as it then existed in Rome. Dominican 
Friars introduced Gothic architecture into Rome — Fra Ristoro, 
Fra Sisto are probably the builders of the church of S. Maria sopra 
Minerva — and Oiotto (chief of the Florentine school) was summoned 
to Rome during the pontificate of Boniface VIII. , and at the in- 
stance of his patron Cardinal Gaetano Stefaneschi, to execute a 
mosaic (Navicella) for the Porch of St. Peter's, and to paint a 
Ci&oriiimfinpart preserved in the Sacristy of St. Peter's); probably 
also to execute a commission from the Pope, to represent the pro- 
clamation of the Jubilee of the year 1300. Of Giotto's Roman con- 
temporary Pietro Cavallini we have unfortunately no certain 

It was not until the return of the Popes from their exile at 
Avignon, when Italians held exclusive possession of St. Peter's 
chair, and aimed at supremacy amongst the secular powers of the 
peninsula ; when the Humanists acquired their shortlived ascen- 
dency at the Papal court — that Roman art first approaches its 
maturity. Rome indeed had no direct share in the creation of the 
Renaissance. To Florence belongs the exclusive and imperishable 
renown of this achievement. On the other hand it must not be for- 
gotten how powerful an impression the spectacle of the mighty relics 
of antiquity must have made upon the receptive minds of the first 
Humanists, exciting their emulation and inciting to a more reverent 

Baedeker. Italy II. 7th Edit. d 


study of the Antique ; neither must it be forgotten that by study of 
old Roman artBrunellesco andDonatello became familiar with those 
forms in which they were wont to express their artistical thought, 
and so were led to new and unexplored paths in the realm of art. 

Once more Rome occupies a foremost place in the history of art 
when Pope Nicholas V. (1447-1455), a Humanist, vies with the 
Medici in his passion for books and building. He is bent upon a re- 
novation of the Vatican Quarter ; his ambition is to erect a papal 
residence of surpassing splendour ; nay, he entertains designs on 
the St. Peter's pile itself and contemplates its reconstruction. The 
most imposing work of this period was the Venetian Palace begun by 
PietroBarbo(1455), afterwards Pope Paul II., which, like the Albergo 
dell' Orso recently as it were again discovered, is to a great extent 
mediaeval in character. Leon Battista Alberti, who resided in Rome 
about this time and died there in 1472, is supposed to have furnish- 
ed the plans for this palace. 

So far indeed had the fostering of art become obligatory on the 
occupants of the papal chair, that they could not neglect this 
function without forfeiting their individual influence, and impairing 
the dignity of their office. The right powers were not, however, 
immediately at hand, which should give effect to the building pro- 
jects of these Sovereign Pontiffs, enamoured as they were of splen- 
dour in every shape. The architect who during the pontificate of 
Sixtus IV. (1471-1484) was most employed, Baccio Pontelli, was 
a practitioner of moderate skill, and far behind the great Florentines 
of his day. The building of S. Agostino and S. Pietro in Montorio, 
as well as the facades of SS. Apostoli and S. Pietro in Vincoli were 
from his plans. His most celebrated work is the Popes' private 
Chapel in the Vatican , called after the Pope Sixtus the Sistine 
Chapel, which owes its chief attractions far less to its architectural 
merits, than to the artistic decoration of wall and ceiling. 

Abundant employment together with the favour which artists 
found with dignitaries of the Church had already allured numerous 
Tuscan and Umbrian Painters to Rome. Amongst those thus engag- 
ed in beautifying the churches of Rome and the Vatican Palace we 
meet such Florentine celebrities as Maestri Sandro Botticelli, Filip- 
pino Lippi, Domenico Ohirlandajo, Cosimo Rosselli; and from the 
Umbrian School the immediate forerunner of Michael Angelo , bold 
Luca Signorelli , along with Perugino and Pinturicchio. An attempt 
is made to found an Academy, or Guild of St. Luke at Rome. Amongst 
its members we find (1494) Melozzo da Forli, the painter of a fresco 
(transferred to canvas) in the Vatican Gallery , representing the 
foundation of the Vatican library. — The execution of the Wall 
Paintings in the Sistine Chapel, by order of Sixtus IV., was a moment- 
ous event in a time prolific in art enterprise. In accordance with the 
then prevailing point of view the acts of Moses are represented as 
symbolically parallel to those of Christ. On the left wall are incidents 


in the life of Moses by Botticelli, Rosselli, Signorelli, on the right 
wall events in the life of Christ by Botticelli, Rosselli, Ghirlandajo 
and Perugino. Those lovers of art who are unable to visit Florence 
before going to Rome are recommended to make these wall paintings 
their especial study. They will learn from them to appreciate the 
descriptive power of the Florentines and will be familiarised with 
the field subsequently occupied by the heroes of Italian Art. 

Tuscan Sculptors, too, find their way frequently to Rome 
and are constantly employed either as workers in bronze or marble. 
Little attention seems , however, to have been paid to the former. 
The great bronze doors of St. Peter, the joint work of Filarete 
and Simone, are interesting Tather from the wealth of mythological 
imagery with which they are embellished , than from their artistic 
pretensions, which will not compare with those of Ghiberti's famous 
gates. So much the more powerfully does the sculptor appeal to us 
in marble. A taste for profusion and splendour of monumental de- 
coration in adorning the tombs, which fact declares itself in the 15th 
century — a result probably of that thirst for fame which is identi- 
fied with the Renaissance — gave the sculptor unceasing opportunity 
for the exercise of his art, particularly in its purely decorative phases. 
There is scarcely a single church of a certain date which does not 
contain sepulchral monuments from the close of the loth century. 
The church of S. Maria del Popolo possesses the largest number. 
These monuments — perfected in Florence and probably naturalised 
in Rome by Mino da Fiesole — are nearly uniform, viz. a sarcopha- 
gus surmounted by a statue of the deceased, and supported by a 
pedestal ornamented with a garland of fruit and flowers, and 
genii. A niche or panelled screen finished with a medallion of the 
Madonna form the usual background. The majority of these sculp- 
tures cannot be traced to any particular artist. It would appear 
indeed that the sarcophagi, as with the ancient Romans, were rather 
articles of manufacture than works of art, made wholesale fashion 
after some favourite pattern and bought 'ready made', a com- 
mission being given to the sculptor for a portrait of the deceased 
to which would be added the armorial bearings with inscription. 

Whoever might have visited Rome in the earlier years of the 
16th century would have found himself in the presence of an in- 
tense movement in the art world ; he would have found Archi- 
tect, Sculptor and Painter alike occupied with projects of more or 
less grandeur. So far, however, Rome did not in this respect sur- 
pass the other chief towns of Italy ; so far art had not assumed that 
particular form of life and direction which only the atmosphere of 
Rome could sustain, or which the genius of the Vatican alone could 
quicken — during the Pontificate of Julius II. (1503-1513), where 
the golden era of Roman art began, this consummation was actu- 
ally achieved. 

To Julius belongs the glory of having associated with Rome three 



names, Bramante, Michael Angelo, Raphael, everlasting beacons in 
the path of art — three men who in the course of the 16th century 
(cinquecento) raised modern art to its loftiest pitch of splendour. 
His successor Leo X. (1513-1522) of the house of Medici owes 
it to his lineage only that he should have transmitted to posterity so 
splendid a reputation, — that his name should be associated insepa- 
rably with the greatest triumphs of art in modern times. Leo X. 
inherited the well earned fame of his predecessor, but knew not how 
either to value or to use his inheritance aright. It was not given him 
to sway the imperious temper of Michael Angelo, nor fully to com- 
prehend the mighty schemes of Bramante. The latter's chief work, 
the rebuilding of St. Peter's, can be adequately studied only in the 
collection of original drawings in Florence which set forth the gran- 
deur of Bramante's designs in all their completeness ; for so many 
different hands were employed in giving effect to these, that little 
remains of the original plan. Happily this little, viz. the dome with 
the overwhelming impression of vastness it conveys, is of the very 
best. Bramante contemplated a central structure in the form of a 
Greek cross, rounded at its extremities, which, crowned by a gigantic 
dome, should present an ensemble at once simple and majestic. 
Succeeding generations have failed to embody Bramante's ideal. 
His career, extending probably from 1444 to 1514, is involved in ob- 
scurity. Of his works, Rome possesses numerous examples. The cir- 
cular chapel in the monastery of S. Pietro in Montorio, the court 
of S. Maria della Pace, the arcades in the first court of the Vatican 
(Cortile di S. Damaso), the Palazzo Oiraud and above all the Cancel- 
leria are perfect examples of Renaissance. 

We are wont to wonder at the profusion and splendour, too, of 
works to which the cinquecento gave birth. How much richer, how 
much more splendid would have been this profusion , had only 
these works been carried out as originally designed by the artist's 
creative genius ! 

The same fatality which pursued Bramante's mightiest projects 
served to mar Michael Angelo's (1475-1564) supreme effort in the 
realm of Plastic Art. The Tomb of Julius 11., begun while that 
pope was still living, was to consist of a large detached edifice with 
statues of Moses, St. Paul, and other colossal figures at its projecting 
angles, and ranged along its wall the naked forms of men in chains. 
The work, however, soon came to a standstill, and at last, 30 years 
after its commencement (1545), it was placed in the church of 
S. Pietro inVincoli where it now stands, deplorably, a mere fragment 
of the original design. Its most striking feature is the tremendous 
figure of Moses, rising in wrathful indignation at the worship of the 
golden calf, to denounce the idolatry of the Israelites. In addition 
to the Moses, Rome contains two conspicuous works from the hand 
of Michael Angelo : the Pieth, badly placed in one of the chapels in 
St. Peter's, and the Statue of Christ in S. Maria sopra Minerva. The 

ROMAN ART. liii 

former surpasses all other efforts of the great sculptor in the deli- 
cacy of its modelling as well as in the force with which it appeals 
to human sympathies. 

As Fresco Painter Michael Angelo figures exclusively in 
Rome. Tradition tells us how loathe he was to exchange the 
chisel for the brush, when at the behest of the imperious Julius II. 
he undertook the decoration in fresco of the ceiling of the Sixtine 
Chapel. These frescoes are nevertheless the most important of Mi- 
chael Angelo's contributions to art. They afford a wider field for 
the exercise of his creative power than sculpture, where plastic 
forms, unequal as they are to the demands of his prolific genius, be- 
tray him into exaggeration. These frescoes of Michael Angelo are 
closely akin to the wall paintings of Florentine and Umbrian artists 
at the close of the 15th century, in which the deliverer of the Israelites 
is made to prefigure the Saviour of mankind. How salvation came 
to the world, and how proclaimed , is the theme which Michael 
Angelo undertakes to illustrate. In the centre piece is depicted the 
Creation, the history of Adam and of Noah ; how sin came into the 
world , but with sin the promise of redemption. Forecasting all 
this we next see the figures of Prophets and Sibyls. In the mar- 
ginal pictures we see continued reference to the Redemption, in 
the various deliverances of the Jewish people (the brazen serpent, 
David and Goliath, the fate of Haman, and Judith), in conformity 
with mediaeval conceptions, together with symbols of the Redemption. 
Connecting themselves with the above are the groups occupying the 
lunettes, pourtraying expectation, the anguish of suspense, and con- 
trition, which include at once matters of fact and a twofold allusion 
to the vicissitudes of the Israelites and the events of our Saviour's 
life (progenitors of Christ and Jews captive in Babylon). The sub- 
limity of the work is to be attributed very much to the skill with 
which mere matters of fact are everywhere subordinated to 
the claims of individual action as well as artistic purpose. Moreover 
Michael Angelo has contrived so to dispose the various portions of 
his vast work, ascending by figures, single and in groups, from the 
simply decorative margin to the crowning effort in the centre, so to 
adapt them to the place they occupy , that the entire work becomes 
architecturally, so to speak, self-supporting; while the compo- 
sition as a whole is wielded with a wealth of resources together 
with a power of organisation such as no other artist has attained to. 
The thoughtful beholder will not acquiesce in the exclusive study 
of the central pictures. The figures in monochrome and minor 
decorations are replete with a beauty peculiar to themselves. 

Of the 'Last Judgment', painted by Michael Angelo at a much 
later period (1541), it is difficult, owing to its dilapidated condition, 
to form an accurate estimate. The unerring audacity , however, 
with which figure and group alike are thrown into every conceivable 
attitude and movement, must command a mute and amazed attention. 


With the names of Brarnante and Michael Angelo is associated 
that of Eaphael (1483-1520), whose youthful genius had very 
early declared itself, first in Perugia and later in Florence. In Rome 
are to be seen interesting mementoes of both these periods. In the 
Coronation of the Virgin in the Vatican Gallery we see him still in 
the trammels of the Umbrian School ; the effects of his Florentine 
training are visible in his Entombment of Christ in the Borghese 
Gallery (belonging to later periods are the so called Fornarina in 
the Barberini Gallery , the Violin Player in the Palazzo Sciarra, 
Navagero and Beazzano in the Doria Gallery, the Madonna di Fo- 
ligno, and the Transfiguration, the master's last work, both in the 
Vatican Gallery). The majority of Raphael's easel pictures are to 
be found elsewhere than in Rome. 

But in Rome only could Raphael have found a field suited to 
the exercise of his highest powers in Fresco Painting. The 
mural paintings in the state apartments of the Popes in the Vatican 
palace must first be noticed. In order rightly to appreciate these, 
it must not on the one hand be forgotten that fresco painting 
never completely loses its decorative character ; nor on the other 
must the peculiar position of the Pontificate in the beginning of 
the 16th century be lost sight of. In the palace of the Vatican the 
same courtly tone, the same pursuit of sensuous pleasures, of the 
mere joys of existence , prevailed as in the courts of the younger 
Italian dynasties; expressions of national sentiment met with a 
favorable reception , while an active agitation on the part of the 
Humanists did not appear to have compromised the dignity of 
the Papal Court. These conditions are more or less distinctly 
reflected in the frescoes of Raphael. The courtier repeatedly asserts 
himself; even a delicate compliment to the patron is not disdained, 
nor the ceremonial spectacle excluded. Political as well as personal 
allusions are not wanting , while ample space is devoted to the glo- 
rification of the Humanistic ideal. Finally, when it is borne in 
mind that Raphael was constantly compelled to defer to the exigen- 
cies of the allotted space, to study the separate requirements of wall 
and ceiling , we gain an insight into the nature and extent of the 
restraints imposed upon the Artist. They beset him indeed on 
every hand, and constantly compel him to alter or modify his design. 
Curiously enough these restrictions are to this day interpreted as 
an act of the Artist's free and daring will. One wonders at the 
amount of theological learning, of philosophical erudition displayed 
in the Disputa and the School of Athens, as well as at the inventive- 
ness which could connect subjects so remote from one another as 
the Heliodorus driven from the Temple , and the expulsion of the 
French from Italy. Through the entire range of subjects there 
runs a vein of profound and continuous thought. But especially 
admirable are alike the discernment which enabled Raphael to 
select, from apparently the most heterogeneous sources , matter 


suitable for pictorial embodiment; the resolution with which he 
guarded the realm of fancy; and his sense of the beautiful, 
whereby he was enabled to bring the most intractable material into 
subjection to his purpose. These qualities are most conspicuous 
in the picture known as the Burning of the Leonine Quarter 
(the so-called Borgo~) of Rome, or rather, as the artist's patron 
would have it, the conflagration, extinguished by intercession 
of the Pope. The spectator forgets the preposterous demand that 
a miracle should be thus palpably depicted: Raphael relegates 
the action to the heroic age , fills his picture with figures and 
groups of surpassing grandeur and animation (such as succeeding 
generations have striven in vain to imitate) and depicts the 
confusion, the preparation for rescue and flight with surpassingly 
graphic effect. The picture was not what he had been commissioned 
to paint ; but in lieu of this we have a creation teaming with ima- 
ginative power and masterful execution. In like manner Raphael 
disposed of the celebrated frescoes in the first Stanza, the Disputa 
and the School of Athens. Had he not been required to illustrate a 
chapter from the history of dogma (the proclamation of the doctrine 
of transubstantiation) or to present a pictorial extract from the 
history of ancient philosophy, the task of depicting a procession of 
historical celebrities known to fame as fathers of the church or 
mundane philosophers could not be particularly inviting. And 
further , while Raphael mingled with historical personages figures 
purely typical, and in the Disputa represents the assembled com- 
pany of believers as beholding a vision , where each individual 
present is naturally more or less overpowered by emotion — while 
in the School of Athens he especially emphasises the blessedness 
of knowledge, the good fortune which leads to the higher paths of 
learning (whether his representation literally coincides with the 
Diogenes Laertius or Sidonius Apollinaris or not) — he has asserted 
with brilliant success the Artist's right to supremacy in the realm 
of creative fancy. 

After the foregoing remarks the unprejudiced reader will need 
a hint only as to the mental attitude he shall assume as a student 
of Raphael's works. If the mere subject of the picture exclusively 
occupies his attention, if he must know the name and history of 
every figure, and feels it incumbent upon him to admire the in- 
tellectual grasp of an artist who gathered his materials from the 
remotest provinces of learning and who abounds in literary allusions, 
he is no longer in a condition fairly to test the artistic value of 
Raphael's works. From this point of view he will fail to detect in 
them any essential difference from the allegorical pictures of the 
period, nay he may even give precedence to many of these : to 
the wall paintings in the Capella degli Spagnuoli (S. M. Novella 
in Florence) for example, which indisputably exhibit greater versati- 
lity, a superior daring in the embodiment of the preternatural and 


a loftier conception of the didactic capabilities of art. It is still 
a matter of uncertainty how far the erudition displayed by Raphael 
was an acquirement of his own or how far he may have relied on 
the contributions of contemporary scholars, such for example as Cas- 
tiglione, Bembo, and Ariosto, who would in so far share with him 
the merit due to fertility of thought. Assuming, however, thatRaphael 
himself supplied the wealth of literary research which the frescoes of 
the Stanze are said to reveal, he would not as Artist become more in- 
telligible to us. His intellect might thus have been exercised, but 
not his imagination. Raphael's pictures will not only be more tho- 
roughly enjoyed, but his individuality and purpose will be more per- 
fectly apprehended when the effort is made to understand, how the 
painter by force of his imagination could out of material for thought, 
dead in itself, create new and living forms ; how he imparted to 
single figures so distinct a pyschological impress that the mere bear- 
ers of historical names are made to appear as representative hu- 
man characters; how subtly he balanced action and repose in his 
groups, not dwelling too long on mere beauty of outline and con- 
tour, but intent on giving harmonious expression to a more profound 
intellectual antithesis. From this point of view, interest in the 
works of Raphael will be enlightened and enduring. Numerous pro- 
blems will present themselves to the amateur for solution: what 
motive Raphael might have had in treating the Disputa and the 
School of Athens so differently in respect of colour; how far in the 
latter picture the architectural character of the background is 
essential to the collective impression to be conveyed ; for what 
reason the domain of portraiture is here narrowed to the utmost, 
while there (Jurisprudence) it is extended ; what were the grounds 
for the manifold changes in composition which are accurately 
traced in his numerous sketches, etc. 

The condition of the Stanze frescoes is such, alas, as to afford any- 
thing but unqualified gratification, just as in the Loggie we regret- 
fully trace the departed glory of unique examples of decorative art, 
and with difficulty recognise the summit of Raphael's attainments in 
the grievously injured Tapestries. These latter, it is true, in the 
detail of their composition may be studied in the cartoons now 
in the Kensington Museum; but the subordinate decorations, mar- 
ginal arabesques and the like are still in part preserved in the ori- 
ginal tapestries, and are essential to the festive character of orna- 
mentation originally designed for the Sistine Chapel. To the ten 
tapestries so long known, an eleventh discovered in the depot of the 
Vatican lias been added. These tapestries were to have adorned 
the lower compartment of the chapel walls and to this end they 
must correspond with the companion pictures : that, while these re- 
late the history of Redemption, they, the former, should pourtray the 
power and grace of God abiding with the Church. 

In apparently irreconcileable contrast to Raphael's works in the 

ROMAN ART. tvii 

Vatican we have his frescoes in the gay Villa Farnesina. On the 
one hand we are awed by devotional fervour, suhlime aspiration, 
thought earnest and profound; on the other we find Art revelling in 
the joys of life, each form radiant with an ecstasy of innocent mirth. 
Nevertheless it will cost no great effort to discern in the Farnesina 
frescoes the impress of Raphael's genius. He was indebted for his 
version of the myth of Cupid and Psyche to a work of Apuleius, fa- 
miliar to readers of the 16th century as it had been to the Romans 
of old. Probably no author either in ancient or modern times can 
boast a more captivating illustration than Apuleius , while at the 
same time none has been more freely handled by his illustrator. 
In Raphael's hands the myth is moulded anew. Remembering that 
it was the adornment of a festive chamber he had in hand, Raphael 
sedulously avoided everything repugnant to the festive mood. Pysche's 
woes were consigned to the background ; the painter is intent upon 
recording her triumphs only. The confined space afforded by the 
chamber serves only to stimulate the Artist's mastery of form. Ra- 
phael's representation of the myth is condensed : many scenes are 
but glanced at for a moment, though essentials never escape him; 
thus the claims of narration and decoration are adjusted without 
restraint. Harmony alike in idea and form ; nobility of proportion 
never overstepping the bounds of refinement ; the power of so losing 
himself in his subject as to present it devoid of individual caprice : 
attributes characteristic of Raphael as these are declare themselves 
in the frescoes of the Farnesina as unmistakably as in the wall 
paintings of the Vatican. The spectator's own unassisted eye will 
not fail to see that the pictures on the ceiling of the principal saloon 
are far inferior in execution to the so-called Galatea in the neigh- 
bouring apartment. He will find nevertheless that both are such as 
will reward careful study with the highest gratification — a delight 
it must be a lasting desire to renew. 

The inaccessibility of the upper rooms of the Farnesina, adorned 
by Bazzi of Siena (1477-1549), commonly known as Sodoma, with 
his painting of the Nuptials of Alexander with Roxane, cannot be 
too much regretted. In the embodiment of sensuous grace and 
beauty, Raphael found in Sodoma a worthy rival. 

In the Sibyls of Raphael in S. Maria della Pace (1514) we find 
him competing — if the expression may be allowed — in another 
field. Here he trenches upon the domain of Michael Angelo ; not, 
however, that he is for a moment betrayed into disingenuousness by 
contact with a presence so overpowering, or that is he beguiled into 
assuming a style foreign to his genius . True to himself, he accepts the 
limits prescribed by his subject, and combines an air of pleasing sere- 
nity and infinite grace with the expression of prophetic inspiration. 

Around these three Art heroes, Bramante, Raphael, and Michael 
Angelo, is grouped a brilliant circle of pupils and dependents. The 
best works of the School of Raphael are undoubtedly those executed 

lviii ROMAN ART. 

in his lifetime and under his direction. Oiulio Romano (1493-1546) 
and Francesco Penni (1488-1528) had a considerable share in the 
painting of the Hall of Constantine ; the completion of the Loggia 
paintings was entrusted to them , Perino del Vaga (1499-1547), 
Raffaello dal Colle, and others. For the decorative ornamentation of 
the Loggie and the Farnesina the master engaged the services of 
Giovanni da Udine (1487-1564). Romano exhibits himself most 
clearly as a pupil of Raphael in the Villa Madama Giulio, less 
so in his Madonnas (Pal. Colonna and Borghese). 

The crowd of Architects, who appeared in Bramante's time, 
showed greater independence : Baldassare Peruzzi (1481-1563), who 
built the Farnesina and Pal. Massimi, Raphael himself and Oiulio 
Romano (Villa Madama), Antonio da San Gallo the younger, with 
whom originated the Pal. Farnese and a new plan for St. Peter's, 
and lastly Michael Angelo , whose influence, gradually deposing 
Bramante, irresistibly impelled the architecture of Rome into new 
courses. And just as in Plastic art he scornfully rejects the recognised 
forms and forces upon them a new construction , in like manner as 
Architect he concerns himself little about the accurate adjustment of 
subordinate parts, intent rather upon the effect to be produced by the 
structure as a whole — usually one of ponderous immensity. The 
colonnades in the Palazzo Farnese, the conversion of the Baths of 
Diocletian into the church of 8. Maria degli Angeli — a work subse- 
quently spoiled — and the Porta Pia are among his chief works. His 
chief merit consists in his having reverted to the plans of Bramante 
for the completion of St. Peter's, which since 1546 had been under 
his superintendence. The Cupola at least was carried out according 
to his designs , but the ground-plan, to the injury of the building, 
was much altered, and the Latin substituted for the Greek Cross. 

As long as the 'divine' Michael Angelo lived, Rome was so dazzled 
by the splendour of his renown that no one suspected the Decline 
of Art was at hand. In fact, however, it had already declared itself 
at the death of Raphael. Rome once moTe captured and pillaged; 
orthodoxy reinstated; the church recoiling from the taint of Hu- 
manism : these were incisive events in the history of art, which now 
received a more distinctively ecclesiastical direction. The Foreign 
occupation of Rome expelled a vast number of her artists and laid a 
chasm in the traditions of her art. As she once more recovered herself 
and under the pontificate of SixtusV. (Felice Peretti, 1585-90) was 
to all appearance again invested with her pristine grandeur, the en- 
couragement of art was revived, but in a spirit which presently pervaded 
and brought into subjection every phase of art. To Sixtus V. the 
Eternal City, which 'forthwith doubled itself, owesher present aspect. 
The Acqua Felice, the Spanish Staircase, the Via Sistina, the Piazza 
di S. Giovanni in Laterano , the Obelisk in the Piazza of St. Peter 
the restoration of the Columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius are his 
work. Domenico Fontana of Ticino was foremost in giving effect to 


this Pope's projects. The authors of the degenerated Renaissance 
known as Baroque were really Vignola (1507-73) and Fontana's 
nephew Carlo Maderna (1556-1639). In the Jesuit church of Gesh 
(1568) the former furnished the type of the style which prevailed 
during the following century, especially in the numherless Jesuit 
churches then built. Maderna with Borromini and Carlo Fontana were 
the leaders of that band of Artists who conspired to rob architecture 
of its fitting repose, and by the introduction of figures posed in start- 
ling attitudes, aroused or convulsed by agency unseen, of curves in- 
stead of straight lines, of pillar piled upon pillar, substituted a tur- 
bulent unrest. Not that the style was without striking and artistic 
effect. An undoubted vigour in the disposition of detail, a feeling 
for vastness and pomp , together with an internal decoration which 
spared neither colour nor costly material to secure an effect of dazz- 
ling splendour: such are the distinguishing attributes of the Ba- 
roque style as in Rome it is to be seen on every hand, not only in an 
endless succession of churches (S. Ignazio, S. Andrea della Valle, 
S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, etc.), but in numerous palaces, 
the Barberini being a conspicuous example. The reader will, how- 
ever, scarcely dwell on these works longer than will suffice to give 
him a clear general impression of their character. 

A greater tenacity of life is, however, inherent in the art of 
Painting. An altogether deplorable interval now ensued, during 
which artistic talent was beguiled by Michael Angelo's overwhel- 
ming ascendency into a slavish imitativeness, content with the least 
possible effort to crowd into a given space the greatest possible 
numberof unmeaning figures, not devoid, however, ofacertain super- 
ficial charm sufficient to captivate the eye. After an interval thus 
occupied and identified with this supremacy of the Mannerist 
School (Arpino, Zuccaro), painting once more, at the close of the 
16th century, was galvanised into a new life, destined to be of 
brief duration — Rome becomes a scene of conflict in which painters 
and their partisans are the combatants. — Caravaggio (1569-1609) 
was the chief of the Naturalist School. He was triumphant in the 
possession of popular favour. On the other hand it was objected that 
his drawing was bad, that he failed in the essential of grouping 
the figures in his larger compositions. Nevertheless the mass is pre- 
sented with such startling reality, and animated with gesture so im- 
passioned, that every figure fitly asserts itself, while a corresponding 
force in colour conveys an impression powerfully suggestive of the 
turbulent license then prevailing. — The Eclectics took an opposite 
direction. Trained in a regularly constituted school of art, such as 
had been established at Bologna , initiated moreover in the art of 
Correggio and the Venetians, full of reverence for more remote tra- 
ditions, thoroughly versed in the rules of drawing and composition 
as well as familiar with the fresco painter's art — thus formidably 
equipped, Annibale Caracci, Domenichino, Guido Beni, Guercino 


appeared amongst the rival aspirants to fame in Rome. They sup- 
planted the Naturalists, appropriating as much of the latters' method 
as appeared available, and finally monopolised the favour of the 
court and aristocracy. Nor was the struggle by any means confined 
to the pallette and the brush. Personalities arose, and amongst them- 
selves the partisans of Caracci were seldom at peace. Their contri- 
butions are in part, at any rate, of the highest excellence. Anni- 
bale CaraccVs frescoes in the Palazzo Farnese ; Guido Rent's Aurora 
in the Casino Rospigliosi; the frescoes of Domenichino in S. Luigi 
dei Francesi, S. Andrea della Valle, in Grotta Ferrata near Rome 
are not mere master-pieces of technical skill , but are replete with 
artistic beauty and vitality. 

The Neapolitan sculptor Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) flourishes 
up to the close of the 17th century. His works occupy the concluding 
chapter in the history of Roman Art. It is superfluous to bid the be- 
holder beware of being led captive by art essentially flimsy and mere- 
tricious ; rather perhaps it is necessary, as a set off against the now 
prevailing depreciation of Bernini's works , to plead the important 
historical significance they possess amidst all their too conspicuous 
defects ; to bear in mind that throughout the course of nearly a 
century they were regarded as the most brilliant production of 
that period and were very generally imitated. 

Since the 17th century , Rome has not given birth to nor nur- 
tured any distinctive art life , though the past has held Artists of 
all nations spell-bound, compelling the conviction that Rome is still 
the true High School of Art , whose teaching is indispensable to 
every true Artist. So late as the close of the 18th and the beginning 
of the present century, Rome continued to give proofs of the potency 
of her influence. Without the suggestions which Rome alone could 
furnish , David would never have received that classical impulse 
which he turned to such admirable account in France. In the absence 
of such inspiration as the spectacle of Rome's master-pieces alone can 
afford, Cornelius and. his associates would never have had the courage 
to attempt the revival of fresco painting. Thus is it that Rome reacts 
on the destinies of modern art, though without an art life she can 
call her own. The statue of the Immaculata shows that the Romans 
are ignorant of the meTe mechanism of casting in bronze, while the 
frescoes of Podesti in the Stanza dell' Incendio prove that not only 
painting is a lost art, but Raphael himself is forgotten. Otherwise 
opinion had not been thus pointedly challenged. But if Rome has 
ceased to be the home as well as the birthplace of Art, it is above all 
others the spot where Art at once affords the highest gratification 
and commands the profoundest reverence. 



1. From Leghorn or Pisa to Rome 

by the Maremme. 

2071/2 M. (from Pisa 207 M.). Railway. Express in 8V2 hrs., fares 42 fr 
95, 29 fr. 50, 20 fr. 5 c. (from Pisa 42 fr. 80, 29 fr. 45 c.j : ordinary trains 
in IO1/2 hrs., fares 36 fr. 75, 25 fr. 40, 17 (v. 85 c. (or 36 fr. 65°25fr 35 
17 fr. 80 c). ' 

The Maremme Railway coincides with the ancient Via Amelia con- 
structed by ^Emilius Scaurus, B.C. 109. During the present century the 
Tuscan government caused a road to be constructed here for the benefit of 
the coast-district. Although this is one of the less important routes to 
Rome , the country it traverses is by no means destitute of picturesque 
scenery, and the traveller who desires to explore it may devote several days 
to the journey ; but, owing to the malaria, this is not practicable between 
the end of May and the end of October (comp. p. 2), a period which most 
of the inhabitants spend in the hill-district of Siena. Even in October 
whole villages are still deserted. The railway is occasionally exposed to 
inundations which interrupt the traffic. It runs inland as far as Cecina 
where it approaches the coast, commanding fine views of the sea with its 
promontories and islands. — Views always on the right. 

Steamboat. Another route from Leghorn to Rome is by sea as far 
as Civita Vecchia, and thence by railway. Tnree Italian steamers (So- 
cieta Rubattino), and one French one (Fraissinet & Co.) ply weekly. This 
route is somewhat more expensive than the railway journey. Embar- 
cation at Leghorn in the inner harbour 1 fr., in the outer harbour I1/2 fr. 
The steamers generally weigh anchor towards evening. Arrival at Ci- 
vita Vecchia, and journey thence to Rome, see p. 7. 

Leghorn and Pisa, see vol. i. of this Handbook. — The lines unite 
at the first station Colle Salvetti, which is 10 M. distant from Leu- 
horn and 972 M - from Pisa- To the right we obtain a view of 
Monte Nero, a celebrated place of pious resort, possessing an ancient 
picture of the Virgin brought from the East and especially revered 
by seafaring men. 

13 M. (from Leghorn) Fauglia; 18 M. Orciano; 24 M. Acqua- 
buona, the station for Rosignano , situated on an eminence to the 
right. All these villages are of recent origin and contain nothing of 
interest; they testify, however, to the rapid improvement which has 
taken place during the present century in this once so dreary district. 
The train crosses the Cecina , the ancient Caecina. The family of 

Baedekek. Italy II. 7th Edition. \ 

2 Route 1 . PIOMBINO. From Leghorn 

that name was once settled in this district, as is proved by numerous 
inscriptions at Volterra. 

32M. Cecina (halt of 8 min. ; poor cafe'), a modern place, where 
a branch line to Volterra diverges (see p. 9). 

The line now approaches the coast. The loftily-situated, ancient 
Etruscan Populonia becomes visible to the Tight, on a chain of hills 
projecting into the sea; beyond it the island of Elba (p. 13). 

43 M. Castagneto; then (47 M.) <S. Vincenzo, with a small har- 

54 M. Campiglia; the small town lies to the left on the height, 
with a ruined castle and Etruscan tombs of no great interest. 

From Campiglia to Piombino, 7'/2 M., diligence on the arrival of the 
last train from Leghorn in about 2hrs., returning thence at noon. A forenoon 
suffices for a visit to Populonia. 

Piombino (plain inn), a small town with 4000 inhab., lies at the S. 
extremity of a wooded promontory, bounded on the land side by a flat 
district. A weather-beaten tower on the harbour commands a magnificent 
''View of the sea and the island of Elba (in front of which rise the cliffs 
of Cerboli and Palmajola), of S. Giglio and the coast, and Corsica in the 

Piombino originally belonged to Pisa, in 1399 became a principality of 
the Appiani, in 1603 was acquired by Spain, and then by the family of 
Buoncompagni-Ludovisi, from whom it was wrested by Napoleon in 1805 in 
favour of his brother-in-law, the Corsican Felix Bacciocchi. In 1815 it was 
restored, and till 1859 remained under the Tuscan supremacy. — Steamboat 
to Elba daily, returning the following morning (p. 13). 

About 6 M. from Piombino, at the N. end of the peninsula, lies 
the ancient Populonia, the Etruscan Pupluna. The shorter route through 
the woods should not be attempted without a guide. The town with 
its mediseval castle, situated on a lofty and precipitous eminence, is a 
conspicuous object from all sides. Once a prosperous seaport, it suffered 
greatly from a siege by Sulla; in the time of Strabo it had fallen to decay, 
and is now a poor village. In ancient times the iron of Elba was smelted 
here. The old town-walls may still be distinctly traced, and are partic- 
ularly well preserved on the side next the sea; they consist of huge 
blocks, approaching the polygonal style. The views towards the land and 
the sea are striking and extensive. Several vaults , erroneously said to be- 
long to an amphitheatre, and a reservoir may also be mentioned as relics 
of the Roman period. The Etruscan tombs in the vicinity are hardly 
worthy of a visit. 

The district now begins to exhibit the distinguishing charac- 
teristics of theMaremme: a world of its own, consisting of forest 
and swamp , uncultivated , and in summer poisoned by malaria. 
During the Etruscan period the Maremme were richly cultivated 
and possessed several considerable towns : Populonia , Vetulonia, 
Rusellae, Cosa. On the decline of agriculture in Italy and the 
conversion of the farms into pasture-land , the desolation of the 
coast - district made rapid progress ; for in this flat district, where 
the water easily becomes stagnant , high cultivation is alone ca- 
pable of keeping the poisonous exhalations in check. Even Pliny 
describes this district as unhealthy , and in the middle ages its de- 
solation was still more complete. During the present century, 
under the wise administration of the grand-dukes of Tuscany, much 
was done to counteract the malaria by the drainage and filling up 

to Rome. GROSSETO. 1 . Route. 3 

of swamps and the establishment of new farms; but the evil is still 
very great. Charcoal-burning and in winter cattle-grazing are the 
chief resources of the inhabitants , all of whom withdraw to the 
Tuscan hill-country in May, when the malaria begins. A few only 
of the more densely peopled localities enjoy a tolerably healthy at- 
mosphere. Those of the natives who are compelled to remain suffer 
severely from fever, and their gaunt and emaciated countenances 
afford a sad indication of the curse of the district. 

65 M. Follonica, n«ar the sea, a small but industrial place which 
is deserted in summer, possesses considerable smelting-foundries 
for the iron from Elba. Beautiful view towards the sea ; to the right 
the promontory of Piombino and Elba, to the left the promontory 
of Oastiglione with a lighthouse, and the small, grotesquely shaped 
island of Formica. On an eminence to the left rises Massa Marit- 
tima, one of the largest towns of the Maremme, with about 13,000 
inhabitants. In the vicinity are extensive copper-mines. — The 
train again quits the coast in order to avoid the Promontory of 

74 M. Potassa, station for Oavorrano, situated higher up, to the 
right. Farther on, likewise to the right, on an eminence, lies Co- 
lonna; and in the distance, at the mouth of the river Bruna, the 
small fortified harbour of Castiglione delta Pescaia is visible. Here, 
as in the other seaports of the Maremme, wood and charcoal form 
the principal exports. 

80i/ 2 M. Monte Pescali , junction of a branch-line from Siena 
(see p. 21), which runs parallel to our line as far as Grosseto. 

91 M. Grosaeto (*Aquila), the capital of the Maremme, a pleasant 
town with 5500 inhab. The cure Chelli has a collection of Etruscan 
antiquities. Branch-line to Asciano (and Siena), see p. 18. 

About 3 J /2 M. to the N. E. of Grosseto (carriage road) lie the sulphur- 
eous Bagni di Boselle, whence the ruins of Rusellae are reached in 1/2 hr. 
(guide necessary). Rusellse , anciently one of the twelve capitals of the 
Etruscan confederation, has been deserted since the middle of the 12th cent, 
and is thickly overgrown with underwood. The walls , which are nearly 
2 M. in circumference , and in most places accessible , consist partly of 
horizontal courses, partly of polygonal blocks (6-8 ft. high, 7-12 ft. long). 

Around Grosseto, and to the W. in the direction of Castiglione extends 
a considerable plain, in ancient times a lake (the Lacus Prelius of Cicero), 
which gradually became shallower and productive of malaria {Palude di 
Castiglione and di Grosseto). By means of skilful drainage, and by conducting 
hither the deposits of the neighbouring rivers, the government has succeeded 
in almost entirely filling up the morass and converting it into a valuable 
pasture, 12-15 M. in length. 

A little beyond Grosseto the Ombrone is crossed. The line 
skirts the wooded Promontory of Talamone; towards the S. the 
imposing Monte Argentario (see below) becomes visible. 

At (105 M.) Talamone a beautiful view of the sea is disclosed. 
The village lies at the extremity of the promontory and possesses 
an anchorage sheltered by the island of Giglio and the Monte Ar- 
gentario. The extent of the creek has been much diminished by al- 

•[ * 

4 Route 1. ORBETELLO. From Leghorn 

luvial deposits. Here, in B.C. 225, the Roman legions landed and 
signally defeated the Gauls who were marching against Rome. 

The train crosses the small river Osa, then the more important 
Albegna (ancient Albinia), at the mouth of which are salt-works. 
Stat. Albegna. 

114 M. Orbetello (halt of 1/4 hr. ). On the arrival of the train 
an omnibus (1 fr.) starts for Orbetello (poor inns ; the best is the 
Trattoria del Buon Gusto , or Saccoccione) , 1 l /% M. distant , with 
6400inhab., situated at the extremity of a promontory, not far 
from the foot of Monte Argentario, which rises immediately from the 
sea, and is connected with the mainland by two narrow tongues of 
land, whereby a large salt-water lagoon is formed. Beyond its re- 
markable situation the place contains nothing of interest, except 
the polygonal walls on the side next the sea, which testify to the 
great antiquity of the town, although its ancient name is unknown. 

From Orbetello an embankment has been constructed across the shallow 
lake, which abounds in fish, to M. Argentario. A carriage-road leads to the 
N. harbour Porto S. Stefano (steamboat to Elba, every Thursday at 3 p.m., 
see p. 13), and to Port Ercole on the S. side. The Monte Argentario 
(2087 ft.) culminates in two peaks, on one of which is situated a monastery 
of the Passionists. The ascent is very interesting, and is accomplished 
from Orbetello in 2-3 hrs. (with guide). The "view embraces the coast 
of Tuscany and the surrounding district as far as M. Amiata, and the sea 
with its numerous rocky islands as far as Sardinia. If time is limited, the 
lirst and lower eminence, 3/4 nr - from Orbetello, commanding a picturesque 
view of the coast, should be visited. 

Orbetello is also the most convenient starting-point for an excursion 
to the interesting ruins of the ancient Cosa, the present Ansedonia, -M/z M. 
distant; and also for a visit to the ancient, towns of Saturnia and Sovana, 
30-35 31. inland. Cosa is an ancient Etruscan town, deserted as early as 
the 5th cent. The polygonal walls (1600 yds. in circumference) with 
their towers are admirably preserved. A beautiful prospect of the sea and 
coast is enjoyed hence. 

The train soon enters the former Papal territory, and traverses 
the Roman Maremma ; scenery unattractive. 127 M. Chiarone. It 
then crosses the Fiora and reaches (135 M.) Montalto, a poor village. 

From Montalto the traveller may ascend by the bank of the Fiora to 
the ancient Ponte delta Badia and the site of Vulci , where very successful 
excavations have been made since 1828, and thousands of Etruscan vases 
and other antiquities have been discovered. The ancient Etruscan city 
itself, the circumference of which is ascertained to have been 5 M., has 
entirely disappeared with the exception of its tombs. 

Beyond Montalto the country is more undulating. The line 
crosses the small rivers Arrone and Maria, the outlet of the Lake 
of Bolsena. 

144'/ 2 M. Corneto, situated on a hill (348 ft.) l»/ 2 M. to the 
left of the station (seat in a carriage 1 fr.") , is an antiquated town 
with numerous towers (Albergo Grassi and Alb. Benedetti, both in 
the handsome Gothic *Palace of the Vitellesohi dating from 1437, 
called II Palazzaccio; the first is preferable, but in both bargain- 
ing is necessary). The town sprang up at the beginning of the 
middle ages after the decline of Tarquinii. A. genealogical tree 'al 
fresco' in the Palazzo Comunale, professing to trace the origin of the 

to Rome. CORNETQ. 1 . Route. 5 

place to a remote mythical era, shows an amusing disregard for his- 
tory. The Romanesque churches have nearly all been modernised 
by subsequent restorations. The church of S. Maria in Castello 
alone, situated on the N. buttress of the plateau on which the town 
stands, has been left unaltered; it was begun in 1121 and conse- 
crated in 1208. The lower story of the Museo Municipale , opened 
in 1878, contains a number of sarcophagi, the most interesting of 
which is the so-called 'Sarcofago del Magnate', embellished with 
reliefs (battles of Amazons) and with handsome polychrome figures 
on the lid. In the upper floor are arranged smaller antiquities, 
vases, gold ornaments, weapons, etc. Among these are an antique 
set of false teeth (3rd room), and a fine painted bowl, which bears 
the names of Oltos and Euxitheos as the artists and represents 
the Arrival of Bacchus in Olympus , the types of the deities re- 
calling the character of pre-Phidian art. The keys of the church 
of S. Maria in Castello and of the Museum are kept by Franghni, 
the custodian of the Necropolis of Tarquinii (fee 1 fr.). The town 
commands a fine view of the sea with Monte Argentario and the 
neighbouring islands , and also an interesting survey of the bleak 

On the Turchina, a stony hill opposite, separated from Montarozzi, the 
hill of the tombs, by a ravine, lay Tarquinii, a town with walls about 
5 M. in circumference, anciently one of the twelve Etruscan capitals, and 
remarkable for the influence which it exercised on the development of the 
national religion of Etruria. It participated in the war of the Etruscan 
confederation against Rome , but was compelled to surrender after the 
Samnite war and to receive a Roman colony. The town continued to 
flourish during the empire, but subsequently declined and was devastated 
by the Saracens ; it was , however , inhabited down to 1307 , when its last 
remains were totally destroyed by the inhabitants of Corneto. No ruins 
are now visible save the scanty vestiges of walls and foundations. Of its 
seaport Graviscae a few relics on the right bank of the Marta, l'/2 M. from 
its mouth, still remain. The palazzo of the Countess Braschi-Falgari con- 
tains a small collection of antiquities of Corneto , including beautiful 
Etruscan gold ornaments ; but admission is only granted to persons 
specially introduced. The Qiardino Braschi , outside the town, also con- 
tains a few Etruscan and Roman antiquities. There are also several 
private collections of vases, etc. for sale. The archaeologist Monsigrior 
Semi is very obliging in giving information to visitors. 

Tombs. The principal interest attaching to Corneto is derived from its 
tombs , the 'Necropolis of the Ancient Tarquinii, which spreads over a 
great part of the hill upon which the town itself stands. Frangioni, the 
custodian of the tombs, should be asked for at the inn ; fee for one pers. 
l 1 /^ fr., for two pers. 2 fr., for a party more in proportion. The Necro- 
polis was accidentally discovered in 1823 by Carlo Avvolta, a native of Cor- 
neto, who while digging penetrated into a tomb, and through the aperture 
beheld a warrior extended, accoutred in full armour. The influence of the 
air caused the body to collapse after a few minutes 1 exposure. Even in an- 
cient times the tombs were frequently plundered for the sake of the pre- 
cious trinkets they contained, and modern excavations have despoiled them 
of every movable object which remained. A visit to them is nevertheless 
extremely interesting to those who desire to form an idea of the civili- 
sation , art, and religion of the Etruscans ; and for this purpose the tombs 
of Corneto are well adapted owing to the good preservation of their 
paintings. The decoration of the chambers is in a style that was chiefly 
prevalent in the towns of southern Etruria, and indicates a close relationship 

Route 1. TOSCANELLA. From Leghorn 

to Hellenic art. The Tumuli which externally distinguished the tombs have 
in the lapse of ages been entirely destroyed; the subterranean chambers 
now alone remain, of which the following are the most interesting: — 

Qrolta delta Caccia del Cignale (boar-hunt) , or Grolla Querciola. The 
paintings, copied in the Museo Gregoriano (p. 316), are much faded; they 
represent a banquet with music and dancing, and a boar-hunt. — Opposite to 
this tomb — 

~'Qrolta del Convilo Funebre, or del Triclinio , also containing the re- 
presentation of a banquet. The men here, as in all the others, are sketched 
in outline on the walls in dark red, the women in whitish colours. 

Qrolta del Morto, small ; scene of mourning for the deceased , and of 

Grolla del Tifone, more extensive, supported in the centre by a pillar, 
on which are Typhons, or winged genii of death terminating in serpents. 
The sarcophagi bear Latin as well as Etruscan inscriptions, a proof that 
they belong to a comparatively recent epoch. To the right on the wall are 
souls escorted by genii ; under them is Charon with the hammer. 

Qrolta del Cardinale, the most spacious tomb of Tarquinii , supported 
by four pillars, opened in the last century; colours almost entirely faded. 

About IV2 M. from Corneto is the Grotta delle Bighe, discovered in 1827 
by Baron Stackenberg. A copy of the paintings is preserved in the Vati- 
can. — In the vicinity : Grotta del Mare, small, with sea-horses. — "Grotta 
del Barone, so called from the Hanoverian ambassador by whom it was 
opened, contains warlike games, riders, etc., partly in the archaic style; col- 
ours well preserved. — Grotta Francesca, or Giustiniani, with dancers and 
races, much faded ; copies in the Museo Gregoriano. — Grotta delle Iscri- 
zioni, so called from the numerous Etruscan inscriptions, with warlike trials 
of skill. — Several other tombs have been recently discovered. Thus the 
Grotta delV Oreo: in the anterior chamber, a banquet; in the one beyond 
it a scene from the infernal regions, with Pluto, Proserpine, Geryon, 
Tiresias, Agamemnon, Memnon, and Theseus ; in a niche in this chamber 
is Ulysses blinding Polyphemus. — In the Grotta degli Scudi, banquet 
scenes. — In the Grotta del Cilaredo, men and women dancing. 

Toscanella is now best visited from Corneto , from which it is 16 M. 
distant , by means of the diligence to Viterbo , which runs three times 

Toscanella (669 ft. above the sea; Inn at the Viterbo gate), the an- 
cient Tuscania, a small town with 3900 inhab. whose walls and towers 
impart a mediaeval aspect to the place , contains two fine old Romanesque 
structures: :: 'S. Pieiro, on the height, with crypt and antique columns, and 
on the exterior fine sculptures ; and "S. Maria, smaller but even more inter- 
esting. Both churches are now disused. On the hill of S. Pietro stood the 
ancient citadel. Etruscan tombs in the vicinity. 

Campanari's Garden , situated in the lower part of the town , em- 
bellished with sarcophagi and other relics , and containing an imitation of 
an Etruscan tomb, is an interesting spot. The sarcophagi , with the life- 
size portraits of the deceased , framed in living green , are very impres- 
sive, and the traveller will nowhere acquire a more accurate idea of the 
contents of an Etruscan tomb. Sign. Carlo Campanari, who is obliging 
and well-informed , has with his father conducted many of those extensive 
excavations which have filled the museums of Europe with Etruscan vases, 
goblets, mirrors, and other interesting relics. 

The distance between Toscanella and Viterbo is about 12V2 M. (see 
p. 68). 

The train skirts the foot of the hill of Corneto , which remains 
visible for a longtime. To the right, farther on, we perceive the 
insignificant Porto Clementino, which is entirely abandoned in sum- 
mer on account of the malaria. The horizon is bounded inland by 
the mountains of Tolfa (see below), which yield an abundant supply 
of alum and sulphur. The line then crosses the small river Miynone, 

to Rome. CIVITA VECCHIA. 1. Route. 7 

at the mouth of which is situated the Torre Bertaldo , where , ac- 
cording to a legend, an angel refuted the doubts which St. Augustine 
entertained respecting the Trinity. 

157 M. Civita Vecchia. — Halt of 10 min.; "Railway-Restaurant. 

Omnibus to the town (within a few minutes 1 walk) 25 c. ; one-horse 
carriage •/« f*-i two-horse 1 fr. ; porter for a box 40 c. 

Arrival by Sea. The tariff for landing is V2 fr. for each person ^ for a 
box from the steamboat to the station 1 fr. ; travelling-bag or hat-box 
V2 fr. Custom-house examination at the railway-station , situated outside 
the town. All these charges are the same for embarcation. Carriages to 
the station, see above. 

Hotels: 'Orlandi, to the right at the entrance of the town, a large 
hotel, expensive ; Europa, moderate. 

Civita Vecchia, the seaport of Rome, with 11,330 inhab., the 
ancient Centum Cellae founded by Trajan , and sometimes called 
Portus Trajani, was destroyed by the Saracens in 828, but in 854 
the inhabitants returned into the 'ancient city' . The fortifications, 
built in the 16th and 17th cent., have recently been restored by 
the French. The entrance to the harbour , in front of which rises 
a small fortified island with a lighthouse, is defended by two strong- 
towers. Visitors are permitted to inspect the Bagno , where the 
galley-convicts are at work. The town contains little that is inter- 
esting. The traveller may best spend a leisure hour in walking on 
the quay. 

A good road leads from Civita Vecchia to the volcanic mountains of 
La Tolfa (2041 ft.) and the loftily situated village of that name, in the 
vicinity of which are extensive mines of alum. The scenery is picturesque, 
and the locality interesting to geologists. Some mineral springs, with the 
rains of ancient baths (Aquae Tauri) are situated about 3 M. from Civita 

From Civita VECCHr a to Rome (SO'/oM.; express in 2, ordinary 
trains in 3y 2 hrs. ; fares 12fr. 30, 8 fr. 2~5 c. 5 fr. 95 c. ; or 9 fr. 20, 
6 fr. 45, 4 fr. 60 c). The best views are on the right till Rome is 
approached, when a seat on the left should if possible be secured. 
The line traverses a dreary tract , running parallel with the ancient 
Via Aurelia near the sea-coast as far as Palo. On clear days the 
Alban and Volscian mountains are visible in the distance, and still 
farther off the promontory of Circeii. 

162^2 M. Santa Marinella possesses a mediaeval castle rising 
above a small bay, in the garden of which a date-palm flourishes. 

168 M. Santa Severa, a picturesque baronial castle, formerly the 
property of the Galera , afterwards that of the Orsini family, and 
now belonging to the Santo Spirito Hospital at Rome. Here in an- 
cient times was situated Pyrgos or Pyrgi , the harbour of the once 
powerful Etruscan city Caere , now Cervetri (p. 380), situated on 
a height to the left, 6 M. farther on. 

171!/2 M. Furbara. The solitary towers on the shore were erected 
during the middle ages for protection against the dreaded Turkish 

177 M. Palo, with a chateau and villa of the Odescalchi, occu- 

8 Route 1 . MAGLIANA. 

pies the site of the ancient Alsium, where Pompey and Antoninus 
Pius possessed country-residences. Relics of antiquity now scarce. 

181 M. Palidoro lies on the river of that name, which has its 
source on the heights near the Lago di Bracciano. The line now 
approaches the plantations of (186 M.J Maccarese to the right, sup- 
posed to be the ancient Fregenae, which lay near the mouth of the 
Arrant, a river descending from the Lago di Bracciano. The Lago 
di Ponente or Stagno di Maccarese is now skirted. 

193 M. Ponte Oalera, whence a branch-line diverges to Porto 
and Fiumicino (p. 387). Near (201 M.j Magliana. the Tiber becomes 
visible, and the line follows its course (comp. Map, p. 344). A 
more unbroken view is now obtained of the extensive Campagna di 
Roma ; to the right, in the background, the Alban Mts. (at the base 
of which gleam the white houses of Frascati, p. 360 ; comp. panorama 
p. 330) and to the left the Sabine Mts. ; in the foreground is the grand 
basilica of S. Paolo fuori le Mura (p. 256). To the left is disclosed 
a view of Rome, the Aventine (p. 252), the Capitol (p. 209), and 
Trastevere(jp. 329). The train crosses the Tiber by a new iron bridge 
and slowly approaches the walls of Rome, of which the S. B. side is 
skirted. Above the wall rises Monte Testaccio (p. 253); adjacent 
is the Pyramid of Cestius (p. 253) with the cypresses of the Pro- 
testant cemetery ; in the vicinity, the Porta S. Paolo ; farther distant, 
the Aventine with 8. Sabina (p. 254). The line then traverses gar- 
dens and unites with the railway from Naples. The Porta S. Se- 
hastiano , approached by the Via Appia (p. 349), is visible. After 
crossing the latter, we observe the basilica of S. Giovanni in Late- 
rano (p. 269) with the numerous statues of its facade; then the 
church of S. Croce in Gerusalemme (p. 183), with its lofty Ro- 
manesque tower. The train now passes beneath the aqueduct of 
the Acqua Felice and through the Porta Maggiore (p. 182), which 
is crossed by two ancient water-conduits. The line then intersects 
the city-wall. To the left lies a decagonal ruin , generally called a 
Temple of Minerva Medica (p. 182), two stories in height. A view 
is next obtained of S. Maria Maggiore (p. 177), a handsome edifice 
with two domes and a Romanesque tower. The train enters the 
station at the N.E. extremity of the town , opposite the Thermae 
of Diocletian, and we are now in 

207 y 2 M. Home. — Arrival, see p. 104. 

2. Volterra. 

From Leghorn to Volterra. From Volterra to Siena. 

From Leghorn to Volterra. A visit to Volterra, the antiquities of 
which are interesting, is most conveniently accomplished from Leghorn 
Railway via Cecina to Saline, 501/2 M. , in 2 3 A"3 hrs. ; express to Ceeim 
5 fr. 90, 4 fr. 15, 2 fr. (15 c. ; ordinary trains 5 fr. 60, 3 fr. 85, ■> ft. 65 c ■ 
from Oucina to Le Saline 3 fr. 25, 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 55 c. - Diliuence from 
Saline to Volterra in 2 hrs. (fare l'/- 2 fr.). Those who intend to continue 

VOLTERRA. 2. Route. 9 

their journey southwards by the Maremme line should leave the bulk of 
their luggage at Cecina. 

From Volterra to Siena (about 31 M. to the E.) there is no direct 
conveyance. A diligence runs twice a week only to Colle (generally on Mon. 
and Thurs. at noon), where it corresponds with another running thence 
to the railway-station Poggibonsi, in time for the afternoon train to Siena 
and Orvieto. Comp. p. 15. One-horse carriage to 1'o^ibonsi 14-15 fr., 
with digression to S. Gimignano (p. 15) 16 fr., fee 1 fr. ; the bargain should 
he made beforehand. 

Volterra may also be reached from Pontedera , a station on the Flo- 
rence and Pisa line, by driving up the valley of the Era (5-6 hrs.). 

From Leghorn to (32 M.) Cecina ( Maremme Railway), see pp. 1, 2. 
The branch-line to Saline diverges here and ascends on the right 
bank of the Cecina, traversing a district remarkable for its mineral 
wealth. — 5^2 M. -San Martino ; ICM/2 M. Casino di Terra; 15 M. 
Ponte Qinori; lSy.j M. Saline, the terminus, in a bleak situation, 
where malaria prevails in summer. The extensive salt-works in the 
vicinity supply the whole of Tuscany with salt and yield a con- 
siderable revenue. 

The following excursion-, for which a carriage may be hired at Saline, 
is interesting to geologists. We first drive to Pomarance, a pleasant town, 
famed in the Renaissance period for its earthenware , with a large cha- 
teau of Count Larderello , and in about 3 hrs. reach Larderello on the 
Monte Cerboli, the central point of the boracic acid works belonging to 
the Larderello family, which are politely shown to visitors. The ex- 
cursion may be extended towards the 8., by Bagno a Morbo, CasU'lttuovo, 
Sasso, and Monterotondo , to Massa Marittima (p. 3), a drive of 3 hrs. 
more. Near Sasso and Monterotondo in particular the country is covered 
with clouds of smoke, and the hot surface of the earth with incrustations 
of sulphur, sulphate of iron, etc. Near Monterotondo is the hot Lago Zol- 
foreo, a small lake strongly impregnated with boracic acid, which is ob- 
tained from it by evaporation by M. Duval, a Frenchman, Count Lar- 
derello's works yield about 850 tons, and M. Duval's 250 tons annually, 
and the whole quantity is sent by contract to England, where it is chiefly 
used in the manufacture of glass and pottery. The lagoni, or pools 
through which the soffioni or jets of boracic acid in the form of steam 
bubble up, are all, with the exception of those of Travale, in the region of 
the Cecina and Cornia, and most probably have a common volcanic origin. 

The road from Saline to (5 M.) Volterra ascends. The country 
presents a peculiarly bleak appearance. 

Volterra. — *Albergo Nazionale, E. l'/ 2 -2fr., D. according to bar- 
gain ; TJnione. — Cafi Etrusco, opposite the Nazionale. 

The celebrated Alabaster Works of Volterra afford occupation to nearly 
two-thirds of the population, but the patterns chiefly in vogue are un- 
fortunately in very bad taste. The ordinary kinds of alabaster are found 
in the vicinity, the more valuable in the mines of La Castellina, to the 
S. of Leghorn. The traveller should visit the interesting work-shops, 
where souvenirs may be purchased far more advantageously than at Flo- 
rence or Leghorn. 

Volterra, the ancient Volaterrae , Etruscan Velathri , one of the 
most ancient Etruscan cities, is now an episcopal residence with 
13,000 inhab., loftily situated (1602 ft.), and commanding in clear 
weather charming prospects as far as the heights of Pisa, the Apen- 
nines , and the sea with the islands of Gorgona, Elba, Capraja, 
and Corsica. The environs are dreary and desolate ; the effect of the 
rain on the soft and spongy soil is most prejudicial to agriculture. 

10 Route 2. VOLTERRA. From Leghorn 

Volterra was one of the twelve ancient confederate cities of 
Etruria, and was so strongly fortified that during the civil wars it 
withstood a siege by Sulla's troops for two years. It afterwards 
became a Roman municipium, but gradually fell to decay and was 
totally destroyed in the 10th cent. It was re-erected under the 
Othos, but does not now cover one-third of its ancient area. In 
the middle ages it was a free town , until it became subject to 
Florence in 1361. The last revolt of the inhabitants against the 
Florentines terminated on 17th June, 1472, when the town was 
captured and ruthlessly pillaged. 

Among the Antiquities the ancient Town Walls, once up- 
wards of 4'/2 M. in circumference, and nearly three times as ex- 
tensive as those of Fiesole and Cortona, are especially worthy of 
notice. Their dimensions (40 ft. in height, 13 ft. in thickness) 
and construction of horizontal courses of sandstone blocks (pan- 
china) are best inspected outside the Porta Fiorentina and in 
the garden of the monastery of Santa Chiara. One of the ancient 
gateways, the *Porta dell' Arco, 20 ft. in height, is also still in 
existence. The corbels are adorned with almost obliterated heads of 
lions, or guardian deities of the city. An urn in the museum, 
representing the battle of Thebes, has a similar gate upon it. The 
Porta di Diana (HI Portone') , another gateway, outside the Porta 
Fiorentina, has been much altered. Outside the same gate, below 
the burying-ground , is situated the ancient Necropolis, about mid- 
way on the slope of the hill , at the place which is now called 
8. Marmi. A number of the curiosities in the museum were found 
here, but the tombs have all been reclosed. 

The Piscina, outside the castle, a reservoir resting on six co- 
lumns, is only shown by permission of the bishop, and is reached 
by means of a long ladder. 

The Thermae, near the fountain of S. Felice, are of Roman 
origin. Traces of an Amphitheatre near the Porta Fiorentina. 

The Palazzo dei Priori or Palazzo Pubblico (PI. 19) in the 
Piazza, a handsome edifice, begun in 1208 and completed in 1257, 
is unfortunately somewhat modernised; the exterior is adorned with 
mediaeval coats of arms. The Museo Civico formerly kept here has 
been removed to the Palazzo Tagassi (see p. 11), while its place 
has been supplied by a collection of pictures, of which the follow- 
ing are the most important : *Luca Signorelli, Madonna and saints, 
1491 ; Dom. Ohirlandajo , Christ in glory (ruined by restoration 
in 1874 ), and a Madonna, by the same. 

The *Cathedral (PI. 8) was consecrated in 1120 by Pope Calix- 
tus II., enlarged in 1254 by Niccolb Pisano , and restored in the 
16th cent. The facade dates from the 13th cent. 

The Interior is remarkable for its rich marble decorations and sculp- 
tures. The old Pulpit is adorned with sculptures of the 13th cent., and 
those on the high altar are by Mino da Fiesole. The 'Oratorio di M. Carlo 

to Volterra. VOLTERRA. 2. Route. 11 

in the right transept contains several unimportant pictures and an ad- 
mirable 'Annunciation by Luca Signorelli, 1491. 

Opposite to the cathedral rises the baptistery of S. Giovanni 
(PI. 6), an octagonal church, supposed to date from the 7th cent., 
and occupying the site of an ancient temple of the sun. The en- 
trance-archway and the capitals of the columns, decorated with ani- 
mals and birds, are works of the 13th cent. ; the fine arch of the 
high-altar is by Balsimelli da Settignano (16th cent.), the octagonal 
font by Andrea di Sansovino (1502), and the ciborium by Mino da 
Fiesole (1471). 

8. Lino (PI. 13), a church and monastery, founded in 1480 by 
Rajfaele Maffei, contains the tomb of that scholar with a recumbent 
statue by Silvio da Fiesole. 

S. Francesco (PI. 10), with the Gothic chapel of the Confra- 
lernith della Croce di Qiorno of 1315 , contains frescoes from the 
life of the Saviour and the legend of the Cross by Cienni di Fran- 
cesco di Ser Cienni of Florence, 1410. 

The most interesting object in Volterra is the *Museo Nazio- 
nale, formerly called the Museo Civico , consisting of a valuable 
collection of inscriptions , coins , bronzes , statues, and vases , now 
contained in the Palazzo Tagassi (PI. 20), Via Vittorio Emanuele. 
Tickets of admission (1 fr.) are obtained in the Cartoleria Maris, 
Via Guidi (Sundays free). 

The museum, established in 1731, and greatly enriched by the collections 
of the erudite Mario Guarnacci in 1761, has lately been admirably arranged 
by Cavaliere N. Maffei. Seven rooms on the lower floor and as many on 
the upper are occupied by the collection of Cinerary Urns (upwards of 
400). These are generally about 3 ft. in length, and date from the latest 
period of Etruscan art, i.e. the 3rd or 2nd cent. B.C. The subjects are 
more interesting than the execution, which is for the most part very 
mediocre. A few of them are composed of terracotta and sandstone , but 
most of them are of the alabaster of the environs. On the lid is the greatly 
reduced recumbent effigy of the deceased ; the sides are adorned with 
reliefs , and some of them bear traces of painting and gilding. The re- 
presentations on the urns are partly derived from the peculiar sphere of 
Etruscan life, partly from Greek mythology. From the former , parting 
scenes are the most frequent; the deceased, equipped as a rider, is escorted 
by a messenger who bears a long sack containing provisions for the jour- 
ney or is accompanied by Charon with the hammer. Sacrifices and funeral- 
processions occur frequently, as well as banquets , races, contests of skill, 
etc. Greek mythology has supplied an abundant selection of subjects, e.g. 
Ulysses with the Sirens and with Circe, the abduction of Helen, death of 
Clytemnestra, Orestes and the Furies, the Seven before Thebes, Polynices and 
Eteocles, CEdipus with the Sphynx , (Edipus slaying his father. There is 
a singular blending of luxuriance and melancholy in the subjects as well 
as in the treatment of these works, and the same peculiarity is often ob- 
served in the subsequent development of Etruscan art. — Five other rooms 
contain marble sculptures, vases (mostly of a later style), coins, bronzes, 
utensils, gold ornaments, and fine glass vessels. 

In the third story of the building are the Archives and the Libraru, 
containing 13,000 vols., ivory carvings, diptychs, etc. 

The Citadel consists of two parts , the Cassero or Rocca 
Vecchia , erected on the ancient town- walls in 1343 by Walter 
de Brienne, Duke of Athens, and the Rocca Nuova, built by the 

12 Route 2. VOLTERRA. 

Florentines after the capture of the town. At the same time they 
constructed the prison 11 Mastio for the incarceration of political 
offenders , into which the mathematician Lorenzo Lorenzini was 
thrown as a suspected individual in 1682 by the Grand -Duke 
Cosmo III., and where he was confined for 11 years. The citadel 
has been converted into a house of correction and may be visited 
with permission of the Sotto Prefetto. 

The Palazzo Maffei-Guarnaeci, opposite the church of S. Michele, 
with its three towers, the oldest dating from the 13th cent., contains 
pictures and a valuable collection of letters of Salv. Rosa. 

The Gothic Palazzo Inyhirami contains a small collection of 
pictures, comprising a ^'Portrait of the learned Fedra Inghirami, 
pronounced by Miindler to be an original work by Raphael (a replica 
in the Pitti Gallery at Florence). 

The Casa Ducci bears the Roman epitaph of a boy, five years of 
age, probably a member of the family of the poet Persius, who 
was born at Volaterrae in A.D. 34. 

In the Casa Ricciarelli , Daniele da Volterra , the celebrated 
pupil of Michael Angelo, was born in 1509 (he died at Paris in 
1567). The house still belongs to the family of Ricciarelli, who 
possess the artist's *P}lias. 

In the neighbourhood of Volterra, in the valley towards the E. , is 
situated the Villa highirami , whence the rocky labyrinth named Le 
Bnche de" 1 Saracini may be visited. — About 3 /$ M. to the N.W. of the 
town, between the churches of S. Giusta and La Badia, lies a deep ravine 
called Le Baize, which has been comparatively recently formed by the 
action of water and continues to increase in extent. Several buildings 
have already been undermined and destroyed, and the celebrated abbey 
of San Salvatore of the order of Camaldoli, founded in the 11th cent., is 
now threatened with the same fate. 

A pleasant Excursion may be made to the copper -mines of La Cava 
di Caporciano, near Monte Catini , 10 M. from Volterra. The road leads 
across the hill of La Bachetona to Monte Catini on the summit of the Se- 
lagite, a mountain of volcanic origin. The square tower of the old castle 
commands an extensive prospect. The mines have been worked since the 
15th cent. , and the operations were most successful till within the last 
few years, but since 1870 the yield has fallen off. The present possessor 
is Count Butturlin. The mineral was found in pockets or clusters, be- 
tween serpentine , known here as gabbro verde , and a peculiar species 
of red rock, gabbro rosso. The whole vicinity is extremely interesting for 
geologists. A number of peaks, such as Monte delV Abete, Poggio alia Croce, 
and Monte Massi , consist of gabbro rosso , which has been upheaved at 
a comparatively recent period through the surrounding sand and limestone. 
The view from "Monte Massi (1910 ft.) or from Poggio alia Croce ('/a hr. 
from Monte Catini) extends from the heights near Massa and Carrara to- 
wards the N. to Monte Amiata on the S., and embraces the sea with the 
islands of Elba, Capraja, and Corsica. 

From Volterra. to Siena. The high road leads towards the 
K. through an undulating and attractive district. To the left is 
seen S. Qimignano (p. 15), to which a road diverges to the left after 
7'/.> M. (reaching it after 11 M. more; pedestrians may take a short 
cut, diverging 1 M. farther on, via Ranza and <S. Donate). To the 
right of the high road we observe Pomarance (p. 9). 

ELBA. 3. Route. 13 

15y 2 M. from Volterra lies Colle, where the roads to Siena and 
Poggibonsi diverge. This town, which is frequently mentioned in the 
history of the Renaissance, now consists of two parts, Colle Alto and 
Colle Basso. The first of these contains the palaces of the old, hut 
now greatly impoverished aristocracy ; the Cathedral, dating from the 
13th cent., with a facade modernised in bad taste, a marble pulpit, 
of which the lower part belongs to the 13th cent. , and the upper 
part, with reliefs of saints, to the 16th, and handsome carved choir- 
stalls and episcopal throne of the 17th cent.; and the house of the 
celebrated architect Arnolfo di Cambio. — At Colle Basso there are 
now important iron and glass works. 

From Colle to Poggibonsi 5 M. , see p. 15. To Siena about 
15 M., a drive of 2 hrs. 

Siena, see p. 21. 

3. Elba and the Tuscan Islands. 

A visit to Elba, which is strongly recommended to the scientific traveller 
and the lover of nature, is accomplished either from Leghorn or from 
Piombino. Between both these points and Porlo Ferrajo, the capital of 
the island, communication is kept up by the Societa Jiubattino & Co. Fkom 
Leghorn to Porto Ferrajo every Sunday forenoon in 5V-2 hrs., returning 
on Monday forenoon. — From Piombino to Porto Ferrajo every afternoon 
in 2 hrs., returning every forenoon. — A steamboat of the same company 
also makes a trip once weekly to the small neighbouring islands (Linea 
dell' Arcipelago Toscano). Departure from Leghorn every Wednesday at 
8 a.m.-, from Gorgona at 10.45 a.m., Capraja 2.15 p.m., Porto Ferrajo 
5.30 p.m.; thence on Thursday at 5 a.m., Pianosa at 9.30a.m., Porto S. 
Stefano (harbour of M. Argentario) at 3.30 p. m. ; returning at 4 p. m., Porto 
Ferrajo 10.30 p.m., thence on Friday at 8 a.m., Capraja 11.45 a.m., 
Gorgona 3.15 p.m., and Leghorn 5.30 p.m. 

Half-an-hour after the harbour of Leghorn has been quitted, 
the cliff Meloria comes in sight, where on 6th August, 1283, the 
Pisans were so signally defeated by the Genoese, that they never 
regained their former supremacy. Farther W. is Gorgona, inhabited 
by fishermen, a sterile island, affording pasture to wild goats only. 
Between the latter and Elba lies Capraja ('island of goats', so called 
by the ancients also), with 2000 inhab., where wine is produced. 

Elba, Lat. llva , Greek Mthalia , consisting of an imposing 
mountain-group, is reached from Piombino in l'/ 2 hr. The Torre 
di Oiove, situated on the highest point, serves as a landmark to 
sailors. The vessel rounds the Capo della Vita and enters the 
beautiful bay of Porto Ferrajo, enclosed amphitheatrically by moun- 
tains. The island was celebrated in ancient times for its iron ore; 
in the middle ages it was subject to the Pisans, then to Genoa, to 
Lucca, and to the Appiani of Piombino, and was finally presented 
by the Emp. Charles V. to the Grand-Duke Cosmo I. of Florence, 
who fortified the harbour of Porto Ferrajo in 1548. As the name 
of the town indicates , the export and manufacture of iron form 
the principal occupation of the inhabitants (22,000), others of 
whom are supported by the tunny and sardine fisheries. Elba has 

14 Route 3. ELBA. 

acquired a modern celebrity as the retreat of the dethroned Na- 
poleon, from 5th May, 1814, to 26th Feb., 1815. The small palace 
occupied by the emperor is still shown at Porto Ferrajo , on the 
height above the harbour, between the forts Stella and Falcone, 
which were erected by Cosmo I., and command a view of the bay 
in front, and of the sea in the direction of Piombino at the back. 
It is now the residence of the governatore , and contains remini- 
scences of its former imperial occupant. The cathedral, theatre, 
arsenal, etc. of which the island boasts contain nothing which re- 
quires comment. After the fall of Napoleon in 1815 Elba was re- 
stored to Tuscany , in the fortunes of which it has since then par- 
ticipated. Length of the island about 18 M., breadth 6V2 M., area 
147 sq. M. ; it contains several fertile valleys, but lofty and pre- 
cipitous mountains predominate. Monte Capanne, the highest point, 
near the village of Marciana, is 3304 ft. in height. The coast on 
the side next the mainland is less abrupt, and produces wine and 
fruit of remarkably fine quality, especially in the environs of Ca- 
poliveri, where excellent Aleatico is grown. Most of the villages, 
such as the picturesque stronghold of Porto Longone, founded by 
the Spaniards, are situated on the coast. Rio, where the iron-mines 
are worked, lies more inland. The yield of ore is still abundant, 
and in ancient times formed a source of wealth to the Etruscans. 
The ferriferous strata lie on the surface , and are recognised at 
a distance by the reddish-black appearance of the hills. 

Between Elba and the mainland are the two small islands of 
Palmajola and Cerboli. To the S. lies the island of Pianosa, the 
ancient Planasia, which, as its name indicates, is perfectly flat. To 
this island Agrippa Posthumus , grandson of Augustus, was once 
banished , and to him are referred the considerable Roman remains 
which still exist here. Farther S. rises Monte Cristo, consisting of 
granite-rock, 6 M. in circumference. It contains numerous springs, 
and the ruins of a monastery destroyed by pirates in the 16th cent. 
Nearer the coast is Giglio, Lat. Igilium, a considerable island con- 
taining a village and vestiges of Roman palaces. The highest point 
is 1630 ft. above the sea-level. 

4. From Florence to Siena and Chiusi by Empoli. 

116 M. Railway. To Siena, 581/2 M., in 3-33/, hrs. ; fares 10 fr. 45, 7 fr. 
20, 5 fr. (carriages changed at Empoli). — From Siena to Chicsi, 57'/z M., 
in 3V4-5 hrs. ; fares 9 fr. 70, 6 fr. 65, 4 fr. 63 c. - No quick trains. 

Florence, see vol. i. of this Handbook. — 6 M. 8. Donnino; the 
valley of the Arno expands. 7 M. Signa, with its grey pinnacles 
and towers, is famed lor its straw-plaiting. The line crosses the 
Ombrone , which falls into the Arno, and enters the defile of the 
Oonfolina, which separates the middle from the lower valley of the 
Arno. Crossing the Arno, the train reaches (15'/2 M.) Montelupo. 
Farther on we cross the small river Pesa and arrive at — 

S. GIMIGNANO. 4. Route. 15 

19 M. Empoli, a small town with 6400 inhab., with antiquated 
buildings and narrow streets, situated in a fertile district. Halt of 
10-30min. (no railway buffet); passengers to Siena change carriages. 
The main line pursues a W. direction towards Pisa and Leghorn ; 
see vol. i. of this Handbook. 

The line to Siena traverses the fertile valley of the Elsa, on 
the right bank of the stream. To the right, on the hill, S. Miniato 
dei Tedeschi, picturesquely situated , with a lofty mediaeval tower. 
22y 2 M. Osteria Bianca. 31 M. Castel Fiorentino ; the town, on the 
height to the left, is the principal place in the Vol d'Elsa. 

36 M. Certaldo; the town, on the hill to the left, was the na- 
tive place of the poet Giovanni Boccaccio, who died here, 21st Dec. 
1375, at the age of 62. Down to 1783 his tomb was in the church 
of 8. Michele e Oiacomo (La Canonica); it was erected in 1503 
and adorned with a statue of the poet , who held the 'Decamerone' 
in his hand. The monument was afterwards removed and the bones 
scattered. The house of Boccaccio was restored in 1823 by the 
Countess Carlotta Lenzoni-Medici, and fitted up in the mediaeval 
style. The remains of his monument were also brought hither. 

44 M. Foggibonsi (Aquila, opposite the station, tolerably com- 
fortable); the town (4000 inhab.) lies to the right. On the hill 
above it rise the old castle and the monastery of S. Lucchese. In the 
church of the castle is an altar-piece and in the former Refectory are 
frescoes by Oerino da Pistoja. 

Diligence from Poggibonsi to Colle, corresponding with the diligence 
to Voltekba (twice weekly), see p. 13. Carriage from Poggibonsi to Vol- 
terra about 15 fr., a drive of 3-4 hrs. 

On a hill (1181 ft.) about 6 M. to the W- of Poggibonsi , and 
reached by a hilly road in 2y 2 hrs., lies the ancient town of — 

S. Grimignano [Alb ergo Giusti, Piazza della Collegiata; good 
rooms at the Palazzo Pratellesi; bargain necessary at both), with 
8200 inhab. In the 13th and beginning of the 14th cent, it was 
a prosperous and independent place, but in 1353, after having 
suffered terribly in consequence of the dissensions of the leading 
families of the Salvucci (Ghibellines) and Ardinghelli (Guelphs), it 
became subject to Florence. Its walls, its gate, its towers (whence 
the name 'S. Gimignano delle belle torri') and its streets, all carry 
us back to the middle ages. There is no town in Tuscany which 
presents so faithful a picture of Dante's time, and nowhere can we 
obtain a clearer insight into the rich development of Italian art in 
the 13th-15th cent. Architecture of the Gothic type prevails, and 
most of the houses are of uniform and symmetrical construction. 

In the centre of the town is the Piazza della Collegiata, or 
del Duomo. The principal buildings in this square are : — 

The *Palazzo Pubblico or Comunale, erected in 1288-1323. 

The Sala del Consiglio contains a *Madonna with saints and the 
kneeling donor Podesta Hello dei Tolomei, a fresco by Lippo Memrni of 

16 Route 4. S. GIMIGNANO. From Florence 

Siena, 1317, remarkable only for elaborate execution, restored by Benozzo 
Gozzoli in 1407^ also pictures from suppressed monasteries in the neigh- 
bourhood: 12, 13. Filippino Lippi, Annunciation; 18. Pinturicchio, Madonna 
with two saints. — The Cappella del Pketoke, or delta Carcere (now 
divided by a wall into two parts), contains a ;:: Scene from the legend of 
St. Yvo, and allegorical figures of Truth, Prudence, and Falsehood, fres- 
coes in grisaille by Sodoma. There are also many traces of frescoes in 
other parts of the palace. 

Adjoining the palace is the Torre del Comune (160 ft.), the 
highest of the 13 towers which still exist out of the original number 
of 50. The largest of its three bells dates from 1328. 

The Palazzo del Podesta, on the left side of the piazza, with 
an imposing loggia, is surmounted by a tower on which is indicated 
the height beyond which private individuals were prohibited from 
building. — On the opposite side of the piazza rises the principal 
church — 

*La Collegiata, or La Pieve, of the 11th cent., altered in the 
15th by Oiuliano da Majano, and now entirely modernised. It con- 
tains numerous frescoes of the 14th and 15th cent. 

On the entrance-wall, 'Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, a fresco of colos- 
sal proportions by Benozzo Gozzoli, 1465; Annunciation, two wooden figures 
by Martinus Bartolomwi of Siena. In the N. aisle, scenes from the Old Testa- 
ment (badly preserved) by Bcirtolo di Fredi of Siena, 1356; in the S. aisle, 
Life of Christ by Barna da Siena, 1380. In the nave, above the arch, Para- 
dise and the Inferno, by Taddeo Bartoli, — The visitor should particularly 
notice the decorations in the last side chapel to the right, the "Cappella 
S. Fina, designed by Giuliano da Majano; altar-piece by Benedetto da Ma- 
jano. The two 'Frescoes on the side walls, representing the vision of the 
youthful saint and her burial, by Dom. Ghirlandajo, are among the finest 
works of that master, and combine a fresh and life-like style with ma- 
jestic gravity. — In the choir, centre of the right wall, Coronation of the 
Virgin, an altar-piece by Piero del Pollajuolo of Florence, 1483; to the 
left of this, Madonna and four saints, by Benozzo Gozzoli; on the left wall, 
same subject by Tamani; adjacent, 'Marquetry ('intarsia') choir-stalls of 
1490. — The Oratorio S. Giovanni contains an Annunciation by Dom. 
Ghirlandajo, 1482, a work of no great importance. 

The following churches are also interesting : — 

*S. Agostino, begun in 1280 (chief entrance usually closed). 

This church owes its fame to the "Frescoes in the Choir bv Benozzo. 
Gozzoli (1465), where the master has pourtrayed the life of St. Augustine 
in 17 scenes, from his school-days to his death. Though not of uniform 
excellence, nor in equally good preservation, these pictures alone repay 
a visit to S. Gimignano (the finest are: St. Augustine as teacher of rhe- 
toric in Rome; Death of St. Monica; St. Augustine on the bier). — The 
Cappella S. Goglielmo, to the right of the choir, contains a Nativity of 
the Virgin, by Bartolo di Frnli, in which several touches of real Italian 
life are traceable. — To the left, in the Cappella del S. Sagramento, 
are frescoes by Vincenzo da S. Gimignano. — On the N. side of the 
church, St. Geminianus and three worshippers, a fresco by Seb. Mainardi, 
a pupil of Dom. Ghirlandajo ; farther on , St. Sebastian , the deliverer 
from the plague, the effects of which are symbolised by flashes of lightn- 
ing, by Benozzo Gozzoli, 1464, of less importance than the frescoes in the 
choir. To the right of the principal entrance: 'Altar-piece by Benedetto 
da Majano, 1494; under the organ are frescoes by Seb. Mainardi, repre- 
senting Saints in simple groups. 

S. Jacofo, of the 12th cent., the church of the Knights Templar, 
contains frescoes by a Sienese master of the 14th century. 

to Siena. ASCIANO. 4. Route. 17 

S. Gibolamo : behind the high altar, Madonna and saints by 
Vincenzo da S. Gimignano, with a glory by a later painter. 

The principal saloon of the upper floor of the Palazzo Pratellesi 
contains a Madonna with saints, by Tamani. 

The Library, in the Palazzo delle Scuole, Via S. Matteo, con- 
sists of 6000 vols, and 100 codices. One of its chief treasures is a 
copy of AlciaWs Emblemata (Lyons , 1564), along with which are 
bound up a number of interesting autographs , including letters 
from Luther and Melanchthon. 

A private garden at the Fortezza , the highest part of the old 
fortifications (ascend to the left past La Collegiata) , commands a 
fine view of the town and neighbourhood. 

We may now drive in 3 /i hr. to the venerable church of £. Maria 
Assunta di Callori, or Cellole, situated outside the Porta Matteo, and 
dating from the 11th, or perhaps from the 10th cent., containing remark- 
able capitals and curious ornamentation in the apse. Fine view. 

Beyond Poggibonsi the Railway begins to ascend considerably. 
To the right, Staggia with a mediaeval chateau ; farther on, to the 
right, the ancient and picturesque chateau of Monte Biggioni. The 
train then passes through a long tunnel (3 min.). 

5872 M. «Siena, see p. 21 . 

Siena is a terminal station, loftily situated, from which the train 
backs out. On the journey to Orvieto, the train returns part of the 
way to Empoli, and then diverges at an acute angle towards the 
S.E. We traverse the hills which form the watershed between the 
Ombrone and the valley of the Chiana. Six tunnels ; Asoiano 
(201/2 M.), the first station from Siena, is reached in l'/4 hr. This 
district is one of the bleakest in Italy , the chief features being 
grotesquely shaped hills of sand, and barren fissured mountains, 
interesting to the palaeontologist only. 

81 M. Asciano ; the pleasant little town (7400 inhab.), l!/ 2 M. 
to the right of the railway, possesses fortifications constructed by the 
Sienese in 1351, and several handsome churches with pictures of 
the early Sienese School. — A carriage may be obtained at the inn 
(*Alb. del Sole) for the excursion to Monte Oliveto (p. 36; 6 M., 
a drive of l 3 / 4 hr. there, and iy 2 back; fare 12-15 fr. ; the road, 
leading by Chiusure, is rough and more suitable for walking). 

From Asciano to Gkosseto, 60'/2 M., branch-line in 3-4 hrs.; fares 
10 fr. 45, 7 fr. 15, 4 fr. 95 c. — Two trains daily in each direction, but 
not always corresponding with the trains on the main line. A local train 
also runs to Monte Amiata. 

8 M. S. Giovanni d'Asso (tolerable inn), whence Monte Oliveto may be 
reached in IV2 hr. (see p. 36; a cart with one horse may be obtained for 
the excursion). 

14 M. Torrenieri, on the old road from Siena to Rome. 

— [About 5'/2 M. to the S.W. of Torrenieri (omnibus 2 fr.) lies Mont- 
alcino (Albergo del Oiglio, tolerable, bargaining necessary), a town which 
early in the middle ages belonged to the abbey of S. Antimo, and after- 
wards to Siena. In the Palazzo Municipale is the Cappella delle Carceri, 
which contains a small collection of pictures from suppressed mon- 

Baedekek. Italy II. 7i,h Edition. 2 

18 Routed. S. QUIRICO. From Florence 

asteries, including a Descent from the Cross (1382) and a Coronation of 
the Virgin (1388) by Bartolo di Fredi of Siena. The Cathedral was begun 
in 1818. The dissolved Franciscan Monastery is now a hospital. Over the 
chief entrance of the church belonging to it is a group of the Madonna, 
John the Baptist, SS. Peter and Sebastian, of the school of Delia Robbia 
(1507). A room adjoining the sacristy is adorned with frescoes of the 
latter part of the 15th cent., and the monastery court contains others dating 
from 1438. Fine view from the piazza adjacent to the modern church of 
the Madonna, on the E. side of the town. — From Montalcino we may 
(with a guide) walk in 2 hrs. (or drive in l l /i hr., one-horse carr. 7 fr.) 
to S. Antimo, which was an independent abbey down to the 13th century. 
The handsome church was built of white alabaster and travertine in the 
11th cent., and its rich portal dates from 1292. 

About 4 31. to the S.E. of Torrenieri (omnibus l'/z fr.) lies S. Quirico 
(Albergo del Lcpre, tolerable), which was the residence of an imperial 
governor during the Hohenstaufen regime and was fortified by Siena in 
1472. The handsome 'Collegiate Church in the Lombard style was founded 
in the 8th cent.; highly ornate porch of 1298; interior disfigured in the 
17th cent.; choir-stalls of the 16th cent. The adjacent Misericordia church 
contains a high altar-piece by Sodoma. The Palazzo Chigi , erected in 
1685-87, deserves a visit (keys at the Fattoria Chigi). The Orti Leo- 
nint (keys at the same place), a neglected park of the 16th cent., adjoin- 
ing the town-wall, afford an admirable view. — The hot Baths of Vig- 
noni, 3 II. to the S. of Quirico, were much frequented in ancient times, 
and again during the Renaissance period, but are now neglected. The 
ante-chamber of the bath-house contains an ancient votive stone. Among 
the famous mediaeval visitors were St. Catharine of Siena and Lorenzo il 
Magniflco. — From S. Quirico to Pienza (p. 20) 41/2 M.] — 

22 31. Mottle Amiata , the best starting-point for a visit to the moun- 
tain of that name, the highest in Tuscany. — [By carriage in 3 hrs. to 
Castel del Piano (omnibus 2 l /z fr. ; Alb. Bisturrini , new, well spoken of), 
where a licensed guide may be obtained at the Municipio ; thence on horse- 
back in 3 3 /4 hrs., or on foot in 4'/2 hrs., to the summit of the "Monte Amiata 
(5644 ft.), which affords an admirable survey of the whole country between 
the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Apennines, and the Ciminian Forest. (The rock- 
formation is volcanic and interesting to geologists.) A pleasant return- 
route leads through beautiful wood to Vivo, a suppressed Camaldulensian 
monastery, now the property of Count Cerrini, where a one-horse carriage 
may be hired of the miller. — From Vivo to stat. Monte Amiata 11 M., or 
to Torrenieri 17 M. The latter road leads by Castiglione dWfcia, not far 
from the Baths of Vignoni (see above), and by S. Quirico (see above).] — 

28 31. S. Angela and Cinigiano. The train follows the right bank of 
the Orcia, the E. affluent of the Ombrone, and crosses the latter. 

32'/2 31. Monte Arttico. The train then follows the Ombrone as far as 
Paganico, where it quits the river and begins to thread its way among 
the hills. 42 31. Rocca Slrada, a village (1640 ft.) on the right; then Stic- 
ciano. At (53 II.) Montepescali the line unites with the Maremme Rail- 
way , to the M. of Grosseto (p. 3). 

<S5 M. Rapolano. The village, to the right, possesses baths which 
are frequented in July arid August. The country becomes more 

93 M. Luriynano ; the medieval village lies on the hill to the 
left. The improving cultivation of the soil indicates the proximity 
of the charming valley of the Chiana. To the left in the distance 
the chain of the Apennines is visible. 

96 M. Sinalunga; on the right the village, where Garibaldi was 
captured on his march to Rome, 24th Sept. 1867. 

100 M. Torrita, beyond which Monte Pulciano becomes visible 
to the right. 

to Siena. MONTEPULCIANO. 4. Route. 19 

104 M. Stat. Montepulciano ; the lonely station is 6M. from the 
town (omnibus in li/ 2 hr. , meeting nearly every train ; fare 2 fr.); 
the road passes through several small villages. 

Montepulciano. — Albekgo Bruzzichelli , with trattoria, Via Gari- 
baldi 32, tolerable , R. l-l'/2 fr. , D. according to bargain, 2-3 fr. — The 
Wine of Montepulciano is justly celebrated. The red wine is strong and 
somewhat rough. ' Vino santo* is a sweet white wine (2 fr. per bottle). 
Vermouth is a white wine flavoured with fragrant herbs and wormwood. 

Montepulciano , a picturesque town with 3000 (or with the ad- 
joining suburbs 13,000) inhab. , surrounded by mediaeval walls, lies 
conspicuously on the slope of a mountain (2073 ft.). It was the 
birthplace of the scholar and poet Angelo Ambrogini (1454-94), 
surnamed Politianus after this his native place ('RespublicalPo- 
litiana'), the friend of Lorenzo il Magnifico and preceptor of his chil- 
dren. The beautiful situation as well as the monuments of the place 
repay a visit. The sights may be inspected in 4-5 hrs. 

We follow the main street, generally running from E. to W., 
and ascending from the gate next the railway-station to the plateau 
of the hill on which the town lies. It is first named Via Oaribaldi, 
then Via Cavour, and lastly Via Poliziano. — In the Via Garibaldi, 
No. 32, on the left, is the Palazzo Bruzzichelli (containing the 
above mentioned inn), built by Vignola. Opposite, Nos. 35-37, 
Palazzo Avignonesi, dating from the latter half of the 16th cent. 
Then, also on the right, S. Agostino, of the 17th cent., with curious 
touches of Gothic. — In the Via Cavour, on the left, Chiesa del 
Oesii, a characteristic example of the Jesuit style. On the right the 
*Mercato (market-halls) by Vignola. — In the Via Poliziano, on the 
left, No. 1, is the house in which Angelo Poliziano was born, a brick 
building of the 14th cent., with an inscription. 

We next reach the Piazzktta di S. Maria, with the small 
church of S. Maria of the 13th cent, (handsome portal). It com- 
mands an admirable view of the lakes of Montepulciano, Chiusi, 
and Trasimeno; to the left rises Monte Amiata; farther up we obtain 
a survey of Pienza, S. Quirico, Montalcino, and the valley of the 
Chiana. — A road hence descends to the left in 12 min. to the — 

*Madonna di 8. Biagio , in the valley, designed by Antonio da 
Sangallo and commenced in 1518. The fine marble chapel of the 
high altar, by Giovanozzo and Lisandro Albertini, dates from 1584. 

Returning to the hill, and again following the main street, we 
next reach the Piazza Grande. The interesting fountain in the 
centre dates from 1520. On the left is the — 

Palazzo Municipale , of the 14th cent., resembling the Palazzo 
Pitti at Florence, and containing a few pictures and curiosities. 

Ante-chamber of first floor : Madonna, John the Baptist, and saints, of 
the school of Delia Robbia. — Picture Gallery on the second floor. 
I. Room: Matteu da Siena (?) , Madonna. II. Room: 9. Seb. del Piombo, 
Pope Paul III.; 80. Pacchiarotto, Madonna; *86. Umbrian School (ascribed 
to Raphael) , Portrait of a lady. A collection of dies once used by the 
engraver Cerbano is preserved here. 


20 Route 4. PIENZA. 

On the W. of the piazza is the Cathedral, with a ruinous facade. 

In the Interior, over the principal entrance, is the Assumption and 
Coronation of the Madonna by Taddeo Bartoli. The church was once 
adorned with an imposing monument to Bartolommeo Aragazzi, secretary 
of Pope Martin V., erected by the famous architect Michelozzo Michelozzi, a 
pupil of Donatello. It was taken down, however, during last century, 
when several parts of it were lost and others were placed in different 
parts of the church: thus, to the left of the principal entrance, two 
reliefs; by the two first pillars, two allegorical *statues; by the high al- 
tar, the marble summit, consisting of cherubs with garlands. 

To the right, opposite the Palazzo Municipale, is the Palazzo 
Contucci, by A. da Sangallo, and adjoining it the Palazzo Nobile- 
Tarugi, attributed to the same master. 

We next enter the Via Ricci, where on the right rises the *Pa- 
lazzo Bombagli, a Gothic brick building. — Crossing the Piazzetta 
della Misericordia, with the church of 8. Francesco (Gothic portal) 
and fine view, we now descend the Via del Poggiolo. Immediately 
to the left in this street is the entrance to the Oratorio della Mi- 
sericordia, which contains a Christ in a glory and an Annunciation 
over the high altar of the school of the Della Robbia. 

A visit to Pienza is most conveniently made from Montepulciano : 
about M., one-horse carriage 10, two-horse there and back 20 fr. 

Pienza (Albergo Franci , poor), a small town with about 2000 inhab., 
was originally called Corsignano, but subsequently named the 'town of Pius' 
after Pius II. (./Eneas Sylvius Piccolomini, p. 27), who was born here on 
18th Oct. 1405, and who adorned the town with very handsome buildings, 
chiefly designed by the Florentine Bernardo di Lorenzo, an architect who 
was also much employed at Rome by Nicholas V. und Paul II. As all these 
buildings date from about the same period (14G0) and are situated in the 
same piazza (del Duomo), they afford a more compact survey of early Re- 
naissance architecture than is to be obtained in most Italian towns. The 
chief edifices are the Cathedral, with its studiously simple facade ; to the 
right of it is the Vescovado or episcopal palace; opposite the cathedral 
the Palazzo Pnbblico, with a colonnade; to the right the finest of all, 
the Palazzo Piccolomini , which like the Palazzo Rucellai at Florence 
exhibits the rustica style in combination with pilasters (handsome court 
and colonnade) ; in front of the palace is a charming Fountain of 1462. — 
The right transept of the cathedral contains a Madonna with four saints 
by Matteo da Siena; the choir-stalls, carved in the Gothic style, date from 
1462; in the chapel to the left of the high altar is an Assumption of the 
Virgin by Vecchietta; in the left transept a Madonna and four saints by 
Sano di Pietro. The Cathedral Treasure comprises a perfect museum of early 
Renaissance works (shown by the sagrestano in presence of one of the 
canonici, sacristan 2 fr.): crozier in gilded and embossed silver a Pax- 
vobiscum , a silver censer in the Gothic style, :: mitre of Pius II. de- 
corated with pearls and jewels, reliquary of St. Andrew of Salerno 
crucifix with rich filigree-work, etc. — The Opera del Duomo, to the left 
of the cathedral, contains the ecclesiastical vestments, including those of 
Pius II., one of which is of Flemish, the other of Italian workmanship 

Continuation of Journey. To the right we soon observe the 
Monti di Cetona , which are connected with the Monte Amiata 
(p. 18). To the left stretches the long Lake of Monte Pulciano 
beyond which is the Lake of Chiusi , connected with the other bv 
a canal. The lakes exhale unhealthy malaria in summer. 

109y 2 M. Chianciano-Salcini. — 116 M. Chiusi, see p, 57 


5. Siena. 

.. Hot els. "Grande Albergo di Siena, Via Cavour (PI. a: E, 3; with 
its back to the Lizza , see p. 34), R. 2Vs-5 fr-, D- 5, L. 1/2, A. 1 fr., om- 
nibus at the station; : Aquila Nera e Aemi d'Inghilterra, Via Cavour 
(PI. b; E, 5), R. 2-3, dej. 3, D. 4, A. >/* fr- — Scala, Via Diacceto 10, 
not tar from the Piazza S. Giovanni (PI. D, 4), unpretending, but with 
large rooms (l>/afr.). Tre Mori, Via Garibaldi (PL F, 3), near the station, 
tor moderate requirements, R. IV2 fr. — For a prolonged stay : Pension 
Chiusarelli, Via del Paradiso 22, near S. Domenico; Francesco Tognazzi, 
Via Sallustio Bandini 19; Mme. Marion, Via Ricasoli 37 (pension at each 
b-7 fr. per day). 

Trattorie. Minerva, near the Piazza Tolomei (Via Cavour), poor; Scala, 
see above. — Beer : Bader rf- Bischoff, in the Lizza. — Wine and fine view 
at TalUanVs, Via delle Belle Arti 31. 

Caffe Greco, near the Casino dei Nobili. 

By Day 



two -horse 
1 fr. — 



At Night 


1 fr. - 

2 50 
1 50 

two -horse 

1 fr. 50 
3 — 

2 — 

3 — 

2 50 
2 — 
- 60 

4 — 

3 — 

2 50 


Cab Tariff: one-horse 

In the town, per drive ... — 80 

— first hour 1 fr. 

— each additional hour . . 1 
Beyond the town, as far as 2 M., 

for one hour . . 2 

— each additional hour . . 2 
From the station to the town . 1 

— — one seat — 

Box above 22 lbs. 30 c. 
Vetturino: Celso Vannini, Via Cavour 23; carriage per day 25 fr., half- 
day 8-10 fr. Saddle-horses, per day 7'/2 fr., half-day 5 fr. 

Post-Office, Piazza Piccolomini, next to the Palazzo del Governo, 
open 8-10 a.m. and from 11 a.m. to 7 p.m. — Telegraph Office, in the Pa- 
lazzo Reale, Piazza del Duomo. 

Baths. Swimming-bath near the Fontebranda (p. 33), poorly fitted up ; 
water cold. 

Good Photographs at Cav. Paolo Lombard?*, alia Costarella No. 8, near 
the Caffe Greco. — Carved Wood (comp. p. 23) : Gosi, Guidi, <£ Querci, 
Via Belle Arti 31, near 'S. Domenico ; Carlo Cambi, Via del Capitano 5, 
near the cathedral. 

Siena is recommended for a stay of some duration. To the town and 
its treasures of art the traveller should devote 2>/2-3 days at least. On 
2nd July and 15th August, horse-races, called il Palio, take place, present- 
ing a very picturesque scene (seat on balcony 2-2'/2 fr.). 

Siena, the capital of the province of that name, with 21,880 
inhab. (incl. the suburbs), the seat of a university which was in 
high repute as early as the 14th cent., and the residence of an arch- 
bishop, is picturesquely situated 25 M. due S. of Florence, and 
1330 ft. above the sea, on three connected hills (the clayey soil of 
which is called 'Terra di Siena'). It is now a busy trading and man- 
ufacturing place ; it also possesses several libraries and scientific 
societies, and is one of the pleasantest towns in Tuscany. The cli- 
mate is healthy, the atmosphere in summer being tempered by the 
lolty situation ; the language and manners of the inhabitants are 
pleasing and prepossessing. Most of the streets are narrow and 
crooked, but contain many palaces and handsome churches. Next 
to Rome, Florence, and Venice, Siena is perhaps the most impor- 
tant town in Italy for the study of the art of the 13th-16th centuries. 

Siena, the ancient Sena Julia, or Colonia-' '<« Senensis, is said to have 
been founded by the Senonian Gauls and ed into a Roman colony 

22 Route 5. SIENA. History. 

by Augustus, whence it derives its arms, the female wolf and the twins. 
The only Etruscan antiquities here are a few tombs which were discovered 
in 1864 near the Porta Camollia. The town attained to the height of its 
prosperity in the middle ages. After the death of the Countess Matilda 
(1115) her extensive dominions were dismembered, and the citizens of 
Siena, as well as those of Pisa, Lucca, and Florence, succeeded in estab- 
lishing their independence. The government then fell into the hands 
of the nobility, but was wrested from them by the people in 1133. The 
ensuing conflicts, however, terminated in favour of the nobles, and Siena 
became the leader of the Ghibelline party in Central Italy, while Florence 
was the stronghold of the Guelph faction. Farinata degli TJberti and the 
Ghibellines from Florence were then welcomed in Siena, and on 4th Sept., 
1260, a great victory over the Guelphs, the bloodiest recorded in the an- 
nals of Tuscany, was gained near Monte Aperto, on the Arbia (6 M. distant), 
with the aid of the German troops of King Manfred of Naples. Ten years 
later Charles of Anjou succeeded in gaining possession of Siena and in 
making it a member of the Tuscan-Guelph confederation of towns ; but 
the city kept a jealous watch over its privileges, and, notwithstanding 
several attempts on the part of the nobility to re-assert their influence, its 
constitution remained unchanged. In the 14th and 15th centuries Siena 
numbered nearly 100,000 inhab. , and vied with Florence in wealth and 
love of art. At length the supremacy was usurped by tyrants, such as 
(about 1487) Pandolfo Petrucci, surnamed // Magnifico, whom Macchiavelli 
represents as a pattern of a despot. In 1493, when Charles VIII. of France 
arrived in Italy, Siena concluded an alliance with him, and during the 
troubles of the first half of the 16th cent, the citizens for the most part 
sided with the French, by whom the town was usually garrisoned. On 
22nd April, 1555, the French garrison was compelled by famine to capi- 
tulate to the Spanish besiegers, by whose aid Duke Cosmo I. of Tuscany 
succeeded in gaining permanent mastery of the place. 

History of Art. The bitter political fate which overtook Siena , and 
converted the mighty rival of Florence into a quiet provincial town, will 
strike the antiquarian as a very fortunate circumstance ; for here are still 
preserved many monuments and reminiscences of mediaeval life compara- 
tively unaffected by the vicissitudes and the progress of subsequent ages. 
The conservative character of Siena has not, however, been produced, as 
in the case of Bruges, by the withdrawal of the stream of history; for even 
when at the height of its power, particularly as compared with Florence, 
it manifested a preference for old established rules and a dislike for inno- 
vations. In the province of Art, despite the abundant supply of artists at 
their disposal, the citizens never seem to have taken the initiative, but 
adhered with remarkable tenacity to the earlier style. The best period of 
Sienese art still belongs to the middle ages, when the towns of Italy had 
begun to pride themselves on their practice of art, but before the pedantic 
element had given way to the pure sense of the beautiful. There is no town 
in Italy which presents such instructive examples of the Italian Gothic 
Architecture of the 13th and 14th centuries as Siena, where we find magni- 
ficent stone buildings vying with graceful structures in brick. If the Ca- 
thedral had been built according to the intentions of the citizens, it would 
have been one of the largest and most imposing churches in existence, 
and even in its reduced proportions it is one of the finest in Italy. In 
the secular buildings (of which perhaps the Palazzo Buonsignori is the 
finest example) the pointed style predominates; the windows are gene- 
rally divided by small columns, and the whole edifice is crowned with 
pinnacles. In the 15th cent., when the motive of the castellated mansion 
was clothed with Renaissance forms, Siena was not slow to imitate the 
example of Florence. It is , however , uncertain whether Rosellino and 
Fkancesco di Giorgio have been correctly designated as the architects of 
the Piccolomini, Spannocchi, and Neviicei palaces. The most interesting of 
the Henaissance churches is the small round church degli Innocenti ad- 
joining the Spedale della Scala. ' 

Siena has produced no independent school of Sculpture though a 
liberal patron of foreign masters. As throughout the rest of Tuscany 

History of Art. SIENA. 5. Route 23 

the development of art did not progress rapidly here till the beginning of 
the 13th century. Niccolo Pisano, the most famous sculptor of the 13th 
cent., and his son Giovanni were employed at Siena ; and the sculptures 
on the font of S. Giovanni and on the Fonte Gaja are admirable works 
by Jacopo della Quercia (1374-1438), the earliest representative of the 
Renaissance style. 

Fainting was the favourite art of the early Sienese. As early as the 
13th cent, they could boast of Duccio di Buoninsegna , a painter whose 
works far surpass those of Cimabue in beauty and gracefulness. On his 
completion in 1310 of the 'Majestas 1 , or Triumphant Madonna, for the 
high altar of the cathedral of Siena (now in the chapels on the right and 
left of the choir), the picture was carried to the church in solemn pro- 
cession. An equally important master was Simone Martini (1283-1344), 
who has been immortalised by a sonnet of Petrarch, and who, like his 
contemporary Giotto, practised his art and exercised his influence far 
beyond the limits of his native city. Works by his hand are, or were, 
to be found at Naples , Orvieto , Assisi , and Avignon , as well as in the 
Palazzo Puhblico at Siena. So famous indeed was his name that it was 
usual to attribute to him all the best works of his period. His compo- 
sitions are of a very primitive character, but he certainly possessed great 
skill in his rendering of tender sentiment. Closely akin to these two 
masters was Lippo Memmi, who executed large frescoes with the same 
elaborate care as miniatures in missals, several painters of the 14th 
cent, followed in Simone's footsteps , such as Barna or Berna , Ldca 
Thome, and Lippo Vanni, without however exhibiting much individuality. 
The easy narrative style and the imaginative allegory were cultivated 
by the brothers Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti (both of whom pro- 
bably died of the plague in 1348) , and the approach of the Sienese 
school to that of Giotto was thus accomplished. A little later, however, 
the works of Bartolo di Fredi (1330-1409) fell short of those of his 
predecessors, and this was still more the case with those of Taddeo 
Bartoli (1362-1422?), who was far inferior to his Florentine contem- 
poraries. For a time all artistic progress at Siena seemed to be at an 
end, and throughout the 15th cent, the city did not give birth to a single 
master of note. The painters Domenico di Bartolo , Lorenzo di Pietro 
(nicknamed Vecchietta), Benvenuto and Matteo di Giovanni, and others 
of this period adhered tenaciously to the limited sphere of their prede- 
cessors, from whose influence they were unable to emancipate themselves. 
At the close of the century, owing to contact with neighbouring schools, 
whose representatives were frequently invited to Siena, and to the intro- 
duction of the study of Florentine, Umbrian, and Lombard masters, the 
tide of progress at length began to set in. The most distinguished Sie- 
nese masters of this period, far surpassing their contemporaries Fmigai, 
Petechia, JPacchiarotto , and others, were Baldassare Peuuzzi and Gio- 
vanantonio Bazzi , surnamed 1l Sodoma. Peruzzi (1481-1537), who was 
associated with Raphael at Rome, was endowed with an admirable per- 
ception of beauty of proportion, and was famous both as an architect and 
a decorative painter, but Siena now possesses none of his works. Sodoma 
(1480-1549), on the other hand, may be thoroughly studied at Siena. A 
Lombard by birth, he brought to Siena some traces of Leonardo's style, 
but instead of cultivating this, he seems to have trusted to his own na- 
tural ability, and with such success that in one respect he vies with Ra- 
phael himself. In the delineation of beautiful and youthful figures he is 
unsurpassed, and his technical skill in fresco painting and his fertility 
are marvellous; but, in spite of his strong sense of the beautiful, his 
works are apt to pall upon the taste owing to the superficiality of their 
composition. With Don. Beccafumi (1486-1551), who frequently altered his 
style, begins the final period of decline from which Siena never recovered. 
In the art of Wood Carving Siena has always taken the lead among 
the towns of Italy. In the 15th and 16th cent, the Barili family (particu- 
larly Antonio, d. 1516, and Giovanni, d. 1529) distinguished themselves 
in this branch, and their modern representative is Giiisti , whose pupils 
Gosi, Guidi, and Querci are mentioned on p. 21. 

24 Route 5. SIENA. Palazzo Pubblico. 

In the centre of the town , at the union of the three hills on 
which it stands, is the picturesque *Piazza del Campo, now offi- 
cially called Vittorh (PI. D, 5), which has been men- 
tioned by Dante (Purg. xi. 134). It is semicircular in form, and 
depressed towards the centre, somewhat resembling an ancient 
theatre. The popular assemblies and festivals of the ancient re- 
public took place here, and it is here that the Palio horse-races 
(p. 21) are now held. 

The piazza is enclosed by pinnacled palaces. On the diameter 
of the semicircle rises the — 

*Palazzo Pubblico (PI. 22; D, 5), a huge brick edifice of four 
stories, erected in 1289-1309, with pointed windows divided by 
small columns, and wings lower than the central part of the build- 
ing. (The wings of the second floor are of a later date; comp. 
p. 28). Adjacent rises the slender tower del Mangia, begun in 
1325 , and finished after 1345, so named after the stone figure of 
a man which used to strike the hours (a popular figure somewhat 
resembling the Roman Pasquino, p. 201). At the foot of the tower 
is the Cappella di Piazza, in the form of a loggia, begun after the 
cessation of the great plague of 1348 which carried off 30,000 per- 
sons, and completed in 1376, with damaged frescoes by Sodoma. 
The shewolf on the column in front of the right wing, the arms of 
Siena, dates from 1429. 

The -Interior (custodian '/ 2 -l fr.) is embellished with numerous fres- 
coes of the Sienese school. Among those on the Ground Flook are a 
Coronation of the Virgin, by Sano di Pietro, 1445; a Madonna with SS. 
Ansano and Galgano, by Sodoma; Madonna with saints, by Vecchieila; a 
Risen Christ, by Sodoma, 1535 (?), in the room of the Sindaco. 

On the First Fluor, the custodian first shows the Sala del Gran 
Consiglio (or del Mappamondo , or delle Balestre) , adorned with large 
frescoes : 'Madonna and Child under a canopy borne by saints, by Simone 
Martini, 1315, a somewhat stiff composition with numerous figures, hut 
with beautiful details ; opposite, 'Equestrian portrait of Guidoriceio Fo- 
gliani de Kicci by Simone Martini, and *S. Ansano, ::: S. Vittorio, and S. Ber- 
nardo Tolomei by Sodoma, 1534; then SS. Bernardino and Caterina by 
Sano di Pietro. Adjacent, and only separated from the council-chamber by 
handsome benches carved by Domenico di Niccolo (1429), is the Council 
Chapel, embellished with frescoes of the Death and Assumption of the 
Virgin by Taddeo Bartoli. The altar-piece is a Holy Family by Sodoma ; 
tasteful font by Giov. di Tnrino of Siena. A beautiful iron railing (1436-45) 
separates the chapel from a small Vestibule, which also contains frescoes 
by Taddeo Bartoli (1441), representing St. Christopher, Judas Maccabieus, 
and six figures of Roman gods and statesmen in quaint juxtaposition. — 
Another Room contains portraits of the eight popes and forty-one cardinals 
to whom Siena has given birth, a Madonna by Matteo da Siena, 1484, and 
S. Bernardino preaching in the Campo. by Sano di Pietro, interesting for 
its representation of the piazza at that period. — The adjoining Sala di 
Balia, or de' Priori, is adorned with frescoes from the history of Emp. 
Frederick I. and of Pope Alexander III. by Spinello Aretino (including a 
naval victory of the Venetians and the Emperor and Doge leading the 
Pope's horse). In the centre of the room are two coffers , one carved by 
Barili, the other adorned with paintings said to be by Fra Angelico. On 
the other side is the Sala del Concistoko , with cciling-paintings by 
Beeca/mni, of subjects from ancient history, and a line marble doorway by 
Jacopo delta <luereia. — The Sala dei Novi:, or della Pace, contains fres- 

A Giovanni. SIENA. 5 . Boflfe . 25 

coes by J* V o lorenzetti, painted in 1337-39 , representing 'Good and 
Bad Government three pictures which are indispensable to those who 
desire an insight into the disposition of the proud citizens of Si!™ in 
the middle ages. The allegories and allusions of a more or less ob 
scare character which they contain are at least interesting as being of a 
much more homely kind than those customary in modern times One of 
these mural paintings represents the ideal of a state, under the guidance 
of wisdom, justice, and other virtues, while the two others pouWav in 
a realistic style the consequences of good and bad government The nre 
servation is imperfect but the spectator will not fail to admire the heads 
of Peace, Justice, and Concord in the first of the series. 

At the E. end of the Piazza del Campo is the Palazzo del Go- 
verno (p. 29 ; facade towards the Via Ricasoli). — In the centre of 
the piazza, opposite the Palazzo Pubblico, rises the marble *Fonte 
Gaj", with has-reliefs of scriptural subjects by Jacopo delta Quer- 
ela, U19. (The originals, in a very damaged condition , are now 
preserved in the Opera del Duomo, see p. 28; the copies substitut- 
ed for them are by Tito Sarrocchi.) A subterranean conduit, 18 M 
in length, supplies the fountain with delicious water, the merits 
of which were extolled by Charles V. 

Ascending by steps through one of the passages beyond the 
Fonte Gaja , we reach the beginning of the Via di Citta, which 
presents a busy scene, especially in the evening. 

To the right, the handsome *Loggia of the Casino de' Nobili 
(PI. 2 ; D, 5), once the seat of the commercial tribunal. It was built 
in imitation of the Loggia de'Lanzi of Florence in 1417. The sculp- 
tures are by Sienese masters of the 15th cent., such as Ant Fe- 
derighi (who executed the figures of S. Ansano and S. Savino and 
the stone bench on the right) and Lorenzo di Mariano (to whom is 
due the stone bench on the left). — The N. prolongation of this 
street towards the Porta Camollia is the Via Cavour, see p 34 

Proceeding to the left, past the Gaffe Greco, and'then ascending 
the Via dei Pellegrini , a side-street to the right , we reach the 
small Piazza S. Giovanni. Here, in the corner to the left is 
situated the ■Palazzo del Magnifico (PI. 18; D, 5), which 'was 
erected in lo08 for the tyrant Pandolfo Petrucci , surnamed II 
Magnifico (p. 22), from designs by Oiacomo Cozzarelli. The bronze 
ornaments and rings on the outside are in admirable keeping with 
the style. 

In a straight direction we obtain a fine survey of the choir of 
the loftily situated cathedral, under which is the old baptistery, 
forming a kind of crypt, now the parish-church of *S. Giovanni 
(PI. 5 ; C, D, 4, 5) , with a fine , but unfinished Gothic facade 
(about 1400). ^ 

The marble -Font is an admirable early Renaissance work. It is adorned 
with six ■Bronze-reliefs from the history of John the Baptist by J. delta 
Quercia (Zacharias led out of the Temple, 1430), by Lorenzo Ohiberti 
(Baptism of Christ and John the Baptist conducted to prison 14'>7) bv 
DoncUello (Head of John the Baptist brought before Herod and his guests 
1427) and (the others) by Turiiio di Sano and his son Giovanni di Turino 
1 he latter also executed the figures of Charity, Justice, and Prudence-' 
those of Faith and Hope are by Donatello. — The frescoes by Sienese 

26 Route 5. SIENA. Cathedral. 

painters of the 15th cent, are of inferior value. — Over the high-altar is 
a Baptism of Christ by And. and Raf. Puccinelli of Brescia. 

From the Piazza S. Giovanni we may either continue to follow 
the street to the right, past the Palazzo Arcivescovile (PI. 13; 0,4), 
or we may ascend the steps to the left. By either way we reach the 
Piazza del Duomo. 

The **Cathedral, or Chiesa Metropolitana (PL C, 4, 5), occupy- 
ing the highest ground in the town, is said to stand on the site of a 
temple of Minerva, which was succeeded by a church of S. Maria 
Assunta. The present building was begun early in the 13th cent.; 
the dome was completed in 1264; and about 1317 the choir was 
prolonged to the E. over the church of S. Giovanni (see above). 
Owing to certain structural defects, to which the present irregu- 
larity of the edifice is still perhaps partly due, it was resolved in 
1339 to erect a huge nave, of which the present cathedral was to 
form the transept only. Parts of this building, designed in a 
beautiful style, still exist on the S. side of the cathedral in the 
form of a ruin. After the plague of 1348 this ambitious plan was 
abandoned, and the original structure was then completed. (Length 
97 yds., width 26y 2 yds., length of transept 55 yds.) The ♦Fa- 
cade, constructed in 1270-1380 from a design by Giovanni Pisano, 
showing a combination of the pointed and circular styles, is com- 
posed of red, black, and white marble, and richly decorated with 
sculptures representing prophets and angels by different masters; 
the mosaics were added in 1878 from designs by Mussini and 
Franchi. The campanile , consisting of six stories , does not taper 
towards the top. On each side of the entrance is a column bearing 
the wolf of Siena. 

The "Interior consists of a nave and aisles extending to the choir 
and intersected by a double transept, with an irregular hexagonal dome 
over the centre. The horizontal bands of colour, the continuous rows of 
busts of popes (in terracotta) over the arches, and the pillars with the 
half-columns will at first produce an unfavourable impression on northern 
travellers, but they will find tuat the pleasing ornamentation in marble 
compensates to a great extent for organic defects. 

The stained glass in the large circular window in the wall of the en- 
trance was designed by Perino del Vaga : 1549. Over the entrance is a 
graceful tribune of 1483, borne by two columns. The '"Basins for holy 
water are by Ant. Federighi, a pupil of Jac. della Quercia, 1462-63. 

The "Pavement is quite unique, being covered with 'Graffito' re- 
presentations in marble: scenes from Old Testament history, Moses, Sam- 
son, Judas Maccabseus, Solomon, and Joshua by Duccio; Abraham's sacri- 
fice, Adam and Eve, Jloses on Mt. Sinai, etc., by Beccafumi; the symbols 
of Siena and the towns allied with it, Hermes Trismegistus, Socrates and 
Crates, the Sibyls, and other figures by masters of less note. The exe- 
cution varies. The oldest scenes are simple outlines engraved on the 
white marble and filled with black stucco. Shading was afterwards in- 
troduced by the use of grey and also of coloured marble, so that the 
graffito gradually developed into an elaborate mosaic. Most of these works 
are now replaced by copies, the originals having been removed to the 
Opera del Duomo. 

Left Aisle: "Altar of the Piccolomini with statues of SS. Peter Pius 
(Vregory, and James (V) by Michael Aiigelo, and St. Francis, begun by Torri- 
yiani, and completed by Michael Angelo. Farther on, adjoining the door 

Cathedral. SIENA. 5. Route. 27 

of the Libreria, is the Monument of Bandini, with the Risen Christ and 
angels, attributed to Michael Angela. — The entrance-wall of the Li- 
breria is embellished with fine sculptures in marble, by Marrina. Over 
the door: Coronation of Pius III. (Piccolomini), 1503, who reigned 27 
days only, by Bernardino Pinturicchio, who also painted the frescoes in 
the library (see below). 

The Left Transept contains the Cappella S. Giovanni, at the entrance 
to which are two columns resting on richly ornamented Renaissance bases. 
In the interior are a "statue of John the Baptist by Donalello, 1457; sta- 
tues of SS. Catharine and Ansanus, by Neroccio, 1487; a font, perhaps by 
Jacopo della Querela ; handsome stucco enrichments in the Renaissance style; 
and five small frescoes by Pinturicchio , three being scenes from the life 
of St. John, and two from the life of Alberto Arringhieri, the donor. 

The * Pulpit , octagonal in form and constructed of white marble, 
borne by ten columns, some of which rest on lions, and adorned with 
admirable reliefs from the New Testament, is by JYiccolb Pisano, his son 
Oiovanni, and his pupils Arnolfo and Lapo (1268). The flight of steps 
was designed by Bariolo Negroni, surnamed Riccio (1570). 

The Choir contains richly carved choir-stalls, reading-desk, etc. by 
Riccio (1569), and inlaid work (tarsia) by Fra Giovanni da Verona (1503). 
The bronze 'canopy is by Lorenzo di Pielro , surnamed Vecchietta (1472). 
The frescoes, by Beccafumi (1544) , were entirely renewed and altered at 
the beginning of the present century. — The chapels on the right and 
left of the choir contain the two halves of a 'picture by Duccio di Buonin- 
segna: on the left the Triumphant Madonna with the Child and saints, 
the once highly revered 'Majestas 1 , which was placed over the high altar 
in 1310 (p. 23), with the inscription: Mater Suncta Dei, sis caussa Senis 
reguiei , sis Ducio vita , te quia 2'in.rit ita. On the right is the Life of 
Christ, in 26 sections, originally forming a background to the Majestas. 
In the pavement in front of it is tiie monument of Bishop Peccio (d. 1426), 
a relief in bronze by Donatello. — By the pillars of the dome are two 
flagstaffs from tlie standard-waggon of the Florentines (it caroccio), 
captured at the battle of Montaperto in 1260, or, according to the latest 
authorities, those of the victorious waggon of the Sienese. Over a neigh- 
bouring altar is the crucifix which the Sienese carried with them on that 

In the Right Transept is the Cappella del Voto, belonging to the 
Chigi, built by Alexander VII. (Fabio Chigi of Siena, papal nuncio at the 
Peace of Westphalia in 1648, pope in 1665-67) in 1661, richly adorned with 
lapis lazuli, marble, and gilding, and containing statues of St. Jerome and 
Mary Magdalene (said originally to have been an Andromeda) by Bernini. 

In the left aisle, as already mentioned, is the entrance to the cele- 
brated "'•'Library of the Cathedral (Libreria; fee '/* fi\), formerly the Sala 
Piccolominea, erected by order of Cardinal Francesco Piccolomini, afterwards 
Pope Pius III., in 1495, and adorned in 1505-07 with ten frescoes by Pin- 
turicchio, representing scenes from the life of JEneas Siilvius Piccolomini of 
Pienza (p. 20), afterwards Pope Pius II. (1458-64): (1) Departure of vEneas 
Sylvius for the Council of Basle; (2) jEneas Sylvius in presence of King 
James of Scotland, to whom he had been sent by the Council; (3) His 
coronation as a poet by Emperor Frederick III. at Frankfort in 1445; (4) 
.(Eneas Sylvius doing homage to Pope Eugene IV. in the name of the 
Emperor ; (5) Betrothal of Emperor Frederick III. with Eleonora of Portugal 
at Siena by ./Eneas Sylvius; (6) ./Eneas Sylvius created a cardinal by Pope 
Calixtus III.; (7) JEneas Sylvius elected Pope Pius II.; (8) Pius II. at the 
diet of princes in Mantua; (9) Canonisation of Catharine of Siena; (10) 
Death of Pius II. at Ancona, while preaching a crusade against the Turks. 
Some of these pictures, which are connected by beautiful figures of nude 
or half-nude children , are admirably preserved. Vasari asserts that Ra- 
phael assisted in their execution. It is tolerably certain that Raphael 
was at Siena at the same time as Pinturicchio, and it is not improbable 
that he furnished the older and less imaginative master with designs of 
which the latter availed himself more or less freely. Designs for these 
frescoes attributed to Raphael are now preserved in the Uffizi collection 

28 Route 5. SIENA. Opera del Duomo. 

(that of No. 1), in the Brera at Milan (No. 3), in the Duke of Devon- 
shire's palace at Chatsworth (No. 4), and by Sign. Baldecchi at Perugia 
(No. 5). — The 'Missals, embellished with beautiful miniatures , also de- 
serve attention. 

Opposite the S. side of the cathedral, in the corner where the 
steps ascending from S. Giovanni terminate under the arches of the 
uncompleted nave (p. 26), is the *Opera del Duomo (della Metro- 
politana; PI. 12; C,5), which contains several interesting works of art. 

In the entrance passage is the custodian's bell 0/i fr.). 

The hall on the Ground Floor contains a famous antique "Group of 
the Three Graces, found at Rome in the reign of Pius III. and presented 
by him to the cathedral library, but removed thence in 1857 by desire 
of Pius IX. From this work Raphael made his first studies from the 
antique (drawing at Venice). The superb Renaissance pedestal is also 
interesting. The "Sculptures from the Fonte Gaja (p. 25) by Jacopo della 
Quercia, representing a Madonna, the Virtues, the Creation of Man, and 
the Expulsion from Paradise, which are among the master's finest works, 
are unfortunately much damaged. Sculptures from the Cappella di Piazza 
(p. 24), and others from the facade of the cathedral before its restoration. 
Drawings and copies of the "Graffiti of the Cathedral Pavement, destined 
to replace the originals; also some of the originals themselves (comp. 
p. 2G). Church-banner with a Transfiguration by Sodoma. — On the 
First Flour several interesting plans and architectural designs. Also 
several early Sienese paintings: four Saints by Lorenzelli; a Credo by 
Taddeo Bartoli; predelle by Duccio ; a Nativity of the Virgin by Pielro 
Lorei/zetti , in a lifelike genre style; and a picture of the 15th cent, 
(perhaps by Sano di Pietro), showing the original form of the Palazzo 
Pubblico (p. 24). 

Adjoining the Opera is the Palazzo Reale (PI. 23; C,5), erected 
by Bern. P>uontalenti in the 16th cent., now the seat of the prefecture 
and telegraph office. — Farther on , at the other corner of the Via 
del Oapitano (see below) which diverges here, is the Palazzo Pecci 
(PI. 20; C,5), a Gothic brick building of the 13th cent., restored 
in 1854. 

Opposite the facade of the cathedral are the church and hospital 
of S. Maria della Scala (PI. C, 5), of the 13th cent. Over the high- 
altar of the church is a Risen Christ, a statue in bronze by 
Vecchietta. Adjoining the handsome entrance-hall of the hospital 
is a large sick-room called '11 Pellegrinajo', adorned with frescoes 
from the history of the monastery by Dornenico di Bartolo, 1440-43, 
and other masters. Pleasing view from the windows (fee y 2 f>*-)- — 
Descending to the left at the N. angle of the Piazza del Duomo by 
steps and under several arches, we reach the church Degli Innocenti 
(Y\. 0, 4), externally a very rude edifice , but 'with a charming 
interior in the form of a Greek cross' (Burckhardt). 

The above mentioned Via del Capitako leads to the quarters 
of the town situated on the S. and S.W. hills. It soon crosses the 
small Piazza Postierla, with the Palazzo Chigi, now Piccolomini 
(PI. 16; C, 5), on the right, which contains two saloons adorned 
with frescoes by Bernhard vanOrley, a Fleming who joined Raphael's 
school. The column with the wolf in the piazza dates from 1487. 
— Not far distant, in the Via di Citta which diverges here to the 
left, is the Palazzo Piccolomini, now Nerucci (PI. 19), erected by 

Palazzo del Governo. SIENA. 5. Route. 29 

Bernardo Rosellino in 1463 for Catharine, the sister of Pius II. 
Beyond it is the Palazzo Saracini, the vaulting in the court of which 
is adorned with tasteful paintings. — In the Via di Stalloreggi, 
which diverges from the Piazza Postierla to the right , is the Casa 
Bambagini-Galletti, on the facade of which is a fresco by Sodoma, 
called the 'Madonnadel Corvo'. 

On the left, in the Via S. Pibtro, the continuation of the Via 
del Capitano, is the *Palazzo Buonsignori (PL 15; C, 5), a hand- 
some Gothic edifice of the 14th cent., in brick, with a rich facade, 
restored in 1848. The vestibule, court, and staircase are in a heavy 
rococo style. — At the church of S. Pietro alle Scale (PI. 9 ; 0, 6), 
which contains paintings by Salimbeni and Rutilio Manetti (16th 
cent.), the street bends to the right. — Following the main street 
and passing under an archway , we enter the Piazza S. Agostino 
(PL C, 6), where we observe the R. Collegio Tolomei, formerly a 
monastery and now a much frequented grammar-school, and the 
church of — 

S. Agostino (PL C, 6) was remodelled by Vanvitelli in 1755. 

Over the 2nd altar on the right, a Crucifixion by Pietro Perugino. 
Slaughter of the Innocents by Malteo da Siena, in a chapel on the right. 
Statue of Pius II. by Dnpri. Altar-piece, an -Adoration of the Magi by 
Sodoma. At the hack of the choir, on the left, the Legend of S. Agostino 
Novello in three sections, by Lippo Memmi, probably Ms best work. Also 
pictures by Salimbeni, litttiiio Manetti, and others. 

Following the Via della Cerchia to the W. of this church, and 
inclining a little to the right, we enter the Via Baldassare Peruzzi, 
on the left side of which are the suppressed monastery (now a 
barrack) and the church of — 

S. Maria del Carmine (PL B, 5), a handsome brick edifice, with 
campanile and cloisters, by Baldassare Peruzzi. On the right is the 
Cappella del Sagramento with a Nativity of Mary by Sodoma. 5th 
altar on the left, St. Michael by Beccafumi. 

Opposite is the Palazzo Pollini , formerly Celsi (PL 21; B, 5), 
attributed to Peruzzi. — We may now proceed straight on through 
the Via delle Fosse di S. Ansano (with the R. Istituto Toscano dei 
Sordo-Muti, or Deaf and Dumb Asylum) either to the Piazza del 
Duomo, or, by turning a little to the left towards the end of the 
way, we may reach the Porta Fontebranda (see p. 33). 

Outside the Porta S. Marco (PL A, 5) there is a fine view. 

The E. angle ef the Piazza del Campo is occupied by the *Pa- 
lazzo del Governo (PI. 17; D, E,5), erected for Giacomo Piccolomini 
between 1469 and 1500, probably from a design by Bernardo Rossel- 
lino. This is one of the most imposing private edifices at Siena. 
The principal facade with its tasteful decorations in wrought iron 
(horses' heads, etc.) looks to the Via delle Loggie and the small 
Piazza Piccolomini. Since 1859 the extensive * Archives (director, 
Cav. Banchi), one of the most important collections of the kind in 
Italy, have been deposited here. 

30 Route 5. SIENA. S. Spirito. 

Parchment Chatters, 52,000 in number, the oldest dating from 736. 
Under glass are a number of interesting specimens of these documents, 
Autographs of celebrated men (Pius II., Leo X.), Miniatures, etc. There 
is also a valuable collection of the Covers of the old Treasury Registers 
(Biccheriie), in chronological order, painted with scenes from sacred and 
profane history, and affording an admirable survey of the development of 
Sienese art. They include works by Dietisalvi, Duccio, and the Lorenzetti. 

In the vicinity is the University (see p. 31). 

The elegant *Loggia del Papa (PI. 11; E, 5) , in the Piazza 
Piccolomini, opposite the Pal. del Governo, was erected in 1460 
hy the Sienese Antonio Federighi by order of Pius II., and dedicated 
by the pope 'gentilibus suis'. 

Adjacent is the church of S. Martino (PL 8; E, 5, 6). 

Over the 2nd altar on the right, a Circumcision of Christ by Guido 
Rent. On each side of the 3rd altar are ornamental sculptures in marble 
hy Lorenzo di Mariano, surnamed II Marrina; on the left: Nativity of 
Christ by Beccafumi. The choir contains gilded wooden statues, attributed 
to Jacopo delta Quercia. 

The Via Ricasoli, which begins by the Loggia del Papa, tra- 
verses the crest of the S.E. hill and leads to Porta Pispini and 
Porta Roinana, the two S.E. gates. • — Immediately to the right in 
this street is the Fonte di Pantaneto, dating from 1352, recently 
restored. To the left, a little farther on, the Via di Follonica 
descends to the Fonte di Follonica, constructed in 1239 and situated 
in a garden far below. — After 5 min. more, a few paces beyond 
the church of 8. Giorgio (PL E, 6), the Via de' Pispini diverges to 
the left, in which we first reach the church of — 

S. Spirito (PL E, 6,7), with a dome dating from 1508, and 
portal from 1519, the latter designed hy Baldassare Peruzzi. 

The 1st chapel on the right (Cappella degli Spagnuoli) contains paint- 
ings by Sodoma: in the lunette, St. James on horseback (fresco); on the 
pillars, SS. Antonius Abbas and Sebastian; in the lunette of the altar, 
The Madonna presenting the gown of the Order of the Dominicans to 
St. Alfonso, in the presence of SS. Cecilia and Lucia (the last three oil- 
paintings). To the right is a Nativity of Christ in terracotta by Ambrogio 
delta Jiotibia. — Over the door leading to the sacristy, Christ on the Cross, 
hy di Pittro. — Over the third altar to the left, Coronation of the 
Virgin by Pacchia. — In the Cloisteks (sagrestano 5-6 soldi): Crucifixion 
by a pupil of Fra Bartolommeo , probably designed by the great master 

The Fonte de' Pispini dates from 1534. The neighbouring Porta 
Pispini is adorned with a damaged fresco (Nativity) by Sodoma. 

Opposite S. Spirito we enter the Vicolo del Sasso, follow to 
the right the broad Via S. Girolamo, and passing the column with 
the wolf, reach S. Girolamo (PL D, 7), belonging to a nunnery (3rd 
altar to the left: Madonna with saints by Matteo da Siena, framed 
in marble by Lor. di Mariano). On the left we next come to the 
church of ■ — 

SS. Concezione, or Servi di Maria (PL D, 8), erected in 1471, 
with a beautiful interior (1511-33) attributed to Bald. Peruzzi. 

First altar to the right: Madonna, by Copjw di Marcovaldo , 1261. 
Fourth altar to the right: Slaughter of the Innocents, hy Matteo da Siena 

14(11; above, Adoration of the Shepherds, by Taddeo Barloli. in the 

right transept, above the first door leading to the sacristy: 'La Vergine 

Oratorio di S.Bernardino. SIENA. 5. Route. 31 

del Popolo', by Lippo Memmi, an able work. — At the back of the high 
altar, 'Madonna del Manto 1 , ascribed to Oiovanni di Pietro, 143G. The 
Coronation of the Virgin, by Fungai (15(X3?) , is one of his earlier works. 
The Porta Romana (Pi. D, 8) is adorned with a fresco (Co- 
ronation of the Virgin) begun by Taddeo Bartoli and finished by 
Sano di Pietro. — About '/ 3 M. beyond the gate is the church of 
Madonna degli Angeli, the choir of which contains a Madonna with 
saints, by Raffaele da Firenze, 1502. 

Opposite the N. side of the Palazzo del.Governo (p. 29) the Via 
S. Vigilio leads to the E. to the church of the same name and to 
the University (PI. 28; E, 5). The entrance to the latter is in the 
corner to the right ; in the corridor is the monument of the cele- 
brated jurist Niccolb Aringhieri (d. 1374), with a bas-relief re- 
presenting the professor in the midst of his audience. 

The neighbouring church of S. Maria di Provenzano (PI. 7 ; 
E, 5) dates from 1594. — Traversing several streets to the E. we 
reash the grass-grown Piazza l>i S. Francesco (PI. F, 5), in which 
rise the church of S. Francesco and the Oratorio di S. Bernardino. 

The church of S. Francesco, finished in 1236, contains (in the 
left transept) frescoes by Ambrogio Lorenzetti , representing the 
Crucifixion, St. Francis receiving the gown of his order, Martyrs 
in Asia. The chapel of the Seminary adjoining the church contains 
a *Madonna nourishing the Child, by Lorenzetti (wall facing the 
windows), and a Madonna and saints by Barna (left wall). 

The *Oratorio di S. Bernardino (PI. F, 5 ; fee 1 fr. ) possesses 
admirable pictures, especially by Sodoma. 

Lower Oratorio : Scenes from the life of St. Bernardino, of the latter 
part of the 16th cent. — 'Upper Oratorio : Presentation in the Temple, 
Salutation, Assumption, and Coronation of the Virgin ; SS. Antony, Louis, 
and "Francis, by Sodoma, 1518-32, the single figures being of great beauty. 
Betrothal and Death of the Virgin, by Becca/itmi, 1518. Nativity of the 
Virgin, Annunciation, and St. Bernardino, by Oirolamo del Pacchia, 1185. 
The visitor should particularly observe the admirable enrichments of the 
ceiling, the frieze, etc., which are among the most tasteful of early Re- 
naissance works, executed by Giuliano Turapilli after 1496. Altar-piece 
by Becca/umi, 1537. 

The Via dei Rossi leads straight to the Via Cavour, which 
with its prolongation, the Via Camollia , extends from the Casino 
de' Nobili (p. 25) to the Porta Camollia, a distance of nearly 1 M. 
Approaching from the Casino de' Nobili, we first reach a small 
piazza, named after the Palazzo Tolomei (PI. 26; E, 4), a Gothic 
edifice of 1205, on the left, and also adorned with a wolf. Farther 
on, the Palazzi Palmieri (1540), Bichi (1520), with a tine loggia 
with modern paintings, Oori (1677), and *Spannochi (PI. 25 ; E, 4), 
built in 1470 by a Florentine master, with a bold colonnaded court, 
and recently thoroughly restored. — In the vicinity is the Piazza 
Selimbeni, where a statue of Sallustio Bandini (1677-1766), the 
meritorious drainer of the Sienese Maremme, by Tito Sarocchi, was 
unveiled on 14th Aug. 1880. 

32 Route 5. SIENA. Institute) delle Belle Aril. 

To the left diverges the Via delle Belle Arti, which contains 
the Art Institution and the Library and leads straight to the church 
of S. Domenico. 

The*Instituto delle Belle Arti (PI. 10 ; D, E,4) contains a valu- 
able collection of pictures, principally of the older Sienese school, 
formed at the beginning of the present century of works procured 
from suppressed monasteries and from the Palazzo Pubblico, and 
gradually extended since that period. Adm. 9-3 daily, except on 
Sundays and holidays, when access may be obtained for a gratuity. 

At the entrance, reliefs of little value. The numbering of the pictures 
is as nearly as possible chronological and begins in the corridor to the 
left with the early Sienese school. 1. Corridor : 1-5. Pictures in the 
Byzantine style; 6. Guido da Siena (?), Madonna. The next are by un- 
known masters. 18. Margaritone (FArezzo, St. Francis; 23. Duccio di 
Buoiiinsegna , Madonna with four saints; 39. Simone di Martino (?), Ma- 
donna with four saints; 40, 48-52. by Ambrogio Lorenzetli; below, 45. An- 
nunciation (1344); 50, 51, 55-59. by Pietro Lorenzetti (about 1330) ; 66. Jficcolb 
di Segna (1345), Crucifix; ~90. Lippo Memmi, Madonna. — II. Corridor: 
109. Mine* del Pelliciaiu (1362), Madonna. — III. Corridor: 125-131. by Tad- 
deo Bartoli (1409) ; 134-139. by Giovanni di Paolo (1445)) ; 140. Pietro di Gio- 
vanni^ S. Bernardino; 141-147, 150-152. by Sano di Pietro (1479), the Fra 
Angelico of Siena. 153-156. Neroccio di Bart. Landi, 153. Madonna and saints, 
1476; 166-170. by Malteo da Siena (1470). 

Small Booms in the 2nd corridor to the left. 1st Room: 201. Sano 
di Pietro, Madonna appearing to Calixtus III.; "'205. Sodoma, Christ about 
to be scourged, al fresco, from the cloisters of S. Francesco; 219, 220. 
Luca Signorelli (?), two frescoes (jEneas departing from Troy, and liberation 
of captives), with beautiful frames and handsome pilasters in carved 
wood, executed by Barili, 1511 (from the Palazzo del Magnifico). — 2nd 
Room: 236, 241. Spinello Aretino (1384), Death and Coronation of the 
Virgin. — We next visit the room at the end of the 1st corridor in a 
straight direction: 294. Sano di Pietro, Madonna with saints, a large altar- 
piece; 296. Pacchiarotio, Annunciation and saints. — We now come to 
a small room containing pictures of a later period. In the last room 
antique sculptures. — We then return to the entrance and enter the — 

Gkkat Hall. Immediately to the right and left : -341 , 342. Sodoma, 
Christ on the Mt. of Olives and in hell, two frescoes; 345. Ftmgai, Ma- 
donna and saints; 356. Sodoma, Judith ; 352. Beccafumi, Madonna; 365. 
Francesco di Giorgio, Nativity of Christ; 368. Beccafumi, Fall of the 
angels ; 3G9. Francesco di Giorgio, Coronation of the Virgin ; " : 377. Sodoma, 
Descent from the Cross. — The following Room contains upwards of 100 
pictures of different schools , including : 26. Old copy of Raphael's Ma- 
donna della Perla (at Madrid) ; 36. Caravaggio, Morra-players ; 39. Morone, 
Portrait; 45. Pinturicchio , Holy Family ; -53. Schongauer (?), Portrait; "54. 
German School, Portrait of Charles V.; "63. Beccafumi, St. Catharine of 
Siemi. with the stigmata; 71. Sodoma, Same; 73. German School, Portrait; 
"81. Palma Vecchio, Madonna and Child to whom a saint introduces the 
donor; 85. Sodoma, Nativity; 91, 99. Fra Bartolommeo, St. Catharine and 
St. Mary Magdalene; Wi.' Palma Giurane, Brazen Serpent; 105, 106. Sodoma, 
1'ieta and Madonna. — The next Room contains the seven original car- 
toons of Beccafumi from the history of Moses, executed in marble-graffito 
on the pavement of the cathedral. — Several fine works in carved wood 
by Gosi, Quidi, and Qnerci (p. 24) are generally exhibited here. 

The Biblioteca Comunale (PI. 1; D, 4), containing 40,000 vols, 
and 5000 MSS., is reputed the oldest in Europe. (In the 17th cent. 
Siena possessed sixteen libraries, and in 1G54 even one for women.) 

The chief objects of interest are: the "Greek Gospels, formerly in the 
chapel of the imperial palace at Constantinople, of the 9th cent, magni- 

House of St. Catharine. SIENA. 5. Route. 33 

ficently bound and mounted in silver; '-Treatise on architecture by Fran- 
cesco di Giorgio, with sketches and drawings by the author; "Sketch-books 
of Baldassare Peruzzi and Giuliano da Bangallo. 

Beyond the library, to the left, we descend the Via Costa S. An- 
tonio, and enter the first side-street to the right, which leads 
straight to the upper entrance of the House of St. Catharine (PI. 3; 
D 4) : 'SponsEe Christi Katherine domus'. Visitors knock at the door 
to the left { l li fr.). St. Catharine of Siena, the daughter of a dyer, 
was born in 1347, took the veil at the age of eight, and haying 
become celebrated for visions, she prevailed on Pope Gregory VI. 
to retransfer the papal throne from Avignon to Rome (1377). She 
died in the year 1380, and was canonised in 1461. The best-known 
vision is that of her betrothal with the Infant Christ , a favourite 
theme with painters. Her festival is on 30th April. 

The different rooms in the building have been converted into small 
chapels or Oratories, which belong to the Confraternita di S. Caterina. 
Above the altar in one of the Upper Oratories, once a kitchen, is a 
portrait of the saint, by Fungai; the other pictures are by Salimbem and 
Fr. Vanni; attention should also be paid to the beautiful ceiling, the pi- 
lasters and the "pavement of glazed tiles. — The pretty little court is at 
tributed to Bald. Peruzzi. — The Oratorio del Crocifisso contains the 
wonder-working crucifix , a work by Giunta Pisano (?), from which St. 
Catharine, according to the legend, received the stigmata. — Below is the 
Church, containing the following paintings: Girol. del Pacchia, St. Catha- 
rine healing Matteo di Cenni from the plague; St. Catharine rescuing 
Dominicans from robbers ; The dead body of St. Agnes of Montepuleiano 
stretching out her foot to be kissed by St. Catharine. The fourth picture, 
representing the saint being attacked by Florentine soldiers , is by Sa- 
limbeni, 1604; in the lunette, above the altar, -Angels by Sodoma. 

On leaving the church (the facade of which is remarkable) we 
come to the Via Benincasa (formerly dei Tintori; PI. I), 4), which 
is still inhabited, as in ancient days, by dyers and fullers. Not far 
distant is the celebrated fountain of *Fontebranda (PI. C, D, 4), 
very picturesquely situated at the base of the hill of 8. Domenico, 
mentioned as early as 1081, renovated in 1198, and praised by 
Dante (Inf. 30, 78 : 'Per Fontebranda non darei la vista'). — The 
Via di Fontebranda ascends to the Campo (on the left), and to the 
cathedral (on the right). • — Passing the fountain, and ascending to 
the right, we reach — 

S. Domenico (PI. D, 3, 4), a lofty brick edifice in the Gothic 
style (1220-14(35 ), the massive substructions of which rest on the 
slope of the hill, with a campanile dating from 1340. 

The Interior is destitute of aisles, and has a transept and open roof. 
At the entrance, to the right, is the Cappella delle Volte (closed), con- 
taining a Madonna and saints by Girolamo di Benvetiuto , 1508, and an 
altar-piece, St. Catharine by Andrea Vanni. — Farther on, to the right: 
Monument of the mathematician Gius. Pianigiani (d. 1850), by Becheroni. 
— Third altar: St. Peter the Martyr, by Salimbeni, 1579. — the "Chapel 
of St. Catharine, in which the head of the saint is preserved in a 
silver reliquary enclosed in a shrine dating from 1466 , is adorned with 
admirable frescoes by Sodoma. On the wall near the altar, St. Catharine 
in ecstasy, supported by two sisters (the so-called 'Svenimento', or faint), 
and an angel bringing her the host; on the wall to the left, The prayer 
of the saint saving the soul of a decapitated culprit; to the right. Healing 
of the possessed, by Francesco Vuititi, 1593. The two saints on the right 

Baedeker. Italv II. 7th Edition. 3 

34 Route 5. SIENA. Fonteyiusta. 

and left of the entrance are by the same master; the ceiling was executed 
by Sodoma. — The pavement of the chapel is richly decorated with 
graffito representations on marble. — Last altar to the right: Nativity of 
Christ of the school of Franc, di Giorgio, executed under the influence 
of Luca Signorelli, to whom the work was formerly attributed; the upper 
part is probably by Matteo da Siena, the foreground by Fungai. 

Choir. The beautiful -Marble Ciborium at the high-altar, hitherto 
ascribed by the Sienese to Michael Angelo , is more probably the work 
of Benedetto da Majano. — A beautiful *view of the lofty and imposing 
Cathedral may be obtained from the window at the back of the high 
altar. — The 2nd Chapel to the left of the high altar contains a Ma- 
donna by Guido da Siena , an interesting picture, although the date 1221 
appears to be spurious (1281). To the right: SS. Barbara, Mary Magdalene, 
and Catharine by Matteo da Siena, 1479 ; in the lunette above, a Pieta by 
Girolamo Benvenuto ; the Madonna with saints to the left was executed by 
the same master, 1508; the lunette representing the Adoration of the 
Magi is by Matteo da Siena. — The 2nd Chapel to the right of the high 
altar contains numerous old tombstones with coats of arms, many of 
which belong to Germans who studied at the university in the 15th and 
16th centuries. 

We now return by the Via del Paradiso and the small Piazza 
Giuseppe Pianigiani, in which stands the little church of S. Maria 
delle Nevi (PI. 6 ; E, 4), with a charming Renaissance facade (to- 
wards the Via Cavour), and a good picture by Matteo da Siena (Ma- 
donna with numerous saints, 1477), to the Via Cavour (p. 25), 
which farther on contains the Palazzo Mocenni, Ciaia, and other 

We next come to the small Piazza S. Petronilla (PI. E, F, 3), 
on the right, whence the Via Garibaldi leads to the Porta S. Lorenzo 
and the railway-station. — The streets to the left of Via Cavour 
open into the Lizza (PL E, 2, 3), a small promenade which was laid 
out in 1779 on the site of a former fortress erected by Charles V., 
commanding good views of S. Domenico and the Cathedral. These 
walks extend as far as the entrance to Fort St. Barbera, built by 
Cosmo I. in 1560, open to the public and affording a good survey. 

Farther on, the Via Cavour takes the name of Via di Camollia 
(PI. F, 1, 2). Diverging to the right, we reach the old monastery 
di Campansi, now the poor-house (PI. F, 2; visitors ring); the 
cloisters are adorned with a fresco by Matteo Balducci. Handsome 
rococo church. 

We follow the Via Camollia for some minutes more ; opposite a 
small piazza we turn to the left under an archway, and descending 
the Via Fontegiusta, arrive at the little church of — 

Fontegiusta (PI. F, 2), belonging to a brotherhood (if closed, 
ring the bell to the right), and built by Francesco di Cristofano Fe- 
deli and Giacomo di Giovanni in 1479. The vaulting, borne by 
four marble columns, dates from 1482; the N. Portal from 1489. 
Beautiful *High-altar by Lorenzo di Mariano (1517), one of the 
finest existing sculptures of Raphael's time. The bronze holy-water 
basin, by Giov. delle Bombarde (1480), is of simple but able work- 
manship. The 3rd altar to the right is adorned with a Coronation 
of the Madonna by Fungai; the 2nd to the left with a restored fresco 

Excursions. SIENA. 5. Route. 35 

by B. Peruzzi, the Sibyl announcing to Augustus the Nativity of 

Farther on in the Via Camollia, to the right , No. 48, opposite 
the small church of S. Pietro della Maggione, is the house of Bal- 
dassare Peruzzi (p. 23), indicated by an inscription, a building of 
no architectural merit. 

A pleasant Walk may be taken by a road skirting the town- 
walls to the right, outside the Porta Camollia (PL F. 1), and afford- 
ing pleasant -views of the Tuscan hills. On a height opposite, beyond 
the railway-station, lies the monastery of Osservanza (see below) ; 
in the valley below , outside the Porta Ovile (PL F, 4) , is the pic- 
turesque Fonte Ovile. In about y 2 hr. we reach the Porta Pispini 
(PL F, 8 ; p. 30). — About 1/2 M. beyond the Porta Camollia, on 
the road to Colle, stands the *Palazzo dei Turchi, generally known 
as the Pal. dei Diavoli, a fine brick building of the close of the 
15th century. 

The Campo Santo is adorned with sculptures by Dupre, Sa- 
roechi, and others. Sarocchi was also the sculptor of the figure of 
Italia, erected in the Piazza dell' Indipendenza in 1879, to the 
memory of the Sienese who fell while fighting for the independence 
of their country. 

Excursions (most of them best made by carriage). — About 2>/2 M. 
to the N.E. of Siena, beyond the railway-station, is situated the suppres- 
sed Franciscan monastery of L'Osservanza, erected in 1423. The N. aisle 
of the church contains a "Coronation of the Virgin, a relief of the school 
of Della Robbia; at the back of the high altar, two 4 statues, Mary and 
the Archangel Gabriel, of the same school. Pandolfo Petrucci is interred 
in this church (d. 1512; p. 22). 

S. Colomba, Celsa, and Harmoraja are most conveniently visited on 
horseback; there and back, with stay, in 5>/2hrs.; horse 5 fr. ; one-horse 
carriage (carozzino) 6 fr. For larger carriages the road is only good as 
far as S. Colomba. 

Leaving the Porta Camollia, we follow the high road for 2'/2 M. and 
then diverge to the left by the road passing between two cypresses and 
descending into the valley. This road leads us to the villa S. Colomba 
(4'/2 M.), designed by Bald. Peruzzi, now the property of the Collegio To- 
lomei (p. 29), with handsome staircase, and fine view from the balcony. — 
After descending from S. Colomba we continue to follow the road by 
which we arrived, which leads through beautiful woods to Celsa (3 3 /4 M. 
from Colomba), a castellated villa, also designed by Bald. Peruzzi, where 
Mino Celsi, a defender of the doctrines of Luther, lived at the begin- 
ning of the 16th cent. View from the highest story (refreshments sold 
by the fattore of the villa). — About 2'/4 M. beyond Celsa is Marmoraja, 
where on 7th Sept. 1187 peace was concluded between the Republic of 
Siena and Bishop Hugo of Volterra. The piazza in front of the parish 
church affords a fine view in the direction of Volterra, Colle d Elsa, 
S. Gimignano etc. 

The Certosa di Pontignano, 5 M. from the Porta Ovile, was founded 
in 1343, fortified in 1383, and suppressed in 1810. The church was mo- 
dernised in the 17th cent. "View from the Parocchia. 

S. Ansano in Dofana, 9 M. from Porta Pispini, is reached by a good 
road diverging from the high road to the left about l'A M. beyond the 
Taverna d'Arbia, near the bridge over the Arbia. The parish church 
contains a Madonna by Bald. Peruzzi. Visitors should apply at the par- 
sonage for a guide with the keys of the (8 min.) Marlirio di S. Ansano, 


36 Route 5. BELCARO. Excursions 

a handsome brick edifice by Bald. Peruzzi, containing a Madonna and 
saints by Pietro Lorenzetti, 1329. 

The Abbazia di S. Eugenio, V/t M. to the S. of the Porta S. Marco, 
commonly known as II Monastero , is an ancient Benedictine monastery 
said to have been founded by Warnfried, a Lombard, in 750, fortified in 
1553 bv Pietro Strozzi, and secularised in the last century. The buildings 
are thoroughly modernised. The church contains several early Sienese 
pictures, some of which have been ruined by restoration. "View from the 

The high road next leads to the Osteria delta Volte, about 5 M. beyond 
the Porta S. Marco, whence a road diverges to the right to (4 M.) Cetinale, 
a villa erected by Flavio Chigi, a nephew of Pope Alexander VII., from 
designs by Carlo Fontana in 1680. With the villa is connected the 
'Thebais' park, profusely embellished with sculptures and chapels in the 
taste of the period. Fine view from the hill ('Romitorio') above the villa. 

About l>/2 M. beyond the Osteria della Volte lies the venerable 
church of £. Giovanni di Ponte alio Spino, dating from the beginning of 
the 11th cent. About 3 M. further is Bosia, the church of which con- 
tains a holy-water basin of 1332. We may then proceed to (2 M.) Torri 
or S. Mustiola a Torri in Val-di-Merse, an old monastery belonging to the 
Vallombrosians , possessing a church , consecrated in 1189 , and a fine 
Romanesque monastery court, now used as farm-buildings. 

About U M. to the S. of Rosia (along the road to Massa Marittima, 
and then to the left) lie the ruins of the Cistercian monastery of S. Oal- 
gano, founded in 1201 by Ildebrando Pannocchieschi, Bishop of Volterra. 
The abbey-church, a building of travertine and brick, erected in 1240-68, 
is imposing even in its ruins. The only relics of the original archi- 
tecture in the secular buildings , now used as a farm , consist of a few 
windows. The monks were distributed among other monasteries in 1652, 
and in 1781 the church, which had been injured by lightning, was closed. 

The Chateau of "Belcaro , to the W. of Porta Fontebranda , reached 
by carriage in Vfa hr., commands a splendid view of Siena and its envi- 
rons. On the ground-floor is a ceiling-painting by Bald. Peruzzi: Judg- 
ment of Paris. The frescoes in the chapel, by the same master, have 
been sadly injured by recent restorations. 

From Siena to Monte Oh veto, 19 M. to the S., a drive of 3'/2 brs. 
(carriage there and back 25 fr. and a fee of 5 fr.). It may also be reached 
from the stations nearer to it , such as Asciano (p. 17 ; one-horse car- 
riage 12 fr.) and S. Giovanni d'Asso (p. 17; short-cut for pedestrians, 
l>/2 hr.), perhaps as a digression from the journey to Orvieto. 

We quit Siena by the Porta Romana and follow the high road, which 
before the construction of the railway was one of the great commercial 
routes to Rome, and affords a succession of charming views. On the left 
(3M.) is the Borgo Malamerenda, said to derive its name from the story, 
that eighteen members and partisans of the Tolomei family were assas- 
sinated at a banquet (merenda) here in 1331 by their enemies the Salimbeni. 
We then pass Jsola and Tressa on the left, cross the Arbia and the Om- 
brone, and reach Buonconvento, a small town with 3400 inhab., where the 
Emperor Henry VII. died in 1313. It was fortified by the Sienese in 
1366; the churches contain early Sienese pictures. — Beyond Buoncon- 
vento we leave the high road by a road diverging to the left, which 
leads across chalk hills in numerous windings (pedestrians may effect a 
saving of fully IV2 M. by taking the short-cuts) to the famous, but now 
suppressed Benedictine monastery of — 

'Monte Oliveto Maggiore (a tolerable dinner may be obtained from 
the four monks who are left in the building as custodians ■ for a leng- 
thened stay 4 fr. per day), founded in 1320 by Bernardo Tolomei after- 
wards greatly enriched by donations, and still affording an excellent idea 
<>f a great establishment of the kind. The monks must have been won- 
derfully energetic to have been able to transform the sterile chalk-soil 
here into a smiling oasis. jKneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pius II.) gives 
an interesting description of the monastery in his annals. 

from Siena. MONTE OLIVETO. 5. Route. 37 

The walls of the Monastery Court are adorned with celebrated 
'Frescoes by Luca Signorelli (1497) and Ant. Bazzi, called Sodoma (1505), 
representing scenes from the legend of St. Benedict. The order of the 
pictures does not correspond with the date of their execution. The series 
begins with the first picture on the wall opposite the entrance (adjoining 
the entrance to the church), representing St. Benedict's departure from 
home, by Sodoma. The earliest part of the series are the frescoes on the 
entrance-wall, executed by Signorelli, eight in number: Totila kneeling 
to the saint ; Soldier in disguise, attempting to deceive the saint ; Temp- 
tation of the fasting monk ; Punishment of two monks addicted to dainties ; 
Resuscitation of a dead man whom Satan has thrown from a wall; Con- 
juration of Satan ; Fall of the idol; Fall of a house. — The 'Sending forth 
of Missionaries', on the left of the corner to the right, is by Eiccio, 
but all the other pictures are by Sodoma, whose sense of beauty is every- 
where apparent, though he is doubtlessly far inferior to Signorelli in 
depth and excellence of conception and execution. In the first pictures 
by Sodoma we can trace a resemblance to the frescoes of Pinturicchio 
in the Cathedral library at Siena, and, in the others, features that recall 
Leonardo da Vinci. — The Church (entrance to the left of the monastery 
court) which was modernised in the last century, contains little to detain 
us, beyond the handsome choir stalls and reading-desk, in inlaid 
work, by Fra Giov. da Verona (1502-5). — In the Libreria are a door and a 
cabinet, also beautifully inlaid by the same master. — The visitor should 
also notice the extensive stables at the back of the monastery, the dif- 
ferent sections of which bear the names and arms of the chief towns 
of Italy , in order that guests might know on arriving where to put up 
their horses. 

About l>/2 M. to the E. of Monte Oliveto lies Chiusure, commanding 
beautiful views. It was a populous and prosperous place down to 1348, 
when the plague swept away nearly all the inhabitants, but is now of no 
importance. — Hence to S. Giovanni d'Asso, 2'/2 M., see p. 17. 

6. From Florence by Arezzo and Terontola (Chiusi, 
Rome) to Perugia. 

103 M. Railway. Express in 41/2 hrs. , fares 18 fr. 80, 13 fr. 20 c. ; 
ordinary trains in 6»A hrs., fares 17 fr. 85, 12 fr. 20, 8 fr. 45 c. — To 
Arezzo, 54'/ 2 M., in 2'/4-4 hrs., fares 10 fr. 10, 7 fr. 5 c, or 9 fr. 60, G fr. 
55, 4 fr. 55 c. ; thence to Cortona, 17'/3 M., in 52 min.; fares 3 fr. 15, 
2 fr. 25 c, or 3 fr., 2 fr. 5, 1 fr. 40 c. — Those who wish to see Arezzo 
and Cortona and arrive at Perugia in one day, had better leave Florence 
in the afternoon or evening and sleep at Arezzo. 

The Express to Rome quits the Perugia line at Terontola and runs 
via, Chiusi, Orvieto, and Orte (R. 7). Passengers for Perugia generally 
change carriages at Terontola. 

Florence, see vol. i. of this Handbook. The train describes a 
curve round the town and runs along the N. bank of the Arno. By 
degrees the valley contracts ; Fiesole on the height to the left long 
remains visible. 7 l /-2 M. Compiobbi. To the left rises the mountain- 
chain of the Pratomagno. 10 M. Sieci. 127a M. Pontassieve, at the 
influx of the Sieve into the Arno ; to the left a beautiful glimpse of 
the valley of the Sieve. The train passes through a short tunnel, 
and then crosses to the left bank of the Arno. 1772 M. Rignano ; 
the train passes through another tunnel and reaches (22 M.J Incisa, 
with a couspicuous castle. The river forces its way here through the 
limestone rock, whence the name of the village. 25 M. Figline. In 
a palaeontological point of view the valley of the Arno near Figline, 

38 Route 6. AREZZO. From Florence 

and farther on, near Montevarchi and Arezzo, is very interesting 
owing to the great number of fossil bones of the elephant, rhino- 
ceros, mastodon, hippopotamus, hyaena, tiger, bear, etc. , which have 
been found here. This basin seems to have been filled with a fresh- 
water lake at some remote period. 

30 M. S. Giovanni, a small town to the left, the birthplace of 
the celebrated painter Masaccio (in 1401) and of Giovanni da S. Gio- 
vanni (1590-1636). The Cathedral contains pictures by the latter: 
Beheading of John the Baptist, Annunciation, etc. The sacristy of 
the church of 8. Maria delle Grazie, on the old town-wall , con- 
tains a Madonna, formerly attributed to Masaccio, and a few other 
old paintings. 

34 M. Montevarchi (Loeanda d'ltalia , in the main street), a 
small town with 9600 inhab. The loggia of the principal church in 
the piazza is embell ished with a richly sculptured relief by Delia 
Robbia ; opposite is the house of Benedetto Varchi (d. 1555), the 
Florentine historian and independent favourite of Cosmo. The Ac- 
cademia di Yal d'Arnese contains a valuable collection of fossil 
bones (see above). 

Views as far as Arezzo on the left. The train ascends, passing 
through four tunnels, to (39 M.) Buclne, a village close to the line 
on a hill to the right. Four more tunnels. 42 M. Laterina ; 45 M. 
Ponticino. The train now gradually ascends to the plain of Arezzo, 
which is visible to the left in the distance. 54^2 M. Arezzo. 

Arezzo. — 'Inghiltekra, "Vittoeia, opposite each other in the Via 
Cavour; Globo, in the Corso; Cannon d'Oko, unpretending, near the station. 
— Caffe dei Constanii, Via Cavour. 

Arezzo (780 ft.), the ancient Arretium, the seat of a bishop and 
a prefect, is a clean and pleasant town with 11,150 (or, including 
the neighbouring villages, 38,900) inhab., in a beautiful and fertile 
district, abounding in historical reminiscences. 

Arretium was one of the most powerful of the twelve confederate cities of 
Etruria, and (like Cortona and Perusia) concluded peace with the Romans 
in the great war of B.C. 310, after which it continued to be an ally of 
Home. In 187 the Consul C. Flaminius constructed the Via Flaminia from 
Arretium to Bononia (Bologna), of which traces are still distinguishable. In 
the civil war Arretium was destroyed by Sulla, but was subsequently colo- 
nised (Colonic/, Fidens Julia Arretium), and again prospered. Its manufactures 
were red earthenware vases, of superior quality, and weapons. — In the 
middle ages the town suffered greatly from the Goths and the Lombards, 
and at a later date from the party-struggles of the Guelphs and Ghibellines, 
in which it generally took the part of the latter against the Guelphs of 
Florence. In the 14th cent, it was for a time subject to the rule of the 
Tarlati, and in 1337 temporarily, and in the 16th cent, under Cosmo I. 
finally to that of Florence. 

Arezzo was the birthplace of many distinguished men, of whom may 
be mentioned: C. Ciltiius Maecenas (d. 9 A.D.), the friend of Augustus 
and patron of Virgil and Horace; the Benedictine monk Ouido Aretino 
(10O0-1O50), tbe inventor of our present system of musical notation- 
Francesco Pelriirai , the greatest lyric poet of Italy, born of Florentine 
parents in 1304 (d. 1374) ; I'idro Aretino, the satirist (1492-I057j ; several 
members of the noble family of the Accolti , jurists and historians in tile 

to Perugia. 


6. Route. 39 

15-17th cent.; A. Cesalpini, the botanist and physician (1519-1G03); Franc. 
Redi, the physician and humourist (d. 1698). — Arezzo has also produced 
several artists : Margaritone (about 1236) , a painter and sculptor of no 
great importance ; Spinello Aretino (1318-1410) , an able pupil of Giotto, 
whose style he steadily followed and rendered popular (his best works 
are in S. Miniato near Florence, in the Campo Santo at Pisa, and in the 
Palazzo Comunale in Siena); at a later period Giorgio Vasari (1512-74), 
the painter, architect, and biographer of artists. The town, however, 

never possessed a school of its own. Its requirements in the province 
of art, which were at their height in the 13-14th cent., were fulfilled by 
Florentine and Sienese masters , and Giotto, Lippo Memmi, Lorenzetti, 
and others were employed here. 

Leaving the station, we follow the new Via Guido Monaco lead- 
ing in 5 min. to the Via Cavour. Here, in the small Piazza 

40 Route 6, AREZZO. From Florence 

S. Francesco, is a Monument to Count Fossombroni (Jo. at Arezzo 
1754, d. 1844; PI. 1; p. 43). 

S. Francesco (PI. 2) contains fine frescoes of the 15th cent. 

In the Choir: !! Frescoes by Piero della Francesco, tbe master of Luca 
Signorelli (best light in the evening). They narrate the legend of the 
Huly Cross, according to which a seed of the tree of knowledge, planted 
upon Adam's grave, grew up to be a tree. Solomon caused the tree to be 
felled and a bridge to be constructed of the wood , of which the Queen of 
Sheba afterwards discovered the origin. At a later period it was used 
for making the Holy Cross. The Emp. Heraclius rescued the cross in a 
battle with the Persians , and it was afterwards re-discovered by St. He- 
lena. All these scenes, from the death of Adam down to the linding of the 
cross, are pourtrayed by Piero with great technical skill, in which respect, 
as well as in his appreciation of the nude, he surpassed all his contem- 
poraries. His pictures , however, are stiff and destitute of gracefulness. 
— The Evangelists on the ceiling have been attributed to Bicci di Lo- 
renzo. — The Nave, recently freed from whitewash, contains frescoes by 
Spinello Aretino, sadly injured. The following pictures arc also placed 
here temporarily : Madonna surrounded by numerous saints, a characteristic 
work of the Sieneso master Pietro Lorenzetti, brought from the church of 
the Pieve; and St. Rochus being invoked during the plague, two pictures 
by Bartolommeo della Gatia, a master who was influenced by Signorelli. 
The Via Cavour forms a right angle with the Coeso Vittorio 
Emanukle, the principal street of the town. Ascending this street, 
we observe on the right the interesting church of — 

S. Maria della Pieve (PI. 3), which is said to have been built 
at the beginning of the 9th cent, on the site of a temple of Bacchus; 
tower and facade of 1216. The latter is very peculiar, consisting 
of four series of columns, distributed with singular incongruity. An- 
cient sculptures over the doors. The. Interior, now undergoing resto- 
ration, consists of a nave and aisles with a dome. 

At the back of the church is the Piazza Grande, with a foun- 
tain and a Monument of Ferdinand III., erected in 1822 (PI. 4). 
On the N. side are the Loggie (PI. 5) built by Vasari in 1573. — 
Adjoining the choir of S. Maria della Pieve is the — 

*Museum (PI. 6) in the building of the Fraternith della Miseri- 
cordia, with a handsome Gothic facade of the 14th cent. 
Visitors ring on the first floor opposite the entrance door. 
Rooms I. and II. contain a rich Palwontological Collection, chiefly from 
tbe vicinity of Arezzo (comp. p. 38). Among the fossils is a stag's head 
found in the Chiana Valley not far from Arezzo. — Room III. By the wall 
of the entrance, antique and modern bronzes. Right wall, Roman inscriptions 
and reliefs. On the wall of egress, antique utensils in bronze. In the cen- 
tre, mediaeval and antique seals. — Room IV. : line majolicas dating from 
the 16th cent. ; in the centre an antique vase, -Combat of Hercules and 
the Amazons. In the cabinets, cinerary urns and other vessels in red clay 
(vasa Arretina, p. 38). — Room V. : Etruscan cinerary urns. In the centre 
several antique vases ; on one of them the 'Abduction of Hippodamia by 
Pelops. To the right a 'Reliquary of the 14th cent., by Forzore, containing 
the bones of the martyrs Laurentius and Pergentius. 

Passing under Vasari's Loggie we now return to the Corso, 
which we reach just opposite the Palazzo Pubblico (PI. 7). This 
edifice, built in 1322, and adorned with numerous armorial bearings 
of the ancient Podesta, lias unfortunately been modernised , and is 
now used as a prison. 

to Perugia. AREZZO. 6. Route. 41 

A little farther the Via dell' Orto diverges to the left, near the 
entrance to which, No. 22, a long inscription indicates the house 
(PI. 8) in which Francesco Petrarca was born, 20th July, 1304, his 
parents, like Dante, the victims of a faction, having been expelled 
from Florence (p. 38). In the vicinity rises the — 

*Cathedral, a fine specimen of Italian Gothic, begun in 1177, 
with later additions; facade unfinished. 

The Interior, which has no transept and is of handsome and spacious 
proportions, contains, stained glass 'windows, dating from the beginning 
of the 16th cent., by GitiUaume de Marseille; the middle window in the 
choir is modern. In the Right Aisle is the Tomb of Gregory X., by Mar- 
garitone (? Pisan school). This indefatigable prelate expired at Arezzo, 
10th Jan., 1276, on his return from France to Rome, after having 
proclaimed a new crusade. — On the High Altar, 'marble sculptures 
by Giovanni Pisano of 1286: Madonna with SS. Donatus and Gregory, and 
bas-reliefs from their lives. — In the Left Aisle is the tomb of the poet 
and physician Redi (d. 169S). Near it is the chapel of the Madonna del 
Soccorso with two altars of the Robbia school. Farther on, at the E. 
end of the left aisle , the ,s Tomb of Guido Tarlati di Pietramala , the 
warlike bishop of Arezzo , the work of Agostiuo and Agnolo da Siena, 
about 1330, from the design of Giotto, as Vasari conjectures, in 16 
sections, representing the life of this ambitious and energetic prelate, 
who, having been elected governor of the town in 1321, soon distinguished 
himself as a conqueror, and afterwards crowned the Emperor Louis the 
Bavarian in the church of S. Ainbrogio at Milan (d. 1327). — Close to the 
door of the sacristy is a St. Magdalene, al fresco by Piero della Francesca. 
The Marble Statue of Ferdinand de' Medici in front of the cathe- 
dral was erected by Giovanni da Bologna in 1595. In the piazza 
(No. 1) is the Palazzo Comunale (PI. 9), with old armorial bearings. 
We now follow the Via Ricasoli, and turn to the right into the 
Via Sassaverde, No. 12. in which, the Palazzo Capel di Ferro, 
contains the small municipal collection of paintings, called the 
Pinacoteca Bartolini (open on week-days 10-3 ; y 2 fr.J. Among 
the ancient frescoes, old and modern oil-paintings, and engravings, 
there is little that is particularly striking ; the most noteworthy 
objects are a *Madonna enthroned, surrounded by saints, by Luca 
Signorelli (painted about 1520), and several works by Vasari. 

The church of S. Domenico (PI. 10), situated in the Piazza Fos- 

sombrone, is adorned with frescoes by Spinello Aretino and others. 

In the Borgo di S. Vito, on the right, is the House of Giorgio 

Vasari (No. 27) , containing works by the master. The street 

leads back to the W. end of the Via Cavour (p. 40). 

In a small piazza adjoining the Via Cavour stands the church of 
S. Annunziata (PI. 12), a handsome Renaissance structure chiefly 
by Antonio da Sangallo ; the *Interior, with its tunnel and dome 
vaulting, is very picturesque; stained glass of the 15th cent. 

Farther on in the Via Cavour is the Badia di S. Fiore (PL 13), 
also situated in a small piazza, which is now the seat of the Acca- 
demia Aretina di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti. The Library, formerly 
the refectory, contains the Feast of Ahasuerus by Vasari, 1548. 

At the lower end of the Corso, near the Porta S. Spirito, the 
Via dell' Anflteatro (to the left) leads to the church of S. Bernardo 

42 Route 6. MONTE SANSAVINO. From Florence 

(PI. 14) ; the frescoes in the anterior quadrangle are attributed to 
P. Uccello. From the corridor to the left are seen the insignificant 
remains of a Roman amphitheatre in the garden. 

About >/« M. from the Porta S. Spirito (outside which we take the 
avenue to the left, and then at the corner, after 3 min. , the road to the 
right), is situated the church of S. Maria delle Grazie, an edifice of the 
early Renaissance period, with an elegant porch borne by columns, by Bene- 
detto da Majcmo (f), and a handsome marble altar by Andrea delta Robbia. 

From Arezzo to Citia di Oastello, 22 [ /2 M. (high-road), see p. 56. 

From Arezzo to Monte Sansavino, 12V2 M., diligence at 3 p.m. daily, 
in 2 hrs. (fare 1 fr.). The small town of — 

Monte Sansavino (Alb. del Sole, by the Porta Fiorentina, tolerable) 
was the birthplace of the famous sculptor Andrea (Contucci da) Sanso- 
rino (b. 1460, d. 1529). — The church of S. Chiaea, in the principal piazza, 
contains (left) groups of St. Anthony and the Madonna and Christ with 
four saints, designed by Sansovino and executed by the Robbia's. On the 
right SS. Sebastian, Lawrence, and liochus, by Sansovino ; * Adoration of 
the Shepherds by the Robbia's; on the central pillars Sienese paintings of 
the 15th cent. ; on the right and left of the high-altar are prophets by 
Vasari. In the '■Ruga Maestru', or principal street, on the right, is the 
Pal. Municipale, erected about 1517; the Sala del Consiglio contains a 
carved "Door of the 16th century. Opposite the town-hall is a "Loggia 
by Ant. da Sangallo, the Younger, of 1551. On the right, farther on, is 
the church of the Misericordia, containing a monument of 1498. On the 
right we next observe S. Agostmo, with a facade of the 14th cent. ; it con- 
tains an Assumption by Vasari ; the monastery-court is by Ant. da San- 
gallo, the Younger. The Pal. Filippi, on the left, No. 17, has balcony- 
railings and lantern-holders in wrought iron, of the 18th cent. 

From Monte Sansavino to Sinalunga (p. 18), 9'/2 M.; or a pleasant 
round may be made by Fojano and Betolle to Torrita, another railway- 
station (p. 18; one-horse carr. 8-10 fr.). — Fojano (Alb. delta Vittoria, 
tolerable) is 8 M. from Monte Sansavino. On the right, near the entrance 
to the town, is /S. Francesco, with a fine loggia, dating from the end of 
the 15th cent. ; in the interior are several Delia Robbia's. 8. Domenico 
and the Collegiata in the town also contain Robbia's ; the latter possesses 
a Coronation of Mary by Luca Signorelli (7). — At Betolle is the Villa of 
Count Passerini, containing a valuable collection of Etruscan antiquities 
(golden bracelet with rams' heads, huge dish with contests of the giants 
and Bacchanalian scenes, etc.). One-horse carr. to Torrita (in 3 /4 hr.) 
21/2-3 fr. 

On leaving Arezzo we obtain a beautiful retrospect of the 
town, from which the cathedral rises picturesquely. The railway 
and high-road skirt the chain of hills which separate the valleys 
of the Arno and Chiana from the upper valley of the Tiber. Beyond 
a tunnel the train crosses the plain in a straight direction to 
(63 M.) Frassinetto and (66 M.J Castelfiorentino , the latter situated 
on a mountain spur. Farther on, to the left, the dilapidated fortress 
of Montecchio. Somewhat farther, the loftily situated Cortona be- 
comes visible to the left in the distance. 

The luxuriant and richly cultivated Valley of the Chiana, which 
was anciently a lake, was a noisome swamp down to the middle of 
last century. The level was raised and carefully drained, the brooks 
being so directed as to deposit their alluvial soil in the bottom of 
the valley. This judicious system was originated by Torricelli and 
Viviani, celebrated mathematicians of the school of Galileo and 

to Perugia. 


6. Route. 43 

carried out by the worthy Count Fossombroni , who combined the 
pursuits of a scholar and a statesman (p. 40). The Chiana, Lat. 
Clanis, which once flowed into the Tiber, now discharges most of 
its waters into the Arno by means of a canal , and only one arm, 
which joins the Paglia at Orvieto (p. 59), reaches the Tiber. 

73 M. Cortona. The station lies at the foot of the hill on 
which the town itself is situated, near the village of Camuscia. 

A carriage road ( 3 / 4 hr. ; omnibus 1 fr.) ascends to Cortona, 
passing S. Spirito on the right, and reaching the town on the S. 
side. Pedestrians cut off the windings by following the old road, 
which passes the Madonna del Calcinajo (a small early Renaissance 
building by Ant. da Sangallo , with a handsome altar of 1519) and 
leads to the low-lying S."W. gate of the town (p. 44). 

Cortona. — Albergo della Stella, at the W. entrance of the town; 
Alb. Nazionale , farther up in the Via Nazionale , both clean and good. 
(Enquiry as to charges had better be made beforehand.) 

1 Chilometri. 

Cortona, a small, loftily situated town with 9000 inhab. (whole 
parish 26,000), lying above the valley of the Chiana, and not far 
from the Trasimene Lake, is one of the most ancient cities in Italy. 
Its situation and views, its Etruscan antiquities, and several good 
pictures it possesses, render it well worthy of a visit. 

It appears that the Etruscans, immigrating from the plain of the Po, 
wrested the place from the Umbrians , and constituted it their principal 
stronghold when they proceeded to extend their conquests in Etruria. 
Cortona was one of the twelve confederate cities of Etruria , and with 
them shared the fate of being converted into a Roman colony. After various 
vicissitudes and struggles it came under the dominion of Florence in 1410. 

Luca Signorelli , one of the most distinguished painters of the 15th 
cent., was born at Cortona in 1441. He has justly been called a precursor 
of Michael Angelo. Like his master Piero della Francesca (p. 40), he was 
a zealous student of anatomy ; in the embodiment of the nude , in the 

44 Route 6. CORTONA. Fron Florence 

conception of movement and foreshortening he surpasses all his contem- 
poraries. On the oilier hand, his deficiency of refined pictorial sentiment 
forbids the full development of plastic vigour in his pictures. He there- 
fore prefers extensive fresco-paintings as a suitable field for his abilities 
to easel-pictures. Frescoes of this kind he has executed in the Sixtine 
Chapel at Rome (1508; p. 291), at Monte Oliveto (1497; p. 36J, and at Orvieto 
(1499; his principal work, p. 61). At his native town, where he held 
several municipal appointments and lived almost constantly the twenty 
last years of his life (d. 1523) , a number of works by his hand are still 
preserved, none of which, however, are of much importance. — Cortona 
was also the birthplace of Pietro Berettini, surnamed Pletro da Cortona 
(1596-1669), the painter and decorator, who was chiefly employed at Rome 
and Florence. 

From the S. entrance of the town, which we have reached by the 
road, the Via Nazionale leads in 3 min. to a semicircular terrace 
on the left, commanding an unimpeded view of part of the Trasimene 
Lake and the surrounding heights. On the right is the church of ■ — 

S. Domenico, dating from the beginning of the 13th cent.; on 
the left wall an altar-piece by Lorenzo di Niccolb (1440), Coronation 
of the Virgin, presented by Cosmo and Lorenzo de' Medici; on the 
right, a *Madonna with four saints and angels, by Fra Angelica; on 
the left, a *Madonna with St. Petrus Martyr and a Dominican monk, 
by Luca Signorelli (1515). 

The Via S. Margherita, which ascends steeply to the right, see 
p. 45. The Via Nazionale leads straight to the Piazza Vittoeio 
Emanuele, where the Municipio (PI. 1) is situated. Here, to the 
left, diverges the Via Guelfl, in which are situated, to the right, a 
beautiful palazzo of the 16th cent., and lower down the church of 
>S. Agostino, with a Madonna and saints by Pietro da Cortona (be- 
yond this the street leads to the S.W. gate, Porta S. Agostino, p. 43 ). 

Turning to the right from the Piazza Vitt. Em., we immediately 
reacli the small Piazza Signorelli, where we observe, opposite to 
us, the Palazzo Pretorio, and on the left an ancient Marzocco (lion). 

The Palazzo Pretorio (PI. 2), with numerous armorial bearings of 
old magistrates, is now occupied by various public offices, and con- 
tains the Accademia Etrusca , founded in 1726, which possesses a 
*Museum op Etruscan Antiquities, well worth visiting. (Fee 
1-1 V2 ft- to the custodian who lives close by.) 

The gem of the collection is a circular Etruscan "Candelabrum (lam- 
padario), made to hold 16 lights; on the lower side in the centre a Gorgo- 
neuin, surrounded with a combat of wild beasts; then waves with dol- 
phins; and finally eight ithy phallic satyrs alternately with eight sirens; 
between each lamp a head of Bacchus. — An encaustic painting on 
lavagna-stone, ' Pohjhynniut\ said to be ancient. — Remarkable Etruscan 
bronzes, a votive, hand with numerous symbols, vases, urns, inscriptions, etc. 

The 1'onbuni I.iukaey, in the same building, possesses a fine M.S. of Dante. 

The Via Casali descends from the Palazzo Pretorio to the — 
*Cathki)ral, a handsome basilica, ascribed to Antonio da San- 
gallo, altered in the 18th cent, by the Florentine Aless. Galilei. 

Tlie Cnon: contains a Descent from the Cross, and "Institution of the 
Last Supper, with pre.lella, by /,«<■« Signorelli, a very quaint composition 
(1.012). To th,. 1,11, ,,f these a Pieta, by the same master. — In the Sa- 
i.-kistv a Madonna by the same. To the left, of the choir, an ancient 

to Perugia. TERONTOLA. 6. Route. 45 

sarcophagus, representing the contest of Dionysus against the Amazons, 
erroneously supposed to be the tomb of the Consul Flaminius (p. 46). 

Opposite the cathedral is the *Baptistery, formerly a Jesuit church. 

It contains two pictures by Luca Signorelli , the Conception and Na- 
tivity, and three by Fra Angelico da Fiesole, the Annunciation and "two 
predelle, representing scenes from the life of the Virgin and >S. Domenico. 

Passing the colonnades of the theatre in the Piazza Signorelli, 
we follow the Via Dardano straight to the Porta Colonia, where we 
obtain the best survey of the *Ancient Etruscan Town Walls, 
constructed of huge blocks, and for the most part well preserved, 
which surround the town in a circumference of about 2860 yds., 
and along the outside of which we may descend. Even the gateways 
are still recognisable. 

Ascending the Via S. Margherita from S. Domenico, we reach 
(20 min.) the hill commanding the town, on which are situated the 
church of S. Margherita, and a dilapidated fortress (see below). — 
About halfway up, the Via delle Santucce diverges to the left, and 
leads in a few minutes to the church of S. Niccolb, with a small 
entrance court planted with cypresses. 

The Interior ('/2 fr.) contains a freely restored fresco and an 'altar- 
piece, painted on both sides (in front the Body of Christ borne by angels 
and surrounded by saints ; at the back, Madonna della Seggiola with SS. 
Peter and Paul) , by Luca Signorelli. — The sacristan will point out a 
direct route, ascending hence by steps to S. Margherita. 

The church of S. Makgheejta , a Gothic building by Niccolb 
and Giovanni Pisano, possesses a handsome rose window, which 
has of late been partially renewed and enlarged. In the high-altar 
is the tomb of the saint (13th cent.); the silver front with the 
golden crown was presented by Pietro da Cortona. — The visitor 
should not omit to ascend somewhat higher to the old *Fortkzza, 
2165 ft. in height (trifling fee), from the walls of which the noble 
prospect is entirely uninterrupted, except at the back, where it is 
bounded by the mountain-chain (Alto di 8. Egidio, 3432 ft.). 

Besides the town-walls , there are several less interesting anti- 
quities: an ancient vault beneath the Palazzo Cecchetti; near >•>. 
Margherita, remains of Roman Baths, erroneously called a 'Temple 
of Bacchus'; outside the gate of S. Agostino, an Etruscan tomb, 
the 'Grotta di Pitagora'. 

The visitor may (by presenting a visiting-card) possibly ob- 
tain access to the private collection of Sign. Colonnese in the Pa- 
lazzo Madama, Via Nazionale 5 : beautiful half-length picture of 
St. Stephen and a Nativity by Luca Signorelli. 

76 M. Terontola, an unimportant place near the N.W. angle of 
the Trasimene Lake, is the junction of the lines to Chin si, Orte, 
and Rome (see R. 8), and to Perugia and Foligno. Passengers in 
the latter direction change carriages here. 

The Lago Trasimeno, the ancient Lacus Trasimenus (846 ft.), 
is 30 M. in circumference, and at places 8 M. in breadth, and 
is surrounded by wooded and olive-clad slopes , which as they 

46 Route 6. TRASIMENE LAKE. 

recede rise to a considerable height. The lake contains three 
small islands, the Isola Maggiore with a monastery, the Isold 
Minore near Passignano , and the Isola Polvese towards the S. ; 
on the W. side an eminence abuts on the lake, bearing the small 
town Castiglione del Lago (p. 57). Its shores abound with wild- 
fowl, and its waters with eels, carp, and other fish. The brooks 
which discharge themselves into the lake gradually raise its bed. 
The greatest depth, formerly 30-40 ft., is now 20 ft. only. In the 
15th cent, a drain (emissarius) conducted the water into a tribu- 
tary of the Tiber. In ancient times the area of the lake appears 
to have been smaller. A project for draining it entirely, formed 
by Napoleon I., is still frequently canvassed. 

The reminiscence of the sanguinary victory which Hannibal gained 
here over the Roman consul C. Flaminius in May, B.C. 217, imparts a 
tinge of sadness to this lovely landscape. It is not difficult to reconcile 
the descriptions of Livy (22, 4 et seq.) and Polybius (3, 83 et seq.) with 
the present appearance of the lake. In the spring of 217 Hannibal quitted 
his winter-quarters in Gallia Cisalpina, crossed the Apennines, marched 
across the plains of the Arno , notwithstanding an inundation , devastating 
the country far and wide in his progress , and directed his course towards 
the S. , passing the Roman army stationed at Arezzo. The brave and able 
consul followed incautiously. Hannibal then occupied the heights which 
surround the defile extending on the N. side of the lake from Borghetto to 
Passignano, upwards of 5 M. in length. The entrance at Borghetto, as well 
as the issue at Passignano, were easily secured. Upon a hill in the centre 
(site of the present Torre) his principal force was posted. A dense fog 
covered the lake and plain , when in the early morning the consul , igno- 
rant of the plan of his enemy, whom he believed to be marching against 
Rome, entered the fatal defile. When he discovered his error, it was too 
late : his entire left flank was exposed, whilst his rear was attacked by 
the hostile cavalry from Borghetto. No course remained to him but to force 
a passage by Passignano, and the vanguard of 6000 men succeeded in 
effecting their egress (but on the following day were compelled to sur- 
render). The death of the consul rendered the defeat still more disastrous. 
The Romans lost 15,000 men , while the remaining half of the army was 
effectually dispersed; and the Roman supremacy in Italy began to totter. 
The slaughter continued for three hours. From the Gualandro two small 
brooks fall into the lake. One of these , crossed by the road , has been 
named Sanguinetto in reminiscence of the streams of blood with which it 
was once discoloured. 

The line skirts the lake and passes through a tunnel. 84'/2 M. 
Passignano. Two tunnels. 90 M. Magione, a borough with an old 
watch-tower of the time of Fortebraccio and Sforza. 96 M. Ellera. 

103 M. Perugia, picturesquely situated on the hill to the left. 

7. Perugia. 

Arrival. Omnibus to the town (1 fr.) in great request, so that no 
time should be lost in securing a seat (no cabs); to the Albergo di Pe- 
rugia a drive of l /i hr., to the top of the hill 25-30 min. (Before the first 
bend of the road to the left, a good path to the right ascends to the town 
in 20 min.) 

Hotels. ' Albeego di Perugia , at the lower entrance of the town 
(15 min. drive from the station), with an uninterrupted view, English 

landlady; rooms not always obtainable unless previously ordered. 

Grande Bketagne, same proprietor, 10 min. drive farther up, at the' be- 


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PERUGIA. 7. Route. 47 

ginning of the Corso, B. 2 fr. and upwards, L. 1/27 A - V*i D - 3-5 fr. — 
Second class : Albekgo di Belle Arti, Via Cappellari, a side-street of the 
Corso, well spoken of, R. l'fa fr. 

Restaurant. Progresso, Piazza Sopramura, near Via Nuova. 

Cafes. "Baduel, Trasimeno, both in the Corso ; Melinelli, in the Piazza 
S. Lorenzo, opposite the Cathedral fountain; also a pleasant Cafe under 
the arcades of the Prefettura, with view. Beer at Via Riaria 39a. 

Post-Office: Via Riaria, 33. — Telegraph Office at the Prefettura, in 
the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. — Diligence Office, Corso 38. 

Shoemaker: "Ciuffini, Corso 106. 

Perugia is well adapted for a summer resort, and apartments are not 
expensive. — One day, or a day and a half at least should be devoted to 
the town. As a guide ("not indispensable) Giovanni Scalchi is recommended, 
but dilettanti are cautioned against purchasing his 'antiquities'; also Al. 

Perugia, the capital of the province of Umbria, with 16,700 in- 
hab. (including the villages 49,200), residence of the prefect, of a 
military commandant , and a bishop , and the seat of a university, 
lies on a group of hills about 1300 ft. above the valley of the Tiber 
(1707 ft. above the level of the sea). The town is built in an an- 
tiquated style, partly on the top of the hill, and partly on its slope. 
Numerous buildings of the 14th and 15th cent, (when the town 
was in the zenith of its prosperity), the paintings of the Umbrian 
school , and the fine and extensive views of the peculiar scenery, 
render Perugia one of the most interesting places in Italy. 

Perusia was one of the twelve Etruscan confederate cities, and not less 
ancient than Cortona, with which and Arretium it fell into the hands of the 
Romans, B. C. 310. It subsequently became a municipium. In the war 
between Octavianus and Antony, who in the summer of 41 occupied Pe- 
rusia, and after an obstinate struggle was compelled by the former to sur- 
render (bellum Perusinum), the town suffered severely , and was finally re- 
duced to ashes. It was afterwards rebuilt and became a Roman colony 
under the name of Augusta Perusia. In the 6th cent, it was destroyed by 
the Goth Totila after a siege of seven years. In the wars of the Lombards, 
Guelphs, and Ghibellines it also suffered greatly; in the 14th cent, it acquired 
the supremacy over nearly the whole of Umbria, but in 1370 was compelled 
to surrender to the pope. Renewed struggles followed , owing to the con- 
flicts between the powerful families of Oddi and Baglioni. In 1416 the 
shrewd and courageous Braccio Fortebraccio of Montone usurped the su- 
preme power, whence new contests arose, until at length Giovanni Paolo 
Baglioni surrendered to Pope Julius II. Leo X. caused him to be executed 
at Rome in 1520. In 1540 Paul III. erected the citadel , 'ad coercendam 
Perusinorum audaciam\ as the inscription, destroyed during the last revo- 
lution, recorded. In 1708 the town was captured by the Duke of Savoy, on 
31st May 1849 by the Austrians, and in 1860 by the Piedmontese. 

Umbrian School of Painting. As early as the time of Dante an Um- 
brian artist , the miniature painter Odekisi of Gubbio , was celebrated, 
and art was practised in Gubbio , Fabriano , Perugia, etc. The neigh- 
bouring Siena doubtless exercised an influence on the prevailing style 
of art, which was confirmed by the situation of the towns, the character 
of their inhabitants, and the religious atmosphere diffused by Assisi and 
Loreto. Neither dramatic power, nor wealth of imagination is to be 
found in the Umbrian style , its characteristic features being reverie, 
tranquillity, and gentleness of sentiment. The men pourtrayed often ap- 
pear destitute of individuality and vigour, the female figures, on the other 
hand , excite our admiration owing to their winning and devout expres- 
sions. Technical improvements seem to have been introduced but slowly, 
but the old style was thoroughly cultivated and rendered more attractive 
by frequent use of decorative adjuncts. 

48 Route 7. PERUGIA. History of Art. 

Setting aside the painters of the 14th cent., who were dispersed among 
various small towns , we find that Ottaviano Nelli of Gubbio (15th cent.) 
was the first able representative of this school. Works by this master 
are preserved both at his native town and at Foligno. Nelli was, how- 
ever, eclipsed by Gentile da Fabriano (b. about 1360-70), who probably 
had studied the Sienese masters in his youth, and who afterwards un- 
dertook long journeys (e. g. to Venice and Rome), thus establishing his 
reputation throughout Italy. His style not unfrequently resembles the 
Flemish. Besides Gubbio and Fabriano, other Umbrian towns possessed 
local schools of painting , such as Camerino and Foligno. The latter, 
about the middle of the loth cent., gave birth to Ificcold Alunno , a man 
of limited ability, which, however, he cultivated to the utmost. His 
prevailing theme is the Madonna, to whose features he imparts beauty in 
happy combination with reverie ; and in this department he may be re- 
garded as the precursor of Perugino and Raphael. 

Meanwhile Pkkugia, the largest city in this district, by no means 
remained idle. In this wider and more enterprising held the old con- 
ventional styles were soon abandoned as unsatisfactory, and the necessity 
of adopting the Florentine style was urgently felt. In the latter half of 
the 15th century Benedetto Buonfigli was the first master who strove 
to throw aside the local style of painting , and the same effort was made 
by Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, a younger master and perhaps a pupil of Bene- 

This improved style was brought to maturity by Pietro Vanucci of 
Citta della Pieve (1446-1524), surnamed Pekugino, after the chief scene 
of his labours, a master to whom the Umbrian school is chiefly indebted 
for its fame. Perugia was, however, by no means the only sphere of his 
activity. He repeatedly spent years together in Florence, and was em- 
ployed for a considerable time in Rome. His endeavours to overcome 
the defects of his native school were crowned with success. In Ver- 
rocchio's studio in Florence he was initiated into the secrets of perspec- 
tive and the new mode of colouring, and in both respects attained con- 
summate skill. Down to the beginning of the 16th cent, his excellence 
continued unimpaired , as his frescoes in the Cambio , and his Madonna 
and saints (No. 3S) in the Gallery at Perugia sufficiently prove. During 
the last twenty years of his life, however , his works show a falling off, 
occasioned , doubtlessly , by his accepting more orders than he could 
conscientiously execute , whereby his art was degraded to a mere handi- 
craft. He seems , indeed , to have had more studios than one at the same 
time, as for example in 1502-5 both at Florence and Perugia, in the 
latter of which the young Raphael was employed. 

Another great master of the Umbrian school, vying with Perugino, 
is Bernardino Betti, surnamed Pinturicohio (1454-1513). Although he 
exercised no considerable influence on the progress of Italian art, and in- 
troduced no striking improvements like Leonardo, and others, yet he 
thoroughly understood how to utilise the traditional style and the cur- 
rent forms, and was marvellously prolific as a fresco painter. The Va- 
tican and Roman churches, the Cathedral library at Siena, and the Col- 
legiate church at Spello, are the chief scenes of his activity. — Amongst 
the younger contemporaries of Perugino we must next mention Giovanni 
di Pietro, surnamed Lo Sjxtgna after his native country, whose paintings 
are hardly inferior to the early works of Raphael, and who, in common 
with all the Umbrian masters, exhibits great ease of execution. 

Other assistants of Perugino , but of inferior merit, were Giannicola 
di Paolo Man ni (d. 1544) and Kiisnbio di S. Giorgio. The latter was so 
successful in imitating Raphael in superficial respects , that several of 
his pictures, amongst others the Adoration of the Magi in the picture gal- 
lery at Perugia (No. 8) , have been attributed to Raphael himself. Of 
Hinilialild Ibi and Tiberio d' 1 Assist , who flourished during the first twenty 
years of the 16th cent., little is known, and their works are rare. Gerino 
of /'isfoja seems to have been a good painter of the average class, and 
the works of Domenico di Paris Al/ani, a friend of Raphael, possess con- 
siderable attraction. These last masters, however, show little individuality, 

Collegio del Cambio. PERUGIA. 7. Route. 49 

and before the middle of the 16th century the Umbrian school was com- 
pletely merged in those of Rome and Florence. 

At the entrance to the upper part of the town, on the site of the 
citadel, which was removed in 1860, extends the Piazza Vettorio 
Emanuele (PI. B, 5), in which rises the Prefettura, a simple and 
handsome modern huilding , adorned with arcades on the ground- 
floor. The garden terrace affords a *superh view of the Umbrian 
valley with Assisi, Spello, Foligno, Trevi, and numerous other vil- 
lages , enclosed by the principal chain of the Apennines extending 
from Gubbio onwards ; the Tiber and part of the lower quarters of 
Perugia are also visible. (A band plays here twice a week.) 

Northwards from the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele Tuns the Oorso 
to the left , leading to the Cathedral square ; and the Via Riaria to 
the right, leading to the Piazza Sopramuro (p. 53). 

We follow the Corso, the busiest and hansomest street in the 
town. On the right is the Palazzo Baldeschi (PL 21 ; B, 4) ; on the 
2nd floor is preserved a *Drawing by Raphael (Pinturicchio ?) for the 
5th fresco in the library of Siena Cathedral (p. 27 ; fee ] / 2 fr.). 

On the left, farther on, Nos. 22-26, is the *Collegio del Cambio 
(PI. 31; B, 4), the old chamber of commerce, containing celebrated 
frescoes by Perugino, dating from his best period, 1500. (Custodian 
Y2 f r -; ^ es * light in the morning.) 

These frescoes adorn the *Sala del Cambio : on the right, Sibyls and 
Prophets ; above , God the Father ; on the left, heroes , kings , and philo- 
sophers of antiquity ; opposite , the Nativity and Transfiguration ; on a 
pillar to the left, the portrait of Perugino ; the whole surrounded by 
admirable arabesques. Raphael is said to have been one of Perugino's 
pupils who assisted in the execution of these frescoes , and whose style 
is traceable in the Madonna of the Nativity. Perugino received 350 ducats 
for his work from the guild of merchants. The carved and ::: Inlaid-work 
('tarsia') of the judicial benches, doors, etc., by Antonio Mereatello, wliich 
are amongst the finest Renaissance works of the kind, also deserve 
notice. — The adjacent Chapel contains an altar-piece and frescoes by 
Giannicola Manni. 

Immediately adjoining the Collegio is the *Palazzo Pubblico 
(or Comunale, PI. 22; B, 4), a huge edifice of 1281 and 1333, re- 
cently skilfully restored , with its principal facade towards the 
Corso and a second towards the Piazza del Duomo. It is adorned 
with fine windows , a handsome portal , and Gothic sculptures (the 
armorial bearings of the allied town, saints, etc.). In the group of 
animals over the chief entrance, the griffin represents Perugia, while 
the wolf, overcome by it, is Siena. The victory gained by the Peru- 
gians in 1358 over the Sienese is also commemorated by trophies 
(chains, bars of gates) on the portal in the Piazza del Duomo. 

On the second floor, entered from the Corso, is the Sala della 
Statistica (No. 2), with a fine Renaissance door, in a lunette above which 
is a Madonna by Fiorenzo di Lorenzo. On the same floor is the Sala 
del Capitano del Popolo , an apartment of noble dimensions, with 
damaged decorative paintings of the 14th cent, which are undergoing 

On the third floor is the "Picture Gallery ( Pinaeoteca Vanned), formed 
since 1863 of works collected from suppressed churches and monasteries, 
a collection of great value to the student of Umbrian art. (Tickets 1 fr. 

BAKDEKEK Ttalv TT 7tV> TT>i;H„„ £ 

50 Route 7. PERUGIA. Palazzo Pubblico. 

each, in the Sala della Statistics). The ante-room contains a few unim- 
portant pictures and also works of ;irt for sale. Adjoining it is the — 

Sala dei Cimelii (A): 1. Heo da Siena, Madonna and saints, a drawing. 
No. 2. Two saints, and No. 3. The twelve Apostles (the latter as predelle) 
evidently belong to the same work. 12. Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Madonna 
and four saints; 20. Margaritone d^Arezzo (1272), Large crucifixion; 22-24, 
probably by the same master. — Sala B (formerly the Cappella dei 
Decemviri), with frescoes by Benedetto Bonfigli. To the right of the 
windows and on the entrance-wall are scenes from the life of St. Louis 
of Toulouse. Opposite the windows are the Burial of that saint and the 
Martyrdom of St. Herculanus on the occasion of the capture of Perugia 
by Totila. On the adjacent wall is the Burial of St. Herculanus. In the 
centre of the room is a good model of the Fonte Maggiore. — Sala dei 
Stlcohi (D) : Frescoes of the TJmbrian School (14th and 15th cent.), 
transferred to canvas. The glass cases contain Codices and Choir-books 
with miniatures. — Sala di Taddeo Baetoli (E): Sienese pictures of the 
15th cent., most of them valuable. Taddeo Bartoli (1403): 9. Madonna 
with two angels and four saints ; 10. Descent of the Holy Ghost. Tommaso 
d'Arcangelo of Cortona: Exploits of the condottiere Braccio Fortebraccio. 
— Sala dell 1 Angelico (K): 1-20. Fiesole, Fragments of a large altar- 
piece (Madonna with angels. Annunciation, Saints, Miracles of St. Nicholas 
of Bari); ;: 21. Piero della Franceses , Madonna and four saints, with the 
Annunciation above. — Sala del Bonfigli (G): Bonfigli: 7. Annunciation 
with St. Mark; 10. Adoration of the Magi; 13. Madonna with angels 
playing on instruments. Giovanni Boccati di Camerino: 16, 19. Madonna 
and angels. — Sala di Bernardino di Mariotto (H). Bernardino: 
1. Marriage of St. Catherine; 2. Madonna and saints. 10. Bonfigli, 'Gon- 
falone' (sacred banner) of the Fraternity of S. Bernardino di Siena (Christ 
blessing the saints, below which are believers engaged in burning objects 
of luxury). 12. Caporale, Christ and the Madonna in glory. ,:: 14. Niccolo 
d'Alunno , Gonfalone of the Brotherhood of the Annunziata (1466). — 
Sala di Fiorenzo di Lorenzo (J): *4. Fiorenzo, Adoration of the Magi 
(among whose followers is the young Perugino to the left); 24. Perugino, 
Coronation of the Madonna. — Gabinetto di Fiorenzo di Lorenzo (L): 
2-9. Fiorenzo (?), Miracles of S. Bernardino (2-6, masterpieces; 7-9, in the 
same style, but inferior); 16. FiorenzoCOi Bust of the Madonna in a garland, 
with angels' heads below. — Sala del Perugino (31). Perugino: 11. Baptism 
of Christ; 20. Nativity; 21, 16, 12, 7. Predelle; 8, 9, 13, 14, 17, 19, 22,23. 
Saints ; all being fragments of a large altar-piece. Below No. 4. (St. 
Jacob, by Perugino) is an autograph letter of the master to the Prior of 
S. Agostino. — Sala del Pintveicchio (N). Perugino: 2. Transfiguration ; 
3-5. Predelle ; 6. Madonna and saints. "7. Spagna, Madonna and saints. 
Pinturicchio : Large altar-piece in its original frame, the Madonna with 
the infant Child and St. John; on the left SS. Augustine and Jerome; 
above, the Annunciation; in the pediment aPieta; on the predelle scenes 
from the lives of SS. Augustine and Jerome ; 12. Gonfalone with St. 
Augustine (painted on silk). Perugino: 14. Madonna, worshippers, SS. 
Francis and Bernardino ; 15. Madonna and four saints. Raphael: *17. Strip 
of decorative painting ; 21. God the Father with angels (both belonging to 
the Entombment now in the Galeria Borghese at Rome). Eusebio di San 
Giorgio: 18. Madonna with saints; '23. Adoration of the Magi. 20. Pupil 
of Raphael ('/), Madonna, resembling the Conestabile Madonna in style. — 
Sala di Giannicola Manni e di Bello (O). — Then the Sala 'della 
Scuola di Perugino (P): 36. Alfani, Holy Family, designed by Raphael. 

In the Piazza del Duomo (PI. B, 4) rises the *Fonte Maggiore, 
dating from 1277, and one the finest fountains of that period in 
Italy. It consists of three admirably constructed basins, adorned 
with numerous biblical and allegorical figures in relief, executed by 
Niccolb and Giovanni Pisano and Arnolfo del Cambio (1280; two 
of the statuettes are modern substitutes). — The W. side of the 

University. PERUGIA. 7. Route. 51 

piazza is occupied by the Episcopal Palace (PL 30), behind which 
is the so-called Maesta delle Volte (PI. 32), a relic of the former 
Palazzo del Podesta, which was burned down in 1329 and again in 

The Cathedral of 8. Lorenzo (PI. 11 ; B, 4), dating from the 15th 
cent., is externally unfinished. Adjoining the entrance from the 
Piazza del Duomo is a pulpit. 

The 'Interior, consisting of nave and aisles with a short transept, is of 
spacious but heavy dimensions. — At the beginning of each aisle is a chapel. 
On the right (of the principal entrance) is the Cappella S. Bernardino, 
with a Descent from the Cross, the master-piece of Baroccio, executed in 
1569; the painted window representing the Preaching of St. Bernardino 
of Siena is by Constantino di Rosato and Arrigo Fiammingo of Malines, 
1565; it was restored in 1863. — tin the left is the Cappella dell' 
Anello, which down to 1797 contained the celebrated Sposalizio by 
Perugino , now in the museum of Caen in Normandy. In both the 
chapels are beautifully carved stalls, as also in the choir. — In the Right 
Transept, a marble sarcophagus containing the remains of Popes Inno- 
cent III. (d. 1216), Urban IV. (d. 1264) , and Martin IV. (d. 1285). — The 
adjoining Winter-Choir contains an "altar-piece by Luca Signorelli: Ma- 
donna with SS. John the Baptist, Onuphrius the Hermit, Stephen, and 
a bishop as donor. Below the 2nd window to the left: Christ imparting 
His blessing, and saints, by Lodovico Angeli. 

In the Library are preserved precious MSS., such as the Codex of St. 
Luke of the 6th cent., in gold letters on parchment. 

On the W. and N. side of the Cathedral is situated the Piazza 
del Papa (PI. B, C, 3, 4) , so named from the bronze statue of Ju- 
lius III. by Vine. Danti (1556). — Opposite the W. portal of the 
Cathedral, Nos. 8-10, is the Palazzo Conestabile, formerly celebrated 
for a small Madonna by Raphael which it contained (sold in 1871). 
From the N. angle of the Piazza del Papa the Via Vecchia de- 
scends to the *Arco di Augusto (PI. 2 ; C, 3), an ancient town-gate 
with the inscription Augusta Perusia. The foundations date from 
the Etruscan period, and the upper part perhaps from the Augustan 
epoch after the conflagration. From this point the partially preserved 
walls of the ancient city, which occupied the height where the old 
part of the present town stands, may be distinctly traced. 

The small space in front of the Arco di Augusto is called the 
Piazza Grimani (PI. C, 3); to the left is the Palazzo Antinori, now 
Oallenga, dating from 1758. — A little to the N. lies the church of 
S. Agostino (PI. 5 ; 0,2), containing several pictures by Perugino 
and other Umbrian Masters, and handsome choir-stalls. 

From the Palazzo Antinori the Via de' Pasteni leads in a few mi- 
nutes to the University (PI. B, 2), established in 1320 in a monas- 
tery of Olivetans, which was suppressed by Napoleon. It possesses 
a small Botanic Garden, Natural History And. Art History Collections, 
and a Museum of Etruscan and Roman Antiquities. 

The Museum of Antiquities is on the first floor. On the Staircase are 
Etruscan and Latin inscriptions and unimportant Roman sculptures. The 
Corridor chiefly contains Etruscan urns and a few casts from antique 
and Renaissance sculptures. "No. 279. Terracotta urn in the form of a 
recumbent man, who is being seized by a goddess of death with the 
features of a fiend; the hollow interior once contained the ashes of the 

52 Route 7. PERUGIA. S. Severo. 

deceased. The Qabinetto di Antiquaria contains flint weapons, urns, and 
Etruscan and Roman anticaglias. In the 3rd Room, 'Mountings of a chariot 
with figures and ornamentation in the most ancient Asiatic style (in a 
cabinet opposite the windows); large gold Earring with a female head 
(in the cabinet in the middle of the room); Mirror with scenes from the 
myth of Meleager and Helen. In the 4th Room, Vase of admirable Attic 
workmanship, with red figures of Dionysus and Ariadne (cabinet opposite 
the windows). — Gabinetto Cristiano: 1st Room, Reliquary containing the 
remains of the condottiere Braccio Fortebraccio, who fell at the siege of 
Aquileja on 5th June, 1424 (formerly in S. Francesco dei Conventuali) ; 
Coffin of Draccio II. Baglione, with a sumptuous velvet covering (beginning 
of 15th cent.); richly carved slabs from the choir-stalls of S. Agostino, 
perhaps by Barili; Seal of Card. Bembo by Lautizio di Perugia (in the 
glass cabinet by the windows). In the 2nd Room three masterpieces of 
enamel- work ('champs leves'): a goblet which once belonged to Pope 
Benedict XI. (d. 1304) , and a cup and plate or saucer executed by 
Cataluzio di Pietro of Todi (14th cent.). 

The Scientific Collections are unimportant. 

Near the Gate of S. Angelo (PI. A, 1), to which the Via Longara 
leads from the Piazza Grimani, is situated the architecturally inter- 
esting church of S. Angelo, a circular structure with 16 antique co- 
lumns in the interior, in the style of S. Stefano Rotondo in Rome, 
probably dating from the 6th cent., with additions of a later period. 
— On the other (S.) side of the Longara is 8. Agnese, adorned with 
frescoes from the later period of Perugino and his pupils. 

Ascending from the Piazza Grimani (p. 51) by the Monte di 
Porta Sole to the S.E. (or from the Piazza del Papa, p. 51, by the 
Via Bontempi to the E.), crossing the Piazza de' Gigli, and then 
taking the first side-street - (Via di S. Severo) to the left, we reach 
*S. Severo (PI. 14; C, 3), formerly a monastery of the order of Ca- 
maldoli, now a college, in the chapel of which Raphael painted his 
first fresco, probably in 1505, having left Perugino's school the year 
before, and gone to Florence. 

The fresco, which was seriously damaged, and of late has been restored 
by Consoni, resembles the upper part of Raphael's Disputa in the Va- 
tican; above, God the Father (obliterated) "with three angels and the 
Holy Ghost; below, the Redeemer and the saints Maurus, Placidus, Bene- 
dict, Romuald, Benedict the Martyr, and John the Martyr. The inscription 
(added at a later period) runs thus : Raphael de Urbino dom. Octaviano Ste- 
phano Volaterrano Priore Sanclam Trinitatem angelos astantes sanctosque 
pinxit, A.D. MDV. At the sides, lower down, St. Scholastica, St. Jerome, 
St. John Ev., St. Gregory the Great, Boniface, and St. Martha, by Pietro 
Perugino. Inscription : Pelrus de Castro Plebis Perusinus, tempore domini 
Silvestri Stephani Volaterrani a destris et sinistris div. Christipherae sanctos 
sanctasque pinxit A. D. MBXXI. 

A vaulted passage under the clock of the Palazzo Pubblico 
(p. 49) leads from the Corso to the Via de' Priori, the best route 
to the sights of the W. quarter of the town. The Via Deliziosa, di- 
verging to the left near the small piazza in front of the Chiesa Nuova 
(PI. 10 ; B, 4), contains (PI. 18) the House of Perugino (J). 

We continue to descend the Via de' Priori, passing the medie- 
val Torre degli Sciri, or degli Scaki (PI. 34 ; A, 4), and the Madonna 
della Luce (PI. 4), a pleasing little Renaissance church of 1518, and 
reach an open space on the right. Opposite us here rises the — 

Palazzo della Penna. PERUGIA. 7. Route. 53 

*Oratorio di S. Bernardino [Confraternity, della Oiustizia, PI. 
A, 3). The facade , executed by Agostino d' Antonio , a Florentine 
sculptor, in 1459-61 , is a magnificent polychromic work, in which 
both coloured marble and terracotta are employed, while the ground 
of the numerous and very elaborate sculptures is also coloured. A 
picture in the interior, representing the festival of the church, con- 
tains an admirable view of the facade. 

Immediately adjacent is the church of S. Francesco dei Con- 
ventuali, or del Prato (PI. 9 ; A, 3), a Gothic edifice of about 1230, 
modernised in the last century. 

The Interior contains several pictures by the Alfani and other masters 
of the Umbrian school, and also a copy by Cav. dTArpino of Raphael's 
Entombment (now in the Borghese Gallery at Rome, p. 189) , which was 
originally painted for this church. 

The late Cavaliere Guardabassis Collection of Etruscan Anti- 
quities, in a house near the Teatro Morlacchi (PI. B, 3J, is worthy 
of a visit. The proprietor bequeathed it to the town, and it will 
soon be removed to the University Museum. A large mirror-case, 
representing Bacchus on the panther, is specially interesting. 

To the E.of the Corso , and parallel with it, stretches the 
Piazza del Sopramuro (PI. 0, 4), resting on extensive substructions, 
part of which belong to the ancient Etruscan town walls. — On the 
E. side of the Piazza rises the Palazzo delCapitano del Popolo, after- 
wards the Palazzo del Podesth (PI. 29), dating from 1472; adjoining 
it is the old University, built in 1483 ; both edifices are now occu- 
pied by courts of justice (PI. 35). Opposite is the Biblioteca Pub- 
blica (PI. 3 ; 0, 4), containing 30,000 vols., and including MSS. of 
Stephanus Byzantinus, St. Augustine with paintings, and others. 

The Via Riaria leads hence towards the S. to the Piazza Vittorio 
Emanuele (p. 49). We descend here immediately to the left, passing 
the substructions of the old citadel , where an ancient gate , called 
Porta Marzia (PI. 33 ; C, 5), with interesting sculptures , and the 
inscriptions Augusta Perusia and Colonia Vibia, which was removed 
from its old site to make way for the fortress, has been re-erected. — 
We turn to the left here, and follow the broad main street with an 
avenue of acacias, at the end of which, to the left, rises the small 
Gothic church of S. Ercolano (PI. 6 ; C, 5), with an altar consisting 
of an ancient sarcophagus. 

The first side-street diverging to the right of the avenue, before 
S. Ercolano, leads to the Palazzo della Penna (PI. 27; C, 5), No. 7, 
to the right, lying a little back from the street. It contains a con- 
siderable picture gallery, containing paintings of theUmbrian school, 
a round picture (Madonna and saints) by Signorelli, and works of 
the latter half of the 16th and 17th cent. (Carracci, Guercino, Par- 
meggianino, Caravaggio, Salvator Rosa). The gem of the collection, 
a fine Madonna by Perugino, has been sold, and is now in Englaud, 
Custodian Y2-I fr - 

54 Route 7. PERUGIA. S. Pietro de 1 Casinensi. 

This side-street leads to the Via S. Ercolano , which begins 
opposite S. Ercolano (see above) and is continued by the Via di 
Porta Romana. In the latter, to the left, stands the church of — 

S.Domenico (PI. 7; C, 6), originally a Gothic edifice of the 13th 
and 14th cent., built by Oiov. Pisano in 1304, and almost entirely 
re-erected by Carlo Maderna in 1614, with a lofty campanile, part 
of which has been taken down. 

In the Left is the ''Monument to Pope Benedict XI., who 
fell a victim to the intrigues of Philip IV. of France, and died in 1304 
from eating poisoned figs. It was executed by Giovanni Pisano, and is one 
of the most famous monuments of its kind; above the recumbent figure 
of the pope rises a lofty canopy, borne by spiral columns and adorned 
with mosaics (above is a Madonna between St. Duminicus and the kneeling 
pope on one side and St. Herculanus on the other). On the adjacent 
wall is the monument of Bishop Benedetto Guidolotti (1429). — The 
Choir, with a rectangular termination, contains a huge Gothic window 
filled with rich stained glass, the largest of its kind in Italy, executed in 
1411 by Fra Bartolommeo of Perugia, and recently restored. This window 
belonged to the original church of Giov. Pisano. — The inlaid Choir Stalls 
(tarsia) date from 1476. 

After a few minutes more we pass through the richly decorated 
Porta 8. Pietro, by Agostino d'Antonio (1475), and reach the old 
monastery and church of — 

*S. Pietro de' Casinensi (PI. 13; D, 7, 8; entrance in the first 
court in the corner diagonally opposite, to the left). The church, 
founded about the year 1000 by S. Pietro Vincioli of Perugia, is a 
basilica, consisting of nave, aisles, and a transept, with a richly 
gilded flat ceiling, borne by 18 antique columns of granite and 
marble and two pillars, and contains numerous pictures. 

In the Nave, above, are eleven large pictures by Ant. Vasillacchi, sur- 
named VAliense, of Perugia, a pupil of Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese, exe- 
cuted in 1592-94. — The Right Aisle contains several Umbrian pictures. 
The chapel of St. Joseph, adorned with modern frescoes, contains, on 
the left , the 'Monumental relief of a Countess Baldeschi , in terracotta, 
from a drawing by Fr. Overbed: ; on the right, Holy Family, a copy from 
Andrea del Sarto, by Pontormo. — Then, above the door leading to the 
monastery, Two saints and a Holy Family by Sassoferralo, after Perugino 
and Bonifazio of Venice. Above the door leading to the Sacristy, Three 
saints, also after Perugino by Sassoferrato. — In the Sacristv (shown by 
the custodian , 5 soldi) are five small half-figures of "Saints, by Perugino 
(which formerly surrounded the Ascension by the same master, removed 
by the French, now in Lyons); Holy Family, by Parmeggianino ; "Infant 
Jesus and St. John, after Perugino, by Raphael (V). — The Choir-books 
are embellished with good miniatures of the 16th cent. 

The 'Choir Stalls, in walnut, are admirably curved and inlaid (tarsia) 
by Stefano da Bergamo, 1535. —Under the arch of the Choir, on each side, 
are ambos (pulpits) in stone, ornamented with reliefs on a golden ground, 
by Franc, di Guido, 1517-21. 

The Left Aisle, beginning at the upper end by the choir, contains a picture 
by Buonflgli (V), Mary with the body of Christ and two saints, 1469. In the 
adjoining chapel is a marble altar with reliefs, partly gilded, by Mino da 
Fiesole , 1473. In the two following chapels : pictures by Giiido Jleni, 
Giorgio Vasari, and others. Between these, on the wall of the aisle: Ju- 
dith, by Sassoferrato. Farther on: Adoration of the Magi , by Eusebio di 
S. Giorgio; Annunciation, a copy from Raphael, by Sassoferrato ; Pieta one 
of the later works cif Perugino, and part of a large dismembered altar- 
piece from the church of S. Agostino. 


Close to S. Pietro , on the opposite side of the street, are the 
gardens of the Passeggiata Pubblirn (PI. D, 8), extending to the 
Porta S. Costanzo , and commanding a magnificent *prospect of the 
valley of Foligno and the Apennines. 

Besides the Gallery Penna, the visitor may inspect the following 
private collections : the collection of Act;. Romualdi. Via del Bufalo, 
No. 5 (near the Albergo Gran Bretagna), comprising bronzes, coins, 
cameos, drawings and paintings by An. Carracci, Perugino(Y), etc. 
(all for sale). — The Galleria Monaldi (PL 26; B, 5) , in the palazzo 
of the same name, at the corner of the Via Riaria and the Piazza 
Vittorio Emanuele, and the Onlleria Meniconi (PI. 25 ; C, 5), Via 
di Porta Romana, both chiefly contain works of later masters (end 
of 16th and 17th cent.). 

Outside the Porta del Carmine is situated the pretty Cemetery 
(PI. E, 3), containing a monument to the champions of liberty in 
1859, erected by Conte Ett. Salvatore. 

About 3 31. to the E. of Perugia, on this side of Ponte S. Giovanni, the 
first station on the route to Foligno and Rome , the Ancient Etrcscan 
Necropolis of Perugia was discovered in 1480. Pedestrians, in going, 
may select the old road , quitting the town by the Porta S. Girolamo 
(PL D, 6, 7) and return by the new road to the Porta S. Costanzo (PI. D, 8 ; 
see small Map, p. 46). Carriage there and back , a drive of l'/a-2 hrs., 
12 fr. — The most interesting of the tombs, and one of the handsomest, 
though not oldest in N. Etruria, is the Sepolcro de' Volunni (the tomb of 
the Volumnii, 3rd cent. P. C), close to the road, where it is intersected 
by the railway. It consists of ten chambers, hewn in the coarse-grained 
tufa. A number of cinerary urns, with portraits of men and women, and 
various kinds of decoration, were found here. Those found in the chamber 
opposite the entrance and in the last chamber on the right side have 
been left in their original positions. The smaller objects, including lamps 
and tools, are now preserved in a chamber built over the tomb (to the 
right of the entrance). The custodian is to be found at the neighbouring 
Villa Baglioni (1 fr.). 

Fkom Perugia to the Upper Valley of the Tiber (diligence daily in 
4'/s hrs. to Citta di Castello). The road soon crosses the Tiber and ascends 
on its left bank to Fratta, or TJmbertide, a small town :l8'/ 2 M. from Perugia. 
In the church of S. C'roce , a Descent from the Cross by Luca Signorelli. 
Valuable collection of majolicas at the house of Sign. Dom. Mavarelli. — 
Farther on, the road crosses the Tiber twice, and then traverses a luxur- 
iantly cultivated district, on its left bank, to — 

14 M. Citta di Castello (Locanda la Cannoniera), with 6000 inhab. (incl. 
suburbs24,000), occupying the site of Tifernum Tiberinum, which was destroyed 
by Totila. In the 15th cent, it belonged to the Vitelli family, and afterwards 
to the Church. The town , built in the form of a rectangle , and still 
surrounded by the walls erected in 1518, contains many interesting small 
buildings of the early Renaissance period, but few medieval monuments. 

All that remains of the old Cathedral of S. Ftorido, founded in 1012, 
is the campanile and the N. portal; the present building, an admirable 
specimen of the Renaissance style , was begun in 1482, and completed in 
1522. Bramante has been frequently named as the builder, but Mia di 
Bartolommeo Lombardo is mentioned in the records as the architect. 
-S. Domenico (containing a St. Sebastian by Luca Signorelli) is the only 
church that has preserved a Gothic character, and the Palazzo Comu- 
nale the only secular edifice; the latter was built in the 14th cent, by a 
certain Angelus of Orvieto, in the style of the Florentine palaces. 

The Vitelli , the lords and masters of the town , were like most of 


the magnates of the Renaissance period passionately addicted to building. 
The oldest of the four palaces of the 15th and 16th cent., which bear their 
name, is the Palazzo di Alessandro Vilelli; the handsomest is the Palazzo 
Vitelli a S. Giacomo, and the largest the Palazzo Vitelli a Porta S. Egidio. 
The small summer-house (Palazzino) connected with the latter is specially 
worthy of inspection. 

Raphael, it is well known, painted his first independent works for 
churches in Citta di Castello , but they have since disappeared, or (like 
the Sposalizio in the Brera at Milan) have been carried elsewhere. The 
only work of the master now here is a church banner, with the Trinity 
and Creation painted on linen, but in a deplorable condition. It was 
executed fur the church of S. Trinita , and is now in the Palazzo Eerioli 
della Porta (V). 

The church of S. Cecilia contains a Madonna by Luca Signorelli, and 
the Palazzo Mancini a 'Nativity by the same master, as well as several 
other valuable pictures. 

From Citta di Castello to Arezzo, 22 ! /a M., see p. 42. 

About 10 M. to the N. of Citta di Castello lies the pleasant little town 
of Borgo S. Sepolcro. The churches contain several pictures by Piero della 
Francesca tb. 1423; teacher of Luca Signorelli; comp. p. 40) and Raffaello 
dal Colle (16th cent.; a pupil of Raphael), both of whom were born here. 
In S. Antonio Abbate, a line Crucifixion by Signorelli. 

From Borgo S. Sepolcro a road crosses the Central Apennines to 
Urbania (31 M.) and V rhino (p. 88). — The Source of the Tiber, near the 
village of he Baize, may be visited from Borgo S. Sepolcro. 

From Perugia to Narni by Todi, about 56 M. (diligence). This road, 
once greatly frequented, hut now of merely local importance, descends 
rapidly into the valley of the Tiber, which its crosses, and then remains 
on its left bank. The scenery presents no great attraction. About half- 
way between Perugia and Narni, and 19 M. to the E. of Orvieto lies — 
" Todi (Posla, at the gate), the ancient Umbrian Tuder, a loftily situated 
town (1496 ft.) with 5000inhab. ; the hill is so abrupt that the upper part 
of the town is not accessible to carriages. Its ancient importance is indi- 
cated by the fragments of walls and the extensive ruin of a Temple, or Ba- 
silica, usually styled a temple of Mars. Although poor in treasures of art, 
the town boasts of several interesting edifices, among which are the Cathe- 
dral and the Town Hall in the Piazza. The church of S. Fortunato pos- 
sesses a handsome portal. The finest building of all, however, is the 
pilgrimage church of "S. Maria della Consolazione, in the form of a Greek 
cross and covered with a dome. The arms of the cross are also sur- 
mounted with domes , and are polygonal in shape with the exception 
of the choir, which is semicircular. The exterior is remarkable for ils 
simple and massive style, and the interior for its symmetrical proportions 
and the delicately graduated ornamentation of its pillars. Being one of 
the noblest creations of the Renaissance period, this edifice was naturally 
attributed to Bramante. Documents , however , name Cola di Matteuccio 
da CapraroUt (1508) as the architect, and Baldassare Peruzzi as his ad- 
viser. The progress of the building was remarkably slow , and it was 
not completed till 1604. — Todi was the birthplace of Jacopone da Todi 
(d. 1306), author of the 'Stabat mater dolorosa'. 

From Todi to Narni 28 M., by the villages of Rosaro, Caslel Todino, and 
San Gemine. About I1/2 M. from the last, on the ancient , now abandoned 
Via Flaminia, are the interesting ruins of the once prosperous Carsulae. 
From San Gemine (J1/2 31. from Narni) two roads descend gradually to 
the beautiful valley of the A'era, one leading S.E. to Terni (see p. 78), "and 
the other S. to Kami (p. 80). 


8. From Florence by (Arezzo) Terontola and Chiusi 
to Rome. 

196 M. Railway. This is the shortest route from Florence to Rome. 
Express in 8 hrs. (fares 3S fr. 5, 26 fr. 40c); ordinary train in U 3 / 4 hrs. 
(fares 34 fr. 50, 23 fr. 70, 16 fr. 55 c); no change of carriages. 

From Florence to Terontola, 76 M., see pp. 37-45. The main 
line to Rome diverges to the right (S.) from the branch line to Pe- 
rugia, Assisi , and Foligno, and at first skirts the Trasimene Lake 
(comp. p. 45). 

82 M. Castiylione del Lago, with 10,600 inhab. (incl. suburbs), 
lying to the left on a promontory extending into the lake, possesses 
an old palazzo of the Duchi della Cornia. 

87 M. Panicale , a small place with unimportant frescoes in its 
churches by Perugino and his school. The line takes a W. direction 
and joins the line from Siena in the valley of the Chiana (R. 4). 

94 M. Chiusi. — Carriage with one horse to the town, lying to the 
right on a hill (i/ 4 hr.), 1 fr. 

Lion d'Oeo, moderate, but bargaining necessary. — Corona, Via Por- 
senna 1. Travellers who wish to inspect the Etruscan Antiquities 
should enquire for the custodian, who sells tickets for the museum O/2 fr.) 
and accompanies visitors to the tombs (2 fr. ; or, for the whole day, 
3-4 fr.). The road to the tombs is very muddy in wet weather. — Tra- 
vellers are cautioned against making purchases of Etruscan antiquities at 
Chiusi, as 'antiquities' from Etruscan tombs are largely manufactured here. 

Chiusi (4800 inhab.), the ancient Clusium, one of the twelve 
Etruscan capitals, frequently mentioned in the wars against Rome, 
and as the headquarters of Porsenna, was fearfully devastated by- 
malaria in the middle ages ; but under the grand-dukes of the House 
of Lorraine the Val di Chiana was gradually drained, and the town 
recovered from these disasters. The walls are mediaeval; a few re- 
lics of those of the Etruscan period are traceable near the cathedral, 
outside the Porta delle Torri. A walk thence round the town to 
the Porta Romana, also called Porta di S. Pietro, affords pleasing 
views of the S. portion of the Chiana Valley, Citta. della Pieve, the 
mountains of Cetona, to the N. the lakes of Chiusi and Montepul- 
ciano, and the latter town itself. 

Under the town extends a labyrinth of subterranean passages, 
the precise object of which is unknown (inaccessible); but they 
probably belonged to an elaborate system of drainage, as the an- 
cient Etruscans excelled in works of this kind, and were even in 
advance of many modern nations. 

The interesting *Museo Etrusco, recently founded, contains a 
valuable collection of objects found in the Etruscan tombs around 
Chiusi, such as vases (including several curious polychrome urns), 
dishes, bronzes, mirrors, sarcophagi, and especially cinerary urns, 
chiefly of terracotta, with a few of alabaster and travertine. 

The Cathedral of S. Mustiola consists almost entirely of frag- 
ments of ancient buildings ; the eighteen columns of unequal 
thickness in the interior, and the tomb of S. Mustiola are derived 

58 Route 8. OITTA DELLA PIEVE. From Florence 

from a similar source. The sacristy contains a mass-took illumin- 
ated with admirable miniatures of the 15th cent., chiefly by ar- 
tists of the Sienese school. The walls of the arcades in the cathedral 
square bear numerous Etruscan and Roman inscriptions. 

The great attraction of Chiusi are the Etruscan Tombs (tickets 
of admission and guide, see above), situated in isolated hills at 
some distance from the town. The most important are the following: 
to the N.E. the Deposito del Oranduca, 2 M. ; near it, the *Deposito 
della Scimia, with mural paintings representing gladiatorial com- 
bats. The Deposito del Poggio Gajelli, which is supposed, but without 
authority, to be the Mausoleum of Porsenna mentioned by Pliny and 
Varro, is 3 M. distant and much dilapidated. To the N.W., the 
Deposito delle Monache, 2 M. ; then, to the S.E., the Deposito del 
Colle, with mural paintings, 1 M. from the town. 

Near S. Caterina, on the way to the station, are small cata- 
combs of the early Christian period, and near them a Roman tomb. 

A diligence runs from the Chiusi station in 1 hr. to the (5 HI.) loftily 
situated town of Citta della Pieve (1011 ft.), with 6000 inhah., the birth- 
place of Pietro Vaniiucci (1410-1524), surnamed Perugino after Perugia, which 
was the chief scene of his labours (comp. p. 48). The town possesses sev- 
eral of his pictures, but they are works of his later period, hastily 
painted and chiefly done by his pupils, as the master apparently deemed 
his native place not capable of appreciating works of a more elaborate 
kind. — The oratory dei Disciplinati , or S. Maria dei Bianchi, contains 
an Adoration of the Magi, one of the largest pictures by Perugino; two 
letters of the artist from Perugia (1504) are shown with regard to the 
price of this fresco, reducing it from 200 to 75 ducats. — In the Cathedral 
(interior modernised) is the Baptism of Christ (first chapel to the left), 
and in the choir a Madonna with SS. Peter, Paul, Gervasius, and Prota- 
sius , 1513. The picture of St. Antony with St. Paulus Eremita and St. 
Marcellus, now (since 1860) in fi. Agostino, belonged originally to the church 
of S. Antonio. All these pictures are by Perugino. — Outside the gate, 
which leads to Orvieto, is the Church of S. Maria dei JServi, containing 
remains of a Crucifixion by Perugino, dating from 1517. 

The road leading from Citta della Pieve in an E. direction to Perugia 
(31 jM.) was formerly much frequented. 

About 7'/ 2 M. to the S.W. of Chiusi (carriage in l>/ 4 hr.), and at the 
same distance to the W. from Citta della Pieve, lies the small town of 
Cetona, commanded by a mediaval castle. The Palazzo Terrosi contains 
a small collection of antiquities found in the neighbourhood (visitors ge- 
nerally admitted on presenting their cards), such as handsome poly- 
chrome and richly gilded urns; an 'Elephant's tooth with archaic reliefs 
from the Odyssey, etc. — Picturesque grounds at the back of the palace. 

The Railway descends the Chiana valley. KM 1 ^ M. Stat. Fi- 
culle; the village, 2y 2 M. distant, lies on a hill to the right. Near 
Orvieto the Chiana falls into the Paglia, a turbulent tributary of 
ttie Tiber, which causes great damage in rainy seasons. The rock 
here is tertiary sandstone, while at Orvieto the volcanic district 
begins, of which the central point is the lake of Eolsena (p. 65). 

IIS M. .Stat. Orvieto, at the base of the hill occupied by the 
town, to which a winding road ascends ; omnibus in 40 min. (return- 
ing in 20 min.; 1 fr., box 20 c.). A footpath leads in '/ 4 hr. to the 
Fortezza (p. 61). 

to Rome. ORVIETO. 8. Route. 59 

OrvietO. — Albergo Belle Arti, Corso Cavour, the halting-place of 
the omnibus, well spoken of, but enquiry as to charges advisable ; 11. 2-2' ,j, 
D. 3, L. & A. 1 fr. — Aquila Bianca, Via Garibaldi, behind the Palazzo 
Comunale, unpretending. — Caff£ Benedetti, Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. 

The Wine of Orvieto is esteemed both here and at Rome. 

Photographs sold by Armoni near the Cathedral. 

Orvieto (8000 inhab. ; whole parish 15,000), a small town and 
episcopal residence, on an isolated tufa rock, 735 ft. above the Pu- 
glia (1165 ft. above the sea), the Urbibentum of Procopius , was 
called Vrbs Vetus in the 8th cent. , and thence derives its modern 
name. In the middle ages it was a great stronghold of theGuelphs, 
and often afforded refuge to the popes. 

From the E. entrance to the town, which we reach in coming 
from the station , and where the old castle mentioned below is 
situated, runs the Corso, the principal street of Orvieto. Two me- 
dieval towers rise in this street ; opposite the first of these is the 
Via del Duomo, which leads us straight to the far-famed — 

**Cathedral (PI. 1 ), a magnificent example of the Italian Gothic 
style, and one of the most interesting buildings in Italy, founded in 
consequence of the 'Miracle of Bolsena'(comp. p. 65). The first stone 
was solemnly laid by Pope Nicholas IV. on 13th Nov. 1290, and the 
edifice begun under the supervision and according to the plans of 
Lorenzo Maitani of Siena. The work progressed so rapidly that 
in 1309 Bishop Guido di Farnese was able to read the first mass in 
the church. It consists of a nave and aisles , with transept and 
rectangular choir. It is 1 14 1 / 2 yds. long and 36 yds. wide, and like 
the cathedrals of Florence and Siena is constructed of alternate 
courses of black and white marble. This cathedral, like those in 
other towns, once constituted a great arena for the display of artistic 
skill. The guardians of the building were unwearied in providing 
for its ornamentation , and like the curators of modern museums 
who are zealous in their endeavours to secure works by the best 
artists, they did all in their power to obtain the services of the first 
masters of the day for the embellishment of their church. . — The 
**Facade, with its three pediments, 44yds. wide and 160 ft. high, 
is gorgeously enriched with sculptures and mosaics , and is said to 
be the largest and most gorgeous 'polychrome' monument in existence. 

The excellent "Bas-Reliefs on the lower parts of the pillars, which in 
many respects are characteristic of the transitional style preceding the 
Renaissance , are by Giovanni Pisano (?) , Andrea , ;and other pupils of 
Niccolo Pisano , and represent scenes from the Old and New Testament : 
1st pillar to the left, from the Creation down to Tubal-cain; 2nd, Abra- 
ham, genealogy of the Virgin; 3rd, History of Christ andJIary; 4th, Last 
Judgment with Paradise and Hell ; above are the bronze emblems of the 
four Evangelists, by Lor. Maitani. Above the principal portal, a Ma- 
donna under a canopy, in bronze, by Andrea Pisano. On the margin of 
the large square panel, in the centre of which is a rose window, are 
small marble statues of prophets, and above, of the twelve apostles, exe- 
cuted by Sienese sculptors. 

Above the doors and in the three pointed pediments are "Mosaics on 
a golden ground, of various periods (14th-19th cent.): Annunciation, Nup- 

60 Route 8. 


From Florence 

tials of the Virgin, Baptism of Christ, Coronation of the Madonna; the 
latter, the principal picture, is the highest. 

The "Interior is constructed, like that of the Siena cathedral, of al- 
ternate layers of dark and light stone (black basalt and greyish - yellow 
limestone from the vicinity). On each side four columns and two pillars 
separate the nave, which is 131 ft. in height, from the lower aisles. 
Above the round-arched arcades is a gallery adorned with rich carving. 
The windows are pointed, and the upper parts filled with stained glass. 
The visible frame-work of the roof was formerly richly ornamented. 

At the sides of the principal entrance, to the right, St. Sebastian by 
Scalza, to the left, St. Rocco. In the Left Aisle, "Madonna and St. Ca- 
tharine, a fresco by Qenlile da Fabriano. Before this stands a marble "font, 
the lower part by Luca di Giovanni (1390), the upper by Sano di Matteo 
(1407). — In the Nave, to the right, a fine marble holy water basin in 
the Renaissance style; in front of the columns, the statues of the Twelve 
Apostles, by Mosca, Scalza, Toli, Giovanni da Bologna, and other masters. By 


the high-altar the Annunziata and Archangel, by Mocehi, one on each side. 
— In the Choir, frescoes from the life of the Virgin by Ugolino d'llario 
and Pietro di Puccio. The beautifully inlaid stalls in the choir are by 
artists of Siena, of the 14th and 15th cent. ; on each side is an altar with 
reliefs in marble: on the left, Visitation of Mary, executed by Moschino when 
15 years of age, from designs by Sammicheli of Verona ; to the right, Ador- 
ation of the Magi, by Mosca. 

Right Transept : the s " ! Chapel op the Madonna di S. Beizio (Cap- 
pella Nuova), with a miraculous image of the Virgin and a Pieta, by Ip- 
polito Scalza. This chapel occupies an important page in the annals 
of Italian art. The superintendent of the cathedral-mosaics having heard 
that the 'famous painter and monk' Fra Angelica da Fiesole was not en- 
gaged during the summer in Rome (p. 303), invited him to Orvieto, and 
secured his services for the decoration of the chapel. In 1447 Fra Ange- 
lico accordingly worked here, but for three months only, during which 
time he executed the panels of the diagonally divided ceiling above the 

to Rome. ORVIETO. 8. Route. 61 

altar, representing Christ in the glory as Judge, with saints and pro- 
phets to the right, the Virgin and the Apostles on the left. Nothing more 
was done till 1499, when the work was continued and completed by 
Luca Signorelli. These "Mural Paintings are the chief attraction here. 
The first fresco to the left of the entrance shows the overthrow of Anti- 
christ, who is represented in the foreground, preaching; the two devout 
figures, in the corner to the left, are said to lie portraits of Signorelli and 
Fra Angelico. The wall on the side by which we enter has been skil- 
fully covered with representations of (left) the Last Judgment, and (right) 
the Fall of the Condemned. — Next in order are the Resurrection of the 
Dead and the Punishment of the Condemned; then, on the wall of the al- 
tar, (right) Descent into Hell, and (left) Ascent into Heaven, and lastly, 
adjoining the first picture, Paradise. — Below these pictures runs a series 
of scenes from Dante's Divine Comedy, and mythological subjects. On the 
ceiling: Apostles, 'signa judicium indicantia 1 , patriarchs and doctors, vir- 
gins and martyrs. — These paintings are the most important work produced 
during the 15th cent. In the mastery of form, in the boldness of motion 
and of foreshortening, and in the acquaintance with the nude , Signorelli 
is by no means unworthy of comparison with Michael Angelo, who, ac- 
cording to Vasari, borrowed several motives from these works for his Last 
Judgment in the Sixtine Chapel. — On the right wall, in a niche behind 
the Pieta of Scalza, is an "Entombment of Christ by Signorelli. 

Opposite, in the Left Transept, is the Cappella del Cokporale, where, 
behind the principal altar , is a canopy of marble mosaic, containing a 
silver reliquary, in which is preserved the blood-stained chalice-cloth 
(corporale) connected with the Miracle of Bolsena. The reliquary, executed 
by Vgolino di Vieri of Siena in 1338, and resembling in form the facade of 
the cathedral, is about 4 1 /" ft. broad, 2 ft. high, and 440 lbs. in weight. 
The Passion and the 'Miracle 1 are represented on it in brilliant enamel; 
it is exhibited to the public on Corpus Christi and on Easter-day, but at 
other times it is shown by permission of the Sindaco. Modernised fres- 
coes of the 'Miracle of Bolsena' by Vgolino. Over the altar on the left, 
a Madonna by Lippo Memmi. 

Opposite the cathedral, No. 3, is the *Opera del Duomo (PI. 2; 
if closed, apply to the sacristan), containing several fine works of art. 

In a room on the first story are preserved : "Designs on parchment 
for the facade of the cathedral, and for a pulpit, which was never com- 
pleted ; a beautifully carved and inlaid reading-desk ; a precious 'Reli- 
quary by Ugolino da Siena; a Madonna by Si/none Martini; a *St. Magda- 
lene by L. Signorelli, 1504; two specimen frescoes by Signorelli, represent- 
ing himself and a certain Niccolo ; a ::: Madonna, a statue by Giov. Pisano, 
partly coloured; and a number of Etruscan terracottas. 

A valuable *Collection of Etruscan antiquities, belonging to 
Conte Faina, opposite the cathedral, to the right, chiefly contains 
objects yielded by recent excavations (open to the public). 

The Corso leads to the Piazza Maggiore, now VittorioEmanuele, 
with the church of S. Andrea (PL 3), of early origin, probably built 
on the site of an ancient temple, and the Palazzo Comunale (PL 4 ), 
dating from the end of the 13th cent, and remodelled in the middle 
of the 16th cent, (pictures in the interior of the 14th and 15th cent.). 

S. Giovinale (PL 5), at the N.W. angle of the town, a basilica 
with open roof, contains fragments of old frescoes (1312 and 1399). 
In the S. transept of 8. Domenico (PL 6) is the monument of Car- 
dinal diBrago, by Arnolfo, 1282. 

The Fortress, constructed by Cardinal Albornoz in 1364, and sit- 
uated at the N.E. entrance of the town (p. 58), has been converted 
into a garden with an amphitheatre for public performances. Fine 

62 Route 8. ORTE. From Florence 

view of the valley of the Tiber and the Umbrian mountains. — The 
custodian of the garden keeps the key of the famous adjacent foun- 
tain, II Pozzo di S. Patrizio, which was begun by Sangallo in 1527, 
and completed by Mosca in 1540. It is partly hewn in the tufa rock, 
partly built of masonry, and is 203 ft. deep, and 43 ft. wide. Two 
separate spiral staircases wind round the shaft; the traveller may 
descend by one, and ascend by the other (fee 1/2"! fr-J- 

On the N.W. slope of the hill on which the town stands, below the 
ancient town-wall, an extensive -Necropoli Etrusca h;is recently been 
discovered (most conveniently visited on the way back to the station, 
about halfway, a digression of less than 200 paces ; comp. Plan, p. 60). 
The tombs, which are arranged in groups and rows, date chiefly from the 
5th cent. B.C., and some of them were found intact. Their facades, as 
elsewhere, are constructed of three large stones, two of which, phtced 
nearly upright, are roofed by the third. Adjoining the entrance is in- 
scribed the name of the deceased in the ancient Etruscan character. The 
innur chamber is square in form, and covered with the primitive kind 
of vaulting in which the stones are laid horizontally, each overlaping the 
one below it. The tnmbs contained many painted vases, of Greek, and 
particularly of Corinthian and Attic workmanship, and articles of native 
manufacture, the most important being black terracotta vases with pat- 
terns impressed on them. — Since 1863 a number of similar tombs have 
been discovered 2 l /i M. to the S.W. of Orvieto, near the suppressed Ca- 
puchin monastery (comp. Plan). Two of these contain paintings. The 
route to them is rough. The custodian must be enquired for in the town. 

The line to Orte and Rome now traverses the wooded valley of 
the Tiber, whose broad, stony bed bears traces of numerous inun- 
dations. Two tunnels are passed. On the height , to the left, lies 
Baschi. 127M. Castiglione Teverino; the river is crossed ; 131 M. 
Alviano, 137 M. Attigliano, 130 M. Bassano, on a hill to the right. 

The small Lake of Bassano, formerly Lacus Vadimonis, now much di- 
minished in extent, is famous in ancient history as the scene of the great 
victories of the Romans over the Etruscans, B.C. 309 and 283. Pliny the 
Younger (Ep. viii. 20) has described the lake with its 'floating islands'. 
— About 3 M. farther to the W. is Bomarzo , picturesquely situated on a 
precipitous rock, near the ancient Polimarlhim , where extensive exca- 
vations have been made. 

The train passes through several tunnels , and afterwards skirts 
the right bank of the Tiber, till it approaches Orte which becomes 
visible on the height to the left. It then traverses a longer tunnel 
and reaches the station of Orte , where the railway from Foligno 
(Perugia and Ancona) unites with the main line (R. 10). 

145 M. Orte, loftily situated about 2 M. to the N., the ancient 
Horta, presents no object of interest beyond its situation. — Dili- 
gence from Orte to Viterbo, see p. 64. 

The train continues 10 descend the valley of the Tiber on the 
right bank, affording pleasant glimpses of both banks. To the right, 
the lofty and indented ridge of Mount Soracte (p. 63) becomes vi- 
sible. On the left, on the other side of the river, lie S. Vito and Otri- 
ciili, the latter a small place 6 M. distant from Orte near the site 
of the ancient Otriculum , where numerous antiquities, including 
the celebrated Bust of Jupiter in the Vatican, have been excavated. 

to Rome. SORACTE. 8. Route. 63 

150 M. Oallese. Farther on, high above the left bank, lies the small 
town of Magliano. 

153 M. Borghetto, with a ruined castle on the height to the 
right. The Tiber is crossed here by the handsome Ponte Felice, con- 
structed by Augustus, and restored in 1589 by SixtusV., over which 
most of the traffic between Rome and the N.E. provinces formerly 

About 5 M. to the S.E. of Borghetto (carriages at the station) lies 
Civita. Castellana , picturesquely situated 502 ft. above the sea (Posta, 
JSperanza, in the market-place). This was the site of Falerii, the town of 
the Falisci, which was captured by Camillus in B.C. 396. A lofty bridge, 
erected in 1712, and recently restored after having been damaged by 
an earthquake, carries the road into the town across a ravine, 120 ft. in 
depth. The Cathedral of S. Maria dates from 1210. The Citadel, erected 
by Alexander VI. in 1500 from a design by Sangallo , and enlarged by 
Julius II. and Leo X., was last employed as a state-prison. Civita Castel- 
lana contains nothing to interest the traveller except its picturesque situa- 
tion. The deep ravines by which it is enclosed testify to vast volcanic 
convulsions. They contain a few fragments of ancient walls and numerous 
Etruscan tombs hewn in the rock, especially near the citadel. 

Interesting excursion to the ruins of Falerii (pronounced Falleri), 3 M. 
distant. Near the citadel thePontedel Terreno is crossed to the left, where tombs 
honeycomb the rocks on all sides , this being the more direct route to Fa- 
lerium Novum or Colonia Junonia, founded by the Romans about 240, situated 
in the plain, 3 M. to the N. of Civita Castellana. Etruscan and Roman tombs 
are here seen side by side. The town was nearly in the form of a triangle, 
l'/2 M. in circumference; the well preserved walls are protected by strong 
square towers and penetrated by gates , one of which on the W. (Porta di 
Oiove) is still in good condition. Another gate towards the S. E., the Porta 
del Bove, is also worthy of a visit ; near it is the theatre of Roman construction, 
the piscina and what is regarded as the forum, at the back of the theatre. 

At the Porta di Giove , within the walls, is the " Abbadia di S. Maria 
of the 12th cent. In the nave, antique columns ; in 1829 the roof fell in, 
but the damage has been repaired. The adjoining building contains in- 
scriptions, statues , etc. , the result of excavations made here. An amphi- 
theatre has also been recently discovered. 

Civita Castellana is the best starting point for the Soracte ; there and 
back about 7 hrs. — A good road (one-horse carriage 6-7 fr.) leads to O l h^-) 
Rignano (Posta), the birthplace of Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia, the chil- 
dren of Cardinal Roderigo Borgia (afterwards Pope Alexander VI.), and 
boasting of a few Roman antiquities. Here we may obtain horses and 
donkeys (or a light conveyance to carry us half-way up the mountain), 
to S. Oreste; guides are superfluous. — Pedestrians may leave the carriage 
about 2 31. to the N. of Rignano and make the ascent in l'/a hr. 

'Soracte, me-itioned by Horace (Carm. i. 9: Vides ut alia stet nive 
candidum Soracte) and Virgil (jEn. vii, 785: Summi deum sancti custos So- 
ractis Apollo), is now called Monte di S. Oreste, the word Soracte having 
been erroneously written S. Oracte , and thence corrupted to S. Oreste. 
It is a limestone-ridge , descending precipitously on both sides, extending 
3-4 M. from N.W. to S. E., and culminating in several peaks of different 
heights. On the central and highest summit (2200 ft.) stands the church 
of S. Silvestro. On the slope which gradually descends towards the S. E. 
is situated the village of S. Oreste. Leaving the miserable village to the 
right, the path ascends gradually to the left, and in l /i hr. reaches the 
monastery of S. Silvestro (2119 ft.), founded in 746 by Charleman, son of 
Charles Martel and brother of Pepin. The summit, with the church and 
a small disused monastery, may now be reached in a few minutes. In 
ancient times a celebrated Temple of Apollo occupied this site. The view, 
uninterrupted in every direction, embraces: E. the valley of the Tiber, the 
Sabina, in the background several snow-clad peaks of the Central Apennines, 

64 Route 8. NEPI. 

among them the Leonessa; S. the Volseian and Alban Mts., then the broad 
Campagna, Rome, the sea ; N. the mountains of Tolfa, the Lake of Brac- 
ciano, the Ciminian forest, the crater of, and numerous villages. 

Pedestrians may descend to Rignano by a direct path, which, although 
somewhat steep, is' considerably shorter than that by S. Oreste. 

The Borghetto and Civita Castellana road next leads to O l h M.) Nepi. 
A shorter route (for pedestrians only) passes Castel S. Elia, a resort of 

Nepi, the ancient Etruscan Nepete or Nepet, afterwards Colonia Ne- 
pensis, is a picturesquely situated little town, and an episcopal residence, 
surrounded by mediaeval walls and towers. Venerable Cathedral; the 
Toion Hall is adorned with Roman sculptures and inscriptions. It was 
anciently a place of importance, but is now in a dilapidated condition , 
chiefly owing to its destruction by the French in 1799. — From Nepi to 
Monterosi (p. 69) 5 M. 

Beyond Borghetto, to the right, Civita Castellana (see above) he- 
comes visible for a short time. The train crosses to the left bank of 
the Tiber. 161 M. Stimiyliano, and 166 M. Montorso, both situated 
in the mountainous district of the Sabina, where olive-trees abound. 
173 M. Passo di Correse. The name is a corruption of Cures, the 
ancient Sabine town, where Numa Pompilius was born, the ruins of 
which are in the vicinity. A diligence runs daily from Passo di 
Correse to Rieti by Poggio Mirteto, see vol. iii. of this Handbook. 

The line follows the left bank of the Tiber to (180 M.J stat. 
Monte Botondo ; the town, situated to the left. 2 M. higher, posses- 
ses an old castle of the Orsini, now the property of the Piomhino 
family. The village was stormed by Garibaldi on 26th Oct. 1867; 
about 1 M. to the S.E. is Mentana (p. 356), where he was defeated 
on 3rd Nov. by the Papal and French troops, and forced to retreat. 

From Monte Rotondo to Rome , a journey of 3 /4 hr. — The line 
follows the direction of the ancient Via Salara (to the right , on the 
hill , once lay the ancient Antemnie , p. 356) and crosses the Anio 
(p. 356); to the left the Sabine and Alban mountains, then Rome 
with the dome of St. Peter, become visible. A wide circuit round 
the city is described, near the Porta Maggiore (p. 182) the so-called 
temple of Minerva Medica (p. 182) is passed, and the central station 
entered near the Thermae of Diocletian. 

196 M. Borne, see p. 104. 

9. From Orvieto to Rome by Bolsena, Montefiascone, 
and Viterbo. 

78 31. High Road. To Viterbo 31 1/2 JI. ; from Orvieto to Bolsena, 12 M., 
Bolsena to Montefiascone, 9 M. , thence to Viterbo 10'/2 M. ; no regular 
communication; carriage in 5 l /2 hrs., 25-oO fr. 

Viterbo alone may best be visited from the Orte station (p. 62), 
with which it is in regular communication (distance I8V2 M.). The 
diligence, which corresponds with the ordinary morning and evening trains 
(not the express) to Rome, takes 4 hrs. (fare 3 fr.). Travellers from 
Rome may obtain tickets thence to Viterbo at Via delta Propaganda 8. 
A party had better order a carriage to meet them at the station by post- 
card, addressed to the Impresa F. Garinei in Viterbo (two-horse carriage 
10-15 fr.). 

BOLSENA. 9. Route. 65 

Most travellers will prefer to return from Viterbo to Orte. The drive 
from Viterbo to Rome (46'/2 M.) takes 10 hrs. (about 40 fr.). 

The high-road from Orvieto to Monteflaseone traverses a some- 
what bleak district, passing at some distance from the Lake of Bol- 
sena, which is almost entirely concealed from view by the surround- 
ing crater-wall. A far more beautiful though somewhat longer route 
diverges to the W. from this road, about 8^2 M. from Orvieto, and 
unites at Bolsena with the old road from Siena via Torrenieri, Radi- 
cofani, and Acquapendente to Rome (p. 17). 

About 4 M. beyond' the above mentioned bifurcation, a road diverges 
to the left from the direct Orvieto and Monteflaseone road to (3 M.) Bag- 
norea (the ancient Balneum Regis) , picturesquely situated on a hill sur- 
rounded by ravines, and interesting to geologists. 

Bolsena (Hotel in the Piazza), with 2600 inhab., is situated 
below the Roman Volsinii, the birthplace of Sejanus, the favourite 
of Tiberius. It was one of the twelve capitals of the Etruscan League, 
and after various vicissitudes was at length conquered and destroyed 
by the Romans. The spoil is said to have included 2000 statues. 
Its wealth has been proved by the discovery, in the vicinity, of nu- 
merous vases, trinkets, and statues. The present town contains 
inscriptions , columns , and sculptures of the Roman municipium 
which replaced the Etruscan city. The ancient site is reached in 
a few minutes by an antique causeway of basalt. Among the ruins 
is an amphitheatre, worthy of special attention, now converted into 
a vegetable-garden. Beautiful views of the lake. 

The facade of the church of S. Cristina is embellished with 
ancient relics and a sarcophagus with the triumph of Bacchus. 

The 'Miracle of Bolsena\ the subject of a celebrated picture by Raphael 
in the Vatican, occurred in 1263. A Bohemian priest, who was somewhat 
sceptical as to the doctrine of transubstantiation , was convinced of its 
truth by the miraculous appearance of drops of blood on the host which he 
had just consecrated. In commemoration of this, Pope Urban IV. in- 
stituted the festival of Corpus Christi and projected the erection of the 
superb cathedral of Orvieto (p. 59). 

The Lake of Bolsena, the ancient Lacus Vulsiniensis, 994 ft. 
above the sea-level, a circular sheet of water, 28 M. in circum- 
ference , is the vast crater of an extinct volcano, which formed the 
central point of a wide sphere of volcanic agency , extending as far 
as Orvieto. The lake abounds in fish (its eels are mentioned by 
Dante, Purg. 24, 24) ; but the banks, especially on the W. side, 
are bleak and deserted, owing to the malaria confined in the basin 
of the lake , which is not easily dispelled by the wind. The 
monotony of the surface is relieved by the two picturesque islands 
of Bisentina and the rocky Martana. On the latter Amalasuntha, 
Queen of the Goths , the only daughter of Theodoric the Great , was 
imprisoned in 534, and afterwards strangled whilst bathing, by 
order of her cousin Theodatus, whom she had elevated to the rank 
of co-regent. The church in the island of Bisentina was erected 
by the Farnese family and embellished by the Caracci. It contains 
the relics of St. Christina, a native of Bolsena. 

Baedekkk. Italy II. 7th Edition. 5 

66 Route 9. MONTEFIASCONE. From Viterbo 

From Bolsena the road ascends towards the S. on the bank of 
the lake, through woods, to (7 M.) the 'Mountain of Bottles' — 

Montefiascone (Aquila Nera, outside the gate), a town with 
7500 inhab. , situated 2015 ft. above the sea -level. The un- 
completed cathedral of S. Margareta , with an octagonal dome , was 
one of the earliest works of Sammichele. Near the gate , on the 
road to Viterbo, is *&. Flaviano, a church of 1030, restored by 
Urban IV. in 1262, in the Gothic and circular styles combined. 
The subterranean chapel contains the tomb of the Canon Johannes 
Fugger of Augsburg, with the inscription — 
Est, Est, Est. Propter nimium est, 
Johannes de Euc, D. mens, mortuus est. 

It i» recorded of this ecclesiastic, that, when travelling, he directed his 
valet to precede him and to inscribe the word 'Est' on the doors of the 
hostelries where the best wine was to he had. On the door of the inn at 
Montefiascone the 'Esf was written three times , and the good canon 
relished the wine here so highly that he never got any farther. The best 
muscatel of the district is still known as Est Est (1 fr. per 'flaschetto'). 

The traveller should not omit to ascend into the town for the 
sake of the magnificent view : N. the lake of Bolsena as far as 
the chain of M. Amiata , E. the TJmbrian Apennines, S. as far 
as the Ciminian Forest, Vf. as far as the sea. The extensive 
plain of ancient Etruria with its numerous villages may be sur- 
veyed from this point ; and it has therefore been reasonably con- 
jectured that the celebrated Fanum Voltumnae, the most sacred 
shrine of the Etruscans, once stood here. 

From Montefiascone to Viterbo the road traverses the somewhat 
bleak and unattractive plain between the Ciminian Forest and the 
Lake of Bolsena (p. 65). Midway, near the Osteria della Fonta- 
nella, part of the ancient Via Cassia lies to the right. About 2 J / 2 M. 
farther, to the left of the road, are situated the ruins of Ferento, 
the Etruscan Ferentinum, birthplace of the Emperor Otho. In the 
11th cent, it was destroyed by the inhabitants of Viterbo on account 
of its heretical tendencies , for the Ferentines represented the 
Saviour on the cross with open eyes, instead of closed, as was 
thought more orthodox. Such at least is the account of the chro- 
niclers. Among the extensive mediaeval, Roman, and Etruscan 
remains, a Theatre of peculiar and primitive construction, with later 
additions, deserves notice. 

Close to Viterbo is situated Bulicame , a warm sulphureous 
spring, mentioned by Dante (Inf. 14, 79), still used for baths. 

Viterbo (*Angelo, R. li/ 2 fr- ; Tre Re, both in the Piazza; pho- 
tographs sold by Leonardo Primi, Vicolo della Ficunaccia), an epis- 
copal residence with 20,000 inhab., surrounded by ancient Lombard 
walls and towers, is situated in a plain on the N. side of the 
Ciminian Forest, 1211 ft. above the sea-level. It was the central 
point of the extensive grant called the 'patrimony of St. Peter' 
made by the Countess Matilda of Tuscia to the papal see and is 
frequently mentioned in history as a residence of the popes and as 

to Rome. VITERBO. 9. Route. 67 

the scene of the papal elections in the 13th century. Viterbo is 
called by old Italian authors the 'city of handsome fountains and 
beautiful women', but its objects of interest are now few in number. 
The Cathedral of S. Lorenzo, occupying the site of a temple of 
Hercules, dates from the 12th cent. 

The Interior contains the tombs of the Popes John XXI., Alexan- 
der IV. , and Clement IV., and in the sacristy a Madonna with four saints 
by Lorenzo di Viterbo. — At the high-altar of this church, in 1279, Count 
Guido de Montfort, the partisan of Charles of Anjou, assassinated Henry, 
son of Count Richard of Cornwall , King of the Germans and brother of 
Henry III., in order thereby to avenge the death of his father who had 
fallen at the battle of Evesham in 1265 when fighting against Henry III. 
Dante mentions this deed and places the assassin in the seventh region of 
hell (Inf. 12, 120). 

In the piazza in front of the cathedral is the spot where in July, 
1155, Pope Hadrian IV. (Nicholas Breakspeare, an Englishman) 
compelled the Emp. Frederick I., as his vassal, to hold his stirrup. 

Adjacent is the dilapidated Episcopal Palace of the 13th cent., 
in which, by order of Charles of Anjou, the Conclave elected Gre- 
gory X. pope in 1271, John XXI. in 1276, and Martin IV. in 1281. 

The church and monastery of S. Rosa contain the blackened 
mummy of that saint , who was born here in the 13th century. She 
urged the people to rise against the Emp. Frederick II., and was 
expelled by the Ghibellines. 

S. Francesco, a Gothic church, contains in the N. transept a 
* Descent from the Cross by Sebastiano del Piombo (influenced 
by Michael Angelo) and, to the right, the *Tomb of Adrian V. 
(de' Fieschi of Genoa, elected 11th July, died 16th Aug. 1276 at 
Viterbo), with recumbent effigy. 

S. Maria della Verita contains the *Marriage of the Virgin, with 
numerous portraits, al fresco by Lorenzo di Qiacomo of Viterbo 
(1469). Fine monastery-court. 

In front of the *Palazzo Pubblico is a Roman sarcophagus with 
the Hunt of Meleager, bearing an inscription in memory of the 
beautiful Qaliana (1 138), on whose account , like Helen of old, a 
war was once kindled between Rome and Viterbo, in which the 
latter was victorious. The Court contains an elegant Fountain and 
five large Etruscan sarcophagi with figures and inscriptions. In 
the Museum are Etruscan and Roman antiquities and paintings; 
also the 'decree of Desiderius, king of the Lombards', and the 
Tabula Cibellaria , forgeries of the notorious Annius of Viterbo, a 
Dominican monk who died at Rome in 1502. 

The Fontana Grande in the market-place, begun in 1206, and 
the fountain in the Piazza della Rocca, of 1566, ascribed to Vignola, 
are also worthy of notice. 

Excursions. About IV2 M. to the E. of Viterbo, towards Orte, is situated 
the suppressed Dominican monastery of the Madonna della Querela, the 
church of which is said to have been built by Bramante , with handsome 
courts. — About l'/a M. farther is the small town of Bagnaia , with the 
charming "Villa Lante , built at the end of the 15th and beginning of the' 

68 Route 9. CASTEL D'ASSO. From Viterbo 

16th cent., the summer-residence of the ducal family of that name (adm. 
granted on application). 

Several expeditions through picturesque scenery, and interesting to 
antiquarians, may be made from Viterbo to the surrounding ruins of an- 
cient Etkuscan Cities. The volcanic nature of the district, indicated by the 
profound ravines and fissures of the rock, and the dreary desolation which 
prevails, combined with the proximity of the graves of 2000 years' antiquity, 
impart an impressive sadness to the scene. — The farther the traveller 
deviates from the main route, the more miserable do the inns become. 

From Viterbo to Toscanella, 12'/2M., diligence thrice weekly (see p. 6). 

Castel d'Asso, popularly known as Castellaccio , 10 M. to the W. of 
Viterbo, may be visited on horseback or on foot (guide necessary; lights 
should not be forgotten by those who intend to explore the tombs). Pass- 
ing the Bulicame (p. 66), the road traverses a moor and leads to the valley, 
Which contains a succession of Etruscan Tombs, hewn in the rock. The 
fronts of these are architecturally designed , and bear some resemblance to 
the rock-tombs of Egypt; numerous inscriptions. On the opposite hill are 
the picturesque ruins of a mediaeval castle and the scanty remains of 
an ancient village, probably the Castellum Axia of Cicero. 

The traveller may from this point proceed to Vetralla, 9 M. to the 
S.W. of Viterbo (diligence), situated near the Roman Forum C'assii. At 
Vetralla the road from Viterbo divides : that to the S.E. leads to (11 M.) 
Sutri (see p. 69) ; that to the W. by Monte Romano to Corneto (diligence 
on certain days), see p. 4. 

From Vetralla a bridle-path, traversing a bleak moor, leads in l'/2 hr. 
to the "Necropolis of Norchia (with guide), similar to that of Castel d'Asso, 
but more imposing. Two of the tombs manifest a bias to the Hellenic style. 
Adjacent are the picturesque ruins of a Lombard church. In the 9th cent, 
the village was named Orcle, but the ancient name is unknown. 

Bieda, the ancient Blera, a miserable village, 4 ! /2 M. S. of Vetralla, 
possesses similar rock-tombs and two ancient bridges. Scenery striking. 

From Viterbo to Rome, 464/2 M. The road gradually ascends the 
wooded height of Mons Ciminius, now generally called the Monte di 
Viterbo (highest point 3460 ft. above the sea-level), once considered 
the impregnable bulwark of central Etruria, until the Consul Q. 
Fabius, B.C. 308, successfully traversed it and signally defeated the 
Etruscans. The culminating point of the pass (2850 ft. above the 
sea), on which lies the old post-station of — 

5 M. L'Imposta, commands an admirable *Survey of the plain 
towards the N., and W. as far as the sea. A more imposing view is 
soon disclosed of the vast Campagna di Roma, surrounded by the 
long chain of the Umbrian and Sabine Apennines as far as Pa- 
lestrina and the Alban Mts. ; the isolated Soracte (p. 63) stands 
boldly out in the foreground; below lies the small, round Lago di 
Vico, the Lacus Ciminius (1703 ft.), an extinct crater surrounded 
by woods , the E. bank of which is skirted by the road. To the 
N. of the lake, but inside the crater, rises the beautiful wooded 
Monte Venere (2897 ft.). According to an ancient tradition, a town, 
submerged by the lake, is still visible beneath the surface. 

About 31/2 M. from l'lmposta a path to the left leads through 
wood to the chateau of Caprarola (li/ 2 M.J. 

The once greatly renowned, but now seldom visited "chateau of Ca- 
prarola, of pentagonal shape, surrounded by a rampart and fosse is one of 
the most important works of Vigtiola, who erected it for Cardinal Alexan- 
der Farnese, nephew of Paul III. (1534-49). The saloons and other apart- 
ments are adorned with frescoes of scenes from the history of the Farnese 

to Rome. SUTRI. 9. Boute. 69 

family, allegories, etc., by Federigo, Ottaviano, and Taddeo Zucchero, Tem- 
pesta, andngnola. A magnificent prospect is enjoyed from the upper 
terrace of the Palazzuolo, a tasteful structure by Vignola, situated in the 

At the S.E. end of the lake, 2 M. farther, lies the miserable 
village of Vico, beyond which we soon reach — 

12t/ 2 M. Bonciglione, a beautifully situated little town, with a 
ruined castle on the height (1369 ft. above the sea-level), on the 
margin of the Campagna di Roma. 

About _ 21/2 M. to the S. of Ronciglione , on the road from Vetralla 
(p. 08), picturesquely situated on the crest of an isolated volcanic hill 
is Sutri, the ancient Etruscan Sutrium, frequently mentioned in history 
as the ally of Rome in the wars against the Etruscans, from whom it 
was wrested by Camillus in B.C. 389 (Claustra Etruriae). In 383 it became 
a Roman colony. The deep ravine contains numerous Etruscan tombs 
and, on the S. side, fragments of the ancient walls. Three of the five 
gates are ancient, two towards the S., and the Porta Furia on the N. side 
(said to be so named because once entered by M. Furius Camillus), now 
built up. Outside the Porta Romana at the foot of an eminence near the 
Villa Savorelli and shaded by dense forest, is situated an admirably pre- 
served "Amphitheatre, hewn in the rock, dating from Augustus, erroneously 
regarded by some as Etruscan (axes 55 and 44 yds. respectively). The 
rocks above contain numerous tomb-chambers, one of which has been con- 
verted into a 'church, where, according to the various local traditions, the 
early Christians used to celebrate divine service. A legend attaching to 
the Grotta d'Orlando , near the town describes it as the birthplace of the 
celebrated paladin of Charlemagne. 

A bridle-path leads in 2 hrs. from Sutri to the Lake of Bracciano and 
Trevignano (p. 386). 

On the left, 71/2 M. from Ronciglione, our road is joined by that 
from Borghetto, Civita Castellana, and Nepi, see p. 64. About 2 M. 
farther on, near — 

22 M. Monterosi, we join the road coming from Vetralla (p. 68) 
and Sutri (51/2 M., see above), the ancient Via Cassia, which we 
now follow to Rome. We next pass (2»/ 2 M. from Monterosi) the 
*Sette Vene inn, and3y 2 M. farther reach the somewhat unhealthy 
village of Baccano (Posta), situated on the brink of an ancient cra- 
ter ; in the vicinity is a mephitic pond ; to the W. lie the two small 
lakes of Stracciacappa and Martignano (Locus Alsietinus~). Traces 
of ancient drains (emissarii) are distinguished on the left side of the 
road. Immediately beyond Baccano the road ascends and traverses 
the S. extremity of the crater, whence (or better from one of the 
hills to the left, 1010 ft.) in favourable weather a beautiful pano- 
rama of the environs of Rome is enjoyed ; of the city itself, how- 
ever, nothing is seen but the dome of St. Peter's, peeping forth 
above the ridge of Monte Mario. 

We next pass the site of the ancient Veji, on the left (p. 383). 

36y 2 M. La Storta (668 ft.), the last of the old post-stations 
before Rome (see p. 384). — 441/2 M. Ponte Molle, see p. 357. — 
46V 2 M. Porta del Popolo at Borne, see p. 104. 


10. From Perugia to Foligno and Orte (Rome). 

76 31. Railway in 4-4i/s hrs. ; fares 13 fr. 40, 9 fr. 20, 6 fr. 40 c. - 
The most interesting points are Assist, Spoleto , and Terni. — From Pe- 
rugia to Rome, 128 31., in 7'/ 2 hrs. ; fares 22 fr. 80, 15 fr. 75, 11 fr. 50 c. 
The quick trains from Florence to Rome no longer go via Perugia (comp. 
p. 37); but travellers from Perugia to Rome may join the express from 
Bologna and Ancona at Foligno (increased fares). 

Perugia, see p. 46. The train descends, passing through 
several tunnels. To the left we obtain a glimpse of the tomb of the 
Volumnii (p. 55). 5Y2 M. Ponte S. Giovanni. The train crosses 
the Tiber, the ancient frontier between Etruria and Umbria, and 
the Chiascio. 12i/ 2 M. Bastia. 

lb 1 /') M. Stat. Assisi. The town lies on a hill to the left (omni- 
bus 1 fr/). 

Before ascending to Assisi the traveller should visit the magnifi- 
cent church of *S. Maria degli Angeli, about */ 4 M. to the "W. of 
the station, on the site of the original oratory of St. Francis. It was 
begun by Vignola in 1569, and completed by Martelli of Perugia 
and Giorgetti of Assisi. The nave and choir were re-erected after 
the earthquake of 1832, but the dome had escaped injury. 

The Interior contains, below the dome, the Oratory of the saint (called 
Portiuncula), on the facade of which is the *Vision of St. Francis in 1221, 
'Mary with a choir of angels', a fresco by Fr. Overbeck, 1829. — In the 
Cappella di S. Giuseppe in the left aisle are a Coronation of the Virgin, 
St. Francis receiving the stigmata, and a St. Jerome, of the Robbia 
school. The Cappella delle Rose (at the end of the S. aisle) contains five 
frescoes from the life of the saint by Tiberio a" Assisi, 1518. Adjacent 
is a small garden with the roses which are said to have sprung from the 
thorns with which St. Francis used to castigate himself. — Farther on, 
to the right, is the hut in which St. Francis expired, 4th Oct. 1226, with 
inscription, and frescoes by Lo SpagnaiJ), representing the followers of 
the saint. In the sacristy are cabinets of the 16th cent, and an Ecce 
Homo by Perugino (?). The other parts of the church are modern. 

A beautiful path leads from S. Maria degli Angeli to Assisi in 
3 /4 hr. The services of the guides who importune travellers at 
S. Maria degli Angeli and at Assisi are quite superfluous. 

Assisi (Albergo del Subasio , with a fine view , adjoining the 
monastery of S. Francesco, tolerable; Leone, near the Piazza; 
bargaining necessary at both ; good photographs from Giotto's frescoes 
sold only by P. Lunghi , in the Piazza near S. Francesco, l 1 /^ fr. 
each), a small town and episcopal see, the ancient Umbrian Assisium, 
where in B.C. 46 the elegiac poet Propertius, and in 1698 the opera- 
writer Pietro Metastasio (properly Trapassi, d. at Vienna in 1782) 
were born, stands in a singularly picturesque situation. 

It is indebted for its reputation to St. Francis, who was born here in 
1182. He was the son of the merchant Pietro Bernardone, and spent his 
vouth in frivolity. At length, whilst engaged in a campaign against Perugia, 
he was taken prisoner and attacked by a dangerous illness. Sobered by 
adversity, he soon afterwards (1208) founded the monastic order of Francis- 
cans, which speedily found adherents in all the countries of Europe and 
was sanctioned in 1210 by Innocent III., and in 1223 by Honorius III. Po- 
verty and self-abnegation formed the essential characteristics of the order 


10. Route. 71 

which under different designations (Seraphic Brethren, Minorites, Observan- 
tes, and Capuchins, who arose in 1526) was soon widely diffused. St. Francis 
is said to have been favoured with visions, the most important of which 
was that of 1224, when Christ impressed on him the marks of his wounds 
(stigmata). From the 'apparition of the crucified seraph' the saint is also 
known as Pater Seraphicus. 

1:15.000 s__ 

St. Francis died on 4th Oct., 1226, and in 1228 was canonised by Gre- 
gory IX., who appointed the day of his death to be kept sacred to his mem- 
ory. He wrote several works, especially letters which display talent, and 
was one of the most remarkable characters of the middle ages. Dante 
(Paradiso 11, 50) says of him that he rose like a sun and illumined every- 
thing with his rays. 

Having reached the town, we proceed to the left to the conspicu- 
ous old **Monastery op thb Franciscans on the brow of the hill, 
which was erected in the first half of the 13th cent, upon massive 
substructions. After having existed for six centuries, it was sup- 
pressed in 1866, but a few surviving monks are permitted to remain 
here till their death. Part of the building has recently been converted 
by government into a school for the sons of teachers. The Sagre- 
stano, who is generally to be found in the lower church, shows the 
churches and the monastery (1 fr.). Besides several frescoes of the 
16th and 17th cent, in the refectories, the *choir-stalls by Domenico 
da 8. Severino, recently brought from the upper church, dating from 
1450, and adorned with admirable carving and inlaid figures of 

72 Route 10. ASSISI. From Perugia 

saints , are particularly worthy of attention. From the external 
passage a magnificent *view of the luxuriant valley is enjoyed. 

The two Churches, erected one above the other, are objects 
of far greater interest. A third, the Crypt, with the tomb of the 
saint, was added in 1818, when his remains were re-discovered. 
The lower church was erected in 1228-32, the upper in 1253, 
and consecrated by Innocent IV. The Northern Gothic style, intro- 
duced by the German master Jacob, appears here in Italy for the 
first time, though not without incipient traces of Italian modifications. 
The architect of the tower was the monk Fra Filippo da Campello. 

The "lower Church, used for divine service , is always accessible ; en- 
trance by a side-door on the terrace, in front of which is a vestibule of 
1487. The interior is low and sombre. To the right a tomb, above it a vase 
of porphyry, said to be that of John de Brienne , King of Jerusalem , who 
entered the order of St. Francis in 1237. Opposite the entrance is the cha- 
pel of the Crucifixion. 

To the right in the Nave , the chapel of St. Louis , with frescoes by 
Adone Doni (1560). On the vaulted ceiling prophets and sibyls, by Andrea 
del Ingegno of Assisi. The chapel of S. Antonio di Padova, with frescoes by 
Pace da Faenza (14th cent.), is modernised and partly whitewashed. — The 
Cappella S. Maddalena is adorned with frescoes, representing scenes from 
the life of the saint and of Maria JJgyptiaoa, which were formerly attri- 
buted to Buffalmacco (about 1320). It is, however, certain that they were 
executed by a pupil of Giotto, a Florentine artist, who did not scruple to 
paint copies here of his master's pictures at Padna. — The Cappella S. 
Cateeina, or del Crocefisso , contains inferior compositions of the latter 
half of the 14th cent. 

The S. Transept contains on its E. and W. walls three series of 
"Scenes from the life of Jesus , the "Resuscitation of a child of the Spini 
family, and over the doorway a Portrait of Christ, all by Oiotto (probably 
at an advanced age). The master may have been assisted in these works 
by his pupils , but the style seems to indicate that they were chiefly 
painted by his own hand. 

The High Altar occupies the spot where the remains of St. Fran- 
cis once reposed. Above it are four triangular spaces on the groined 
vaulting , containing the famous "Frescoes of Giotto , illustrative 
of the vows of the mendicant order : poverty , chastity, and obed- 
ience; the fourth painting is an apotheosis of St. Francis. The first pic- 
ture represents the nuptials of St. Francis with poverty in rags. In the 
next, a monk, a nun, and a lay brother are represented taking the vow 
of chastity ; the foreground is enlivened by penitents, scourgers, and vota- 
ries of pleasure. Chastity herself is guarded in a tower by purity and 
bravery. Obedience is symbolised by the laying of a yoke" on a monk. 
Each scene , moreover, is replete with allegorical allusions (chiefly from 
Dante), most of which will be readily understood by those, who are versed 
in the fanciful combinations of the period. 

At the end of the S. Transept is the Cappella del Sacramento, with 
frescoes from the life of St. Nicholas, generally attributed to Qiottino, but 
more probably executed by Agnolo da Siena, in the first half of the 14th 
cent. On the entrance-wall : Resuscitation of a child killed by a fall from 
a house. 

The N. Transept contains Scenes from the Passion , of the Sienese 
School , formerly attributed to Cavallini and Puccio Capanna , a pupil of 
Giotto, perhaps by Pietro LorenzeUi; these paintings are in a very damag- 
ed condition. — To the right of the entrance to the Sacristy, in which 
the treasures and the relics belonging to the church were formerly preserved 
is a Madonna with St. Catharine and other saints (1516), by Lo Spagna. In 
the sacristy, over the door, is a portrait of St. Francis, said to have been 
painted by Qiunta Pisano , soon after the death of the saint. To the 

to Foligno. ASSISI. 10. Route. 73 

left of the entrance to the church is the Pulpit, adorned with a Coro- 
nation of the Virgin by Simone Martini of Siena, and further on St. Francis 
receiving the stigmata, a fresco by Giotto. — The last Chapel to the N. 
is dedicated to -Scenes from the life of St. Martin, by Simone Martini (be- 
ginning of 14th cent.); this work, though only partially preserved, still 
remains valuable as one of the ablest productions of the Sienese school, 
and in many respects bears comparison with the style of Giotto and the 

The stained windows of the lower church are by Angeletto and Pielro 
da Gubbio and Bonino oVAssisi ; those of the upper church are more than 
a century later. 

The Crypt was constructed in 1818, after the remains of St. Francis 
had been discovered in a rude stone coffin. It is approached by a double 
staircase, and is lighted with candles when visited by strangers. — Behind 
the tomb stand colossal statues of Popes Pius VII. and IX. 

The "Upper Church, the frescoes of which are undergoing restoration, 
has recently been converted into a museum of Early Tuscan Frescoes. 
It is entered either by the principal portal, or (by applying to the sacris- 
tan) from the lower church. The church is in the form of a Latin cross, 
with Gothic windows. The W. side possesses a splendid rose-window and 
handsome pediments. — In the N. Transept, as we enter from the lower 
church, are remains of Scenes from the Apocalypse, by Cimabue. The 
middle of the ceiling is adorned with frescoes of the four Evangelists, in 
the style of Cimabue and Jacopo Torriti , the mosaicist. — The S. Tran- 
sept contains the remains of a large Crucifixion, Transfiguration, Cruci- 
fixion of St. Peter, and Scenes from the life of Simon Magus, by Givnta 
Pisano. — In the CnoiR: Christ in a glory, and Assumption and Death of 
the Virgin , both by Cimabue. — Nave. In the upper section of the 
S. wall are sixteen scenes from the Old Testament history, from the 
Creation of the world to the Recognition of Joseph by his brethren; on 
the N. side, sixteen scenes from the New Testament, from the Annun- 
ciation to the Descent of the Holy Ghost, by pupils of Cimabue, show- 
ing gradual improvement in execution. The lower section contains 
twenty-eight Scenes from the life of St. Francis, illustrative of the farther 
development of the early Florentine School (Filippo Rusutli , and Gaddo 
Gaddi), of the close of the 13th cent. The first and the five last of these 
frescoes are certainly by the hand of Giotto. On the ceiling of the nave 
are four Angels and four Fathers of the Church , executed in the earlier 
mosaic style. 

Quitting the upper church and emerging on the space in front 
of it, we may follow the street ascending thence in a straight 
direction, which leads us to the Ospedale Civile (on the right, 
No. 11), the chapel of which is adorned with frescoes by Pietro 
Antonio di Fuligno and Matteo di Gualdo (1468), representing 
St. Anthony and Jacob. We next reach the Piazza, in which rises 
the beautiful portico of a *Temple op Minerva, with six columns 
of travertine, converted into a church of S. Maria della Minerva. 
Ancient inscriptions immured in the vestibule. Adjacent to the 
church is the entrance to the ancient Forum, which corresponded 
to the present Piazza, but lay considerably lower. In the forum a 
Basement for a statue, with a long inscription (fee !/ 2 fr.). 

The Chiesa Nuova (PI. 7), reached by descending to the right, 
near the S.E. angle of the Piazza, occupies the site of the house in 
which St. Francis was born. 

The Cathedbal of S. Rufino (PI. 4), in the upper part of the 
town, named after the first bishop (240), was completed in 1140, 
and the crypt in 1028. The ancient facade is adorned with three 

74 Route 10. SPOLETO. From Perugia 

fine rose-windows. The interior was modernised in 1572. In the 
nave, to the right, is a Madonna with four saints by Niccolb Alunno. 
*Choir-stalls by Giovanni da Sanseverino (1520). 

From the cathedral a broad , unpaved road to the right leads in 
a few minutes to the Gothic church of S. Chiara (PL 2), near the 
gate, erected by Fra Filippo da Campello in 1253. The flying but- 
tresses, supported by detached pillars, were afterwards added, and 
have been recently restored. Beneath the high-altar are the remains 
of S. Clara, who, inspired with enthusiasm for St. Francis, abandoned 
her parents and wealth, founded the order of Clarissines, and died 
as first abbess. A handsome crypt of different coloured marbles has 
recently been constructed about her tomb. On the arch above the 
high-altar, frescoes by Oiottino; those in the Cappella di S. Aguese 
are attributed to Oiotto. — The piazza in front of the church com- 
mands a fine view of the fertile valley. 

On the S. of the Salita di Fonte Bella, which ascends on the S. 
margin of the town, is the Confraternita delle Stimate (15th cent.). 
The frescoes on the facade , representing Christ granting indul- 
gences to St. Francis for the church of St. Mary, and the Works of 
Charity, are attributed to Benozzo Gozzoli. — At the E. end of the 
town are remains of a Roman Amphitheatre (PI. 1). 

In a ravine of the lofty Motile Subasio (3612 ft.), at the back of Assisi, 
is situated the hermitage delle Carceri, to which St. Francis was wont to 
retire for devotional exercises. 

From Assisi to Spello a very beautiful drive of 5 M. (one- 
horse carr. 4-5 fr.). By train it is reached in 13 min. To the right 
of the road as the town is approached are the ruins of an amphitheatre 
of the imperial period, but they are not visible from the railway. 

22 M. Spello, with 4000 inhab., picturesquely situated on a 
mountain-slope, is the ancient Hispellum [Colonia Julia Hispellum). 
The gate by which the town is entered, with its three portrait-sta- 
tues, as well as the Porta Urbana, the Porta Veneris , and portions 
of the wall, are ancient. 

The ^Cathedral of S. Maria Maggiore contains some good paint- 

The Benitier to the right of the entrance is formed of an ancient 
cippus. To the left the Cappella del Sacrament" with -Frescoes by 
Pinturicchio (1501): on the left, the Annunciation (with the name and 
portrait of the painter), opposite to us the Adoration, Christ in the 
Temple; on the ceiling, the Sibyls. — The Choir contains a magnificent 
canopy in the early Renaissance style. On the left of the high-altar a 
Picta, on the right a Madonna by Perugino, 1521. — Above the altar in 
the Sacristy, a 'Madonna by Pinturicchio. 

S. Francesco (or Andrea), consecrated in 1228 by Gregory IX., 
contains in the right transept an altar-piece, Madonna and saints, 
by Pinturicchio (1508), with a copy of a letter by G. Baglione to 
the painter painted upon it. 

Among other antiquities the 'House of Propertius' is shown 
although it is certain that the poet was not born here (p. 70). 

to Foligno. FOLIGNO. 10. Route. 75 

In the Pal. Cornunale and on the church-wall of S. Lorenzo are Ro- 
man inscriptions. The upper part of the town commands an ex- 
tensive view of the plain, with Foligno and Assisi. Numerous 
ruins occasioned by the earthquake of 1831 are still observed. 
The train crosses the Topino and reaches — 

25 M. Foligno, the junction of the Ancona line (R. 14). 

Halt of 1 /i hr. ; good Refreshment-Room. — One-horse carriage to the 
town O/2 M.) 40 c. — Inns: "Posta, by the gate; Leon d'Oko; Trattokia 
Falcone, all in the main-street, the Via della Fiera. 

Foligno. near the ancient Fulginium, an industrial town with 
10,000 (incl. suburbs 21,000) inhab., and an episcopal residence, 
is situated in a fertile district. In 1281 it was destroyed by Perugia, 
and in 1439 annexed to the States of the Church. The earth- 
quake of 1831 occasioned serious damage ; others in 1839, 1853, 
and 1854 were less destructive. 

At the entrance to the town a marble statue was erected in 
1872 to the painter Niccolb del Liberatore, surnamed I'Alunno, the 
head of the school of Foligno (p. 48). Public grounds behind it. 

The Via della Fiera leads straight to the Market-place. The 
Cathedral of S. Feliciano situated here was erected in the 12th cent. 
(Romanesque facade of the transept), but entirely remodelled in the 
16th cent. The handsome dome is attributed, but without authority, 
to Bramante. — The Palazzo del Governo, in the same square (Banca 
del Popolo, up the steps to the left), contains frescoes by Ottaviano 
Nelli in an old chapel. 

Following the Via Montogli to the left, and then the Via S. Niccolo, 
a side-street to the right, we reach the church of S. Niccolb. The 
2nd Chapel to the right here contains an altar-piece with numerous 
figures, and an Adoration of the Infant Christ by Niccolb Alunno 
in the centre. The chapel to the right of the high-altar is adorned 
with a Coronation of the Virgin, with predelle by the same master. 

The church of S. Anna, or delle Contesse, once contained Raphael's 
famous Madonna di Foligno, now in the Vatican. — S. Maria infra 
Portas contains frescoes by Nic. Alunno, and La Nunziatella a 
fresco of the Baptism of Christ by Perugino. — In the Capp. 
Betlehemme, Via de' Monasteri, is a small public picture-gallery. 

About 4 M. to the E. of Foligno, on the slope of the hills, is situated 
the Abbadia di Sassovivo, with cloisters built in 1229, resembling those of 
S. Paolo Fuori at Rome (p. 258). 

About 5 M. to the W. of Foligno is Bevagna, on the Clitumnus, the 
ancient Mevania of the Umbri , celebrated for its admirable pastures, with 
remains of an amphitheatre and other antiquities. The churches of S. Sil- 
vestro and S. Michele, dating from the latter part of the 12th cent., though 
not entirely preserved, present a picturesque appearance. 

From Bevagna (or from Foligno direct 7 M.) we may visit the lofty 
Montefalco, a small town with several churches containing fine paintings. 
In S. Fkancesco are frescoes by Benozzo Gozzoli (1452). The choir contains 
the legend of St. Francis ; and the chapel of St. Jerome a Madonna en 
throned, and scenes from the life of the saint. In the other chapels are 
good frescoes by Tiberio d'Assisi and Lorenzo da Viterbo. The church of 

76 Route 10. SPOLETO. From Perugia 

S. Fortunato (3/i M. from the town, on the road to Trevi) has interesting 
frescoes by Benozzo (1449). Charming views of the plain from the hill. 

The Rail-way traverses the luxuriant, well- watered valley of 
the Clitumnus, whose flocks are extolled by Virgil, to — 

133 M. Trevi. The small town, the ancient Trebia, lies pic- 
turesquely on the slope to the left. The church of the *Madonna 
delle Lagrime contains the Adoration of the Magi, one of Peru- 
gino's latest frescoes , and a Descent from the Cross by Lo Spagna. 
S. Martino, outside the gate, has a Madonna in fresco by Tiberio 
(TAssisi, and a Coronation of the Virgin by Lo Spagna. 

The small village of Le Vene, on the Clitumnus, is next passed. 
Near it, to the left, we obtain a glimpse of a small ancient *Temple, 
usually regarded as that of Clitumnus mentioned by Pliny (Epist. 
8, 8), but probably not earlier than Constantine the Great, as the 
Christian emblems, the vine and the cross, on the facade testify. 
The temple, now a church of S. Salvatore , lies with its back to- 
wards the road, about 2y 2 M. from Trevi. Near Le Vene the 
abundant and clear Source of the Clitumnus, beautifully described 
by Pliny, wells forth from the limestone-rock. On the height to 
the left is the village of Campello. On the way to Spoleto, to the 
left, in the village of S. Oiacomo, is a church with frescoes by 
Lo Spagna, of 1526; beautiful road through richly cultivated land. 

41 M. Spoleto. The town is 3 /i M - distant ; one-horse carr. 1/2 fr. 

La Posta, in the lower, part of the town, near the railway-gate. — 
Albekgo & Rest, del Teatko Nuovo, in the upper town, near the theatre, 
well spoken of. — Trattoria delta Ferrovia, to the right of the gate. 

Spoleto, the ancient Spoletium, the seat of a bishop as early as 
A.D. 50, now an archiepiscopal see, is a busy town, beautifully situ- 
ated, and containing some interesting objects of art (11,000 inhab.; 
whole parish 20,800). 

In B. C. 242 a Roman colony was established here, and in 217 the town 
vigorously repelled the attack of Hannibal when on his march to Picenum 
after the battle of the Trasimene Lake, as Livy relates (22, 9). It subse 
quently became a Roman municipium , suffered severely during the civil 
wars of Sulla and Marius, and again at the hands of the Goths, after the 
fall of the W. Empire. The Lombards founded a duchy here (as in Bene- 
vento) in 570, the first holders of which were Faroald and Ariolf. After 
the fall of the Carlovingians, Outdo of Spoleto even attained the dignity of 
Emperor, as well as his son Lambert , who perished while hunting in 898. 
Innocent III. and Gregory IV. incorporated Spoleto with the States of the 
Church about 1220. The Castle of Spoleto, erected by Theodoric the Great, 
restored by Narses, and strengthened with four towers by Cardinal Albornoz, 
now a prison , fell into the hands of the Piedmontese on 18th Sept., 1860, 
after a gallant defence by Major O'Reilly, an Irishman. 

The town is built on the slope of a hill, the summit of which 
is occupied by the old castle of La Rocca; the church-spire most 
to the left when seen from the station is that of the cathedral. — 
Entering by the town-gate and following the main street which 
traverses the lower part of the town, we reach (5 min.) a gateway 
of the Roman period, called the Porta d'Annibale, or Porta della 
Fuga, in allusion to the above-mentioned occurrence. 

We may continue to follow the Strada Umberto, ascending the 

to Orte. SPOLETO. 10. Route. 77 

hill in a wide curve, or take one of the direct but steep side-streets. 
Inclining towards the left, near the top, we come to the — 

"Cathedral of S. Maria Assunta, erected by Duke Theodela- 
pius in 617, but frequently restored. The facade (13th cent.) has 
a Renaissance portico of five arches with antique columns, a frieze 
with griffins and arabesques, and at each side a stone pulpit ; above, 
Christ with Mary and John, a large mosaic by Solsernus (1207). 

To the right of the vestibule is a Baptistery, containing frescoes in 
the style of Giulio Romano; the travertine font, with sculptures from the 
life of Christ, is of the 16th cent. 

The Interior of the cathedral was restored in 1644 , and has been 
recently whitewashed. — The Choir contains "frescoes by Fra Filippo 
Lippi, completed after his death by Fra Diamante in 1470, Annunciation, 
Birth of Christ, and Death of Mary; in the semicircle her Coron- 
ation and Assumption (unfortunately damaged). At the entrance to the 
chapel, on the left of the choir, to the left, is the Tomb of Fil. Lippi, 
who died here in 1469 of poison administered by the family of Spinetta 
Buti, a noble Florentine. Although a monk, he had succeeded in gaining 
the affections of this lady and abducting her from a convent. The monu- 
ment was erected by Lorenzo de' Medici; the epitaph is by Poliziano. 
Opposite is the monument of an Orsini. — The Winter-Choir, in the left 
aisle, contains good carving from the 15th cent. , and a Madonna by Lo 
Spagna. — In the Chapel to the right of the entrance are fragments of 
frescoes by Pinturicchio. 

In the Piazza del Duomo , in front of the cathedral , probably 
stood the palace of the Lombard Dukes. — On leaving the ca- 
thedral we proceed in a straight direction , slightly ascending, to 
the Palazzo Pubblico , containing several inscriptions and a small 
picture gallery , in which a Madonna with saints, by Lo Spagna, 
deserves notice. 

The other churches are of inferior interest. S. Domenico con- 
tains a copy of Raphael's Transfiguration, attributed to Giulio Ro- 
mano. 5. Pietro, outside the Roman gate, is a Lombard edifice ; 
facade adorned with sculptures. 

Some of the churches contain relics of ancient temples; thus in 
that del Crocefisso (restored), outside the town, near the cemetery, 
fragments of a temple of Concordia (?) ; columns, etc. in S. Andrea 
and S. Oiuliano , remains of a theatre ; a ruin styled 'Palace of 
Theodoric', etc. ; but none of these claim special attention. 

Travellers should not omit to extend their walk beyond the ca- 
thedral and the Palazzo Pubblico as follows. Continuing to ascend, 
after a few minutes we cross the Piazza Brignone in a diagonal 
direction, where a memorial slab commemorates the capture of the 
fortress in 1860. Passing the fountain, we leave the upper part of 
the Piazza by a street to the right, which passes immediately below 
the lower entrance of the fortress of La Rocca, now a prison. A 
little farther on, near a gate which here forms the entrance to the 
town, we perceive, to the left, polygonal foundations, being remains 
of the ancient castle-wall. Outside the wall is a profound ravine, 
spanned by the imposing aqueduct *Ponte delle Torn', built of brick, 
which is used as a viaduct, uniting the town with Monte Luco. It 

78 Route 10. TERNI. From Perugia 

rests on ten arches, and is 290 ft. in height, and 231 yds. ir 
length. Its construction is attributed to Theodelapius, third duk< 
of Spoleto (604J. A window midway affords a view. To the left or 
the height is perceived the monastery of S. Giuliano ; below is S 
Pietro (see above), above which stands the former Capuchin mon- 
astery , shaded by beautiful trees. Beyond the bridge we turn t< 
the left, generally following the direction of the aqueduct. Afte: 
10-15 min. a more unbroken *Prospect is obtained, embracing th< 
fortress and town, and the spacious valley. 

The ascent of Monte Luco, f/2 hr. , is somewhat fatiguing. Toward; 
the left is a lofty cross, whence an unimpeded panorama is obtained to thi 
N. and E., of the valley of the Clituinnus with Trevi, Foligno, Spello 
and Assisi; then Perugia and the Central Apennines near Citta di Castelli 
and Gubbio. In the other directions the view is intercepted by thi 
mountains in the vicinity. Towards the E. these are overtopped by thi 
rocky peak of the Sibilla, snow-clad until late in the summer. — Return 
ing to the right we pass the former Capuchin monastery of S. Maria dell 
Grazie, an ancient resort of pilgrims. 

The Railway ascends during 1 hr. on the slopes of Monti 
Somma (4038 ft.) to the culminating point of the line (2231 ft.) 
— Before {pi 1 /^ M.) Giuncano , it passes through a long tunnel 
and reaches — 

59 M. Terni. — The town is 3 /4 M. from the station; one-horse can 
1 fr.; a seat in a carriage ('an posto') to the piazza 30, as far as the hotel 
40 c. ; box 20 c. 

•'Inghilterra , near the piazza, E. 3 fr. ; Europa, in the piazza, R 
2 3 / 4 -3, D. 4, B. l>/ 2 fr. — Italia, well spoken of. 

Terni , situated in the fertile valley of the Nera, with 15,40( 
inhab. (incl. villages) and several manufactories , is the ancien 
Interamna , where, it is believed, the historian Tacitus and thi 
emperors Tacitus and Florianus were born. Remains of an amphi 
theatre (erroneously styled a 'Temple of the Sun'') in the ground, 
of the episcopal palace, Roman inscriptions in the Palazzo Pubblico 
palaces of the Umbrian nobility, etc. are objects of interest. Pleasan 
walk on the ramparts, whence the beautiful Nera Valley is surveyed 
to the left Collescipoli, to the right Cesi, opposite the spectator Narni 

The Waterfalls of Tebnt may be reached on foot in life hr. 
the whole excursion, including stay, requires about 4 hrs. 

Carriage for 1 person 5, 2 pers. 7, 3 pers. 9 fr. , etc., accordin 
to tariff; or at the hotels 7, 10 and 15 fr. respectively, besides whicl 
a fee of I-IV2 fr. is expected. — Guide (quite unnecessary) 3 fr. 
The traveller should be abundantly provided with copper-coins. A 
the different points of view contributions are levied by the custodian 
(3-4 soldi); flowers and fossils from the Velino are offered for sale, alsi 
for 3-4 soldi ; besides which the patience is sorely tried by the impor 
tunities of a host of beggars and guides. 

Two carriage -roads lead from Terni to the waterfalls. Thi 
New Road (4 4 /2 M.), following the right bank of the Nera, am 
flanked with poplars, leaves the town near the Porta Spoletina 
and crosses the plain in a straight direction. On the right rise; 
the large new government manufactory of weapons, the machinery 
of which is to be driven by the water of the Nera. We now ap' 

to Orte. 


10. Route. 79 

proach the stream, the valley of which contracts. On each side 
tower lofty rocks, to which the luxuriant vegetation of the slopes 
forms a beautiful contrast. — The Old Road is reached from the 
piazza at Terni by passing the Albergo Europa and descending the 
Strada Garibaldi. We at first follow the Rieti and Aquila road (see 
Baedeker's S. Italy), which crosses the Nera just outside the gate, 
traversing gardens and olive-plantations ; after 2 M. (near a small 
chapel on the right), a broad road to the left descends into the 


valley of the Nera, while the high-road continues to ascend gradu- 
ally to the right. The former descends in windings past the village 
of Papigno , picturesquely situated on an isolated rock, (3/ 4 M.) 
crosses the Nera, and on the right bank , near the villa of Count 
Castelli-Graziani, reaches the new road mentioned above (1-174 M. 
to the falls). 

The celebrated falls of the Velino (which here empties itself into 
the Nera), called the **Cascate delle Marmore, are about 650 ft. 
in height, and have few rivals in Europe in point of beauty and vo- 
lume of water. The rivulet is precipitated from the height in three 
leaps of about 65, 330, and 190 ft. respectively, the water falling 
perpendicularly at some places, and at others dashing furiously over 
rocks. The spray of the falls is seen from a considerable distance. 

The Velino is so strongly impregnated with lime that its deposit con- 
tinually raises its bed ; and the plain of Rieti (1397 ft.) is therefore 
frequently exposed to the danger of inundation. In ancient times Manius 
Curius Dentatus endeavoured to counteract the evil by the construction 
of a tunnel (B.C. 271), which, though altered, is to this day in use. 
The rising of the bed of the river, however, rendered new measures 
necessary from time to time. Two other channels were afterwards 
excavated, the Cava Beatina or Oregoriana in 1417, and the Cava Puolina 

80 Route 10. TERNI. 

by Paul III. in 1546; these, however, proving unserviceable, Clement VIII. 
re-opened the original 'emissarius' of Dentatus in 1598. In 1787 a new 
cutting was required, and another has again become necessary. The 
regulation of the Velino-fall has long formed the subject of vehement 
discussions between Rieti and Terni, as the unrestrained descent of the 
water in rainy seasons threatens the valley of Terni with inundation. 

Fine views of the falls are obtained from several points. Before 
reaching the falls, we may ascend a path to the left , leading in 
10 min. to a small summer-house, which affords the finest view of 
the upper and central falls. — We now return to the road, retrace 
our steps to the first path on the left, and cross the Nera by a 
natural bridge, below which the water has hollowed its own channel. 
Where the path divides, we ascend gradually to the left. The 
surrounding rocks (in which there is a quarry) have been formed by 
the incrustations of the Velino. The channel on the right (Cava 
Paolina) is full in winter only. In 12-15 min. we come to a point, 
where the division of the cascade is surveyed ; the central fall, in 
the spray of which beautiful rainbows are occasionally formed, may 
be approached more nearly. A farther steep ascent of 15-20 min. 
leads to a small pavilion of stone on a projecting rock, affording a 
beautiful view of the principal fall and the valley of the Nera. We 
next ascend a flight of steps (4 min.), and soon reach another point 
of view on the left, in the garden of the first cottage (20 c). — 
Following the same path for a few minutes more , we turn to the 
right and come to a small house ; passing through its garden (10- 
15 c), and between several houses, we reach in 10 min. the road 
to Rieti and Aquila (see above), not far from a good osteria(No. 153). 
The road back to Terni (4 M.) commands a fine view. 

If time permit, the excursion may be extended from the upper 
fall to the beautiful *Lake of Piedilugo, 3 M. further. Following the 
above-mentioned road , we cross the Velino , reach the lake in 
V2 hr., skirt its indentations, and arrive at the village of Piedilugo, 
with its ruined castle, in 1/2 hr- more. Boats at the inn for a trip 
to the opposite bank, where a fine echo may be awakened. 

The Railway intersects the rich valley of the Nera. To the 
right on the hill lies Cesi, to the left, Collescipoli. 

Cesi, loftily situated, 5 M. N.W. of Terni, to the right of the S. 
Gemine and Todi road (p. 56j, possesses remains of ancient polygonal 
walls and interesting subterranean grottoes. 

67 M. Narni (Angelo, tolerable;, the ancient Umbrian Namia 
(originally Nequinum), birthplace of the Emperor Nerva, Pope John 
XIII. (965-72), and of Erasmus of Narni, surnamed Gattamelata, 
the well-known 'condottiere' of the 15th century. It is picturesquely 
situated, 3/ 4 M. from the station, on a lofty rock (1191 ft.) on the 
Nar, now Nera (whence its name), at the point where the river 
forces its way through a narrow ravine to the Tiber. The old castle 
is now a prison. — The Cathedral, erected in the 13th cent, with 
a vestibule of 1497, and dedicated to St. Juvenalis the first bishop 

NARNI. 10. Route. 81 

(369), is architecturally interesting. — The Town Hall contains 
the Coronation of Mary by Lo Spayna (formerly in the monastery of 
the Zoccolanti, and for a long time attributed to Raphael), one of 
that master's finest paintings, but lately spoiled by retouching. 

From Narni to Perugia by Todi, see p. 56. 

From Narni a road leads to the N.W. to the (6 M.) venerable and 
finely situated Umbrian mountain-town of Amelia, Lat. Ameria (inn outside 
the gate), mentioned by Cicero in his oration Pro Roscio Amerino, with 
admirably preserved "'Cyclopean Walls and other antiquities (1388 ft.). 

The train turns towards the narrowing valley of the Nera, and 
passes close to the ^Bridge of Augustus (on the left), which spanned 
the river immediately below Narni in three huge arches , and be- 
longed to the Via Flaminia (p. 85) , leading to Bevagna (p. 75). 
The arch next to the left bank, 60 ft. in height, alone is preserved, 
while of the two others the buttresses only remain. 

The train continues to follow the valley of the Nera , with its 
beautiful plantations of evergreen oaks, passes through two tunnels, 
and then (not far from the influx of the Nera) crosses the Tiber, 
which 1860-70 formed the boundary between the Kingdom of Italy 
and the Papal States. — Near — 

76 M. Orte, the train reaches the main line from Chiusi to Rome 
(see p. 62). 

11. From Bologna to Rimini, Falconara (Home), 
and Ancona. 

127 M. Railway in 5-8 hrs. ; fares 23 fr. 10, 16 fr. 15, 11 fr. 55 c. — 
Beautiful views of the sea between Rimini and Cattolica, and beyond Pe- 
saro. A seat on the left should therefore be secured. — From Bologna to 
Rome, 300 M. , express in 14'/ 2 -15 hrs. (via Florence in 13 hrs.); fares 
5G fr. 75, 39 fr. 50 c. — This train diverges to the S. W. at Falconara, the 
last station before Ancona. 

The towns on the coast of the Adriatic are far inferior in attraction 
to those in the W. part of the peninsula (Tuscany and Umbria); but 
without a visit to them the traveller's acquaintance with Italy would be 
but imperfect. The views of the Adriatic to the E., and of the Apennines 
to the W. are often charming, and the situation of some of the towns, 
especially Ancona , is strikingly beautiful. Rimini , an ancient Roman 
colony and frontier fortress, possesses several fine monuments of antiquity, 
and its church of S. Francesco is an admirable Renaissance work. Roman 
triumphal arches are also preserved at Ancona and Fano ; and Loreto boasts 
of valuable sculptures in the Renaissance style (p. 100). Urbino, too, the 
birthplace of Raphael, lies within a short distance of this route. Many of 
the towns now have galleries of pictures collected from the suppressed 
monasteries, but of second-rate importance. 

Bologna, see vol. i. of this Handbook. The line follows the 
direction of the ancient Via JEmilia, which extended from Placentia 
to Ariminum , and traverses a fertile plain. In the distance to the 
right are the spurs of the Apennines. 4^2 M. <S. Lazzaro (trains 
stop in summer only) ; 7 M. Mirandola; IOV2 M. Quaderna; 15 M. 
Castel S. Pietro, on the Sillaro , with a castle erected by the Bolog- 
nese in the 13th cent. 

22 M. Imola (S. Marco), on the Santerno, an ancient town with 

Baedeker. Italv II. 7th Edition. 6 

82 Route 11. FAENZA. From Bologna 

28,700 inhab. (inol. villages), and an episcopal see since 422, was 
the Roman Forum Cornelii, having been built by L. Cornelius Sulla, 
but is mentioned by Paulus Diaconus, the Lombard historian, as 
early as the time of Charlemagne, as Imolae. After many vicissi- 
tudes it was at length annexed to the States of the Church by Pope 
Julius II. in 1509. Imola was the birthplace of St. Petrus Chry- 
solo gus, archbishop of Ravenna (d. 449), whose tomb is in the cathe- 
dral of 8. Cassiano, where the remains of the saint of that name also 
repose. The painter Innocenzo da Imola (Francucci, 1494-1550?) 
and the anatomist Vassalva were also natives of Imola. 

The line crosses the Santerno. 26 M. Castel Bolognese, an an- 
cient stronghold of the Bolognese, was erected in 1380. In 1434 the 
army of the Florentines under Niccolo da Tolentino and Gattame- 
lata was defeated here by the Milanese under Piccinino. Branch-line 
hence to Ravenna (see vol. i.). We then cross the river Senio, the 
ancient Sinnus. 

31 M. Faenza (Corona, near the Piazza Maggiore ; Tre Mori), a 
pleasant town with 14,280 inhab. (with the suburbs 36,600), on the 
Amone (ancient Anemo), the Faventia of the Boii, was the scene of 
Sulla's victory over Carbo. In the middle ages it witnessed numer- 
ous feuds, and in 1509 it was annexed by Pope Julius II. to the 
States of the Church. The town was famous in the 15th cent, for 
its pottery, the manufacture of which has recently been revived 
('faience'), and contains considerable silk and weaving factories. 
Faenza was the birthplace of Torricelli, the inventor of the barometer 
in 1643, to whose memory a monument near the church of S. Fran- 
cesco has recently been erected. 

The cathedral of S. Costanzo, named after Constantius, the first 
bishop of Faventia in 313, contains a Holy Family by Innocenzo da 
Imola, and bas-reliefs by Benedetto da Majano, 1472. 

In the Piazza Maggiore , which is flanked with arcades, are the 
Palazzo Municipale and the Torre dell' Orologio; the fountain in 
the centre, embellished with bronzes, dates from the 17th cent. 

The Library contains 26,000 vols. The adjoining Pinacoteca 
(Ginnasio) has works of native artists, such as Bertucci; a Madonna 
byGuidoReni, etc. A cabinet here contains a bust of John the 
Baptist by Donatello and two interesting terracottas. 

In the Commenda (in the Borgo) is a handsome fresco, Madonna 
and saints, by Girolamo da Treviso (1533). 

Beyond Faenza the train intersects the plain in a straight direc- 
tion. It crosses the Amone, then the Montone, which, united with 
with the Ronco (Bedesis), falls into the Adriatic near Ravenna. 

40 M. Forli (Posta) , the ancient Forum Livii , founded by M. 
Livius Salinator after the defeat of Ilasdrubal , is a well-built pro- 
vincial capital with 15,300 inhab. (including suburbs 39 280). 

Forli, where in 410 the marriage of Athaulf , king of the Visigoths 
with (Uilla Plaridia , sister of the Emp. Honorius was solemnised was 

to Ancona. FORLI. 11. Route. 83 

long an independent state in which the Guelphs retained their ascendancy 
down to 1315. The Ordelaffi then usurped the supreme power, which they 
retained till 1480, when they were succeeded by Girolamo Riario, a favou- 
rite of Sixtus IV. This prince was assassinated in 1488, and his widow, 
Caterina Sforza, was afterwards banished by Cesare Borgia. At length, 
in 1504, Pope Julius II. annexed the city to the States of the Church. — 
Forli was the birthplace of the poet Cornelius Oallus (d. B.C. 27), of the 
historian Flavio Biondo (15th cent.), and of the talented painter Melozzo 
da Forli (end of 15th cent.) , who was closely allied to Piero della Fran- 
cesca, was recognised by his contemporaries as a master of perspective, 
and was afterwards engaged at Rome. 

The Piazza Vitt. Emanuele, the principal square (comp. Plan, 
p. 84) is enclosed by handsome palaces. Here, too, is the church of — 
S. Mercuriale (so named after the first bishop of Forli), which 
possesses a painting by Innocenzo dalmola, sculptures of 1536, and 
several good pictures by Marco Palmezzano , a native of Forli and 
pupil of Melozzo. Lofty and admirably built campanile. 

"We next proceed to the * Cathedral of S. Croce, containing the 
Chapel of the Madonna delFuoco, the dome of which is adorned 
with frescoes by Carlo Cignani of Bologna (1686-1706), represent- 
ing the Assumption of the Virgin, a work in which he was engaged 
during 20 years. The painter is buried in the chapel. In the S. 
aisle is a St. Sebastian by Rondinello. A reliquary of the 14 th 
cent., and the sculptures of the principal door of the 15 th cent, 
are also worthy of notice. 

S. Biagio e S. Girolamo contains in the 3rd chapel on the right 
a Madonna with angels by Ouido Reni, and in the first chapel on the 
right *Frescoes by Melozzo and Palmezzano. 

The*Pinacoteca in theGinnasioComunale in the Piazza S. Pel- 
legrino contains good pictures by Melozzo (including a fresco by 
the master, called the 'Pestapepe', originally a shop sign-board, re- 
presenting a youth using a pestle and mortar), Palmezzano, Rondi- 
nello , Cignani , Francesco Francia (*Adoration of the Child), and 
others. — In the court is a monument to Morgagni, the anatomist 
(d. 1771), inaugurated in 1875. — In a lunette over the entrance 
is a Madonna with angels , from the cathedral, by Simone di Qiov. 
Ohini, erroneously supposed to have been a brother of Donatello. 
A cabinet contains a half- figure of Pino Ordelaffi in marble. 

The Citadel, constructed in 1361 by Cardinal Albornoz, and en- 
larged by the Ordelaffi and Riarii, is now used as a prison. 

A diligence route leads from Forli through the Apennines by Rocca 
8. Casciano and S. Benedetto to Florence. 

The line to Rimini crosses the Ronco and passes (45 M.) Forlim- 
popoli, the ancient Forum Popilii; to the right, on the hill, Ber- 
tinoro, with its productive vineyards. It then passes Polenta and 
crosses the Savio (the ancient Sapis). 

bl M. Cesena (Leond'Oro, R. 2 l /. 2 fr. ; Cappello), with 9.500 
inhab. (incl. villages 37,300), is surrounded by beautiful meadows 
and hills, and boasts of several interesting palaces. 

Caesena is one of the most ancient episcopal sees in Italy, where St. 
Philemon is said to have held the office as early as the year 92. During 


84 Route 11. RIMINI. From Bologna 

the middle ages it was at first an independent state, then became subject 
to the Ghibelline family of Monte feltro, and shortly afterwards to the 
Malatestas, who where partizans of the Guelphs. This rapid change of 
rulers is alluded to by Dante, Inf. xxvii, 52: 

Cost com' ella sie' tra il piano e il monte, 
Tra tirannia si vive e stato franco. 

On 1st Feb., 1377, the town was cruelly sacked by Cardinal Robert 
of Geneva, and subsequently by Cesare Borgia, after which it was incor- 
porated with the States of the Church. 

In the Piazza is the handsome Palazzo Pubblico with a statue of 
Pius VI., who was born at Cesena in 1717, as well as his successor 
Pius VII. in 1742. In the picture-gallery a Presentation in the 
Temple, by Francesco Francia. — The Cathedral contains two marble 
altars of the 15th and 16th cent. — The Library, founded in 1452 
by Domenico Malatesta Novello, contains 4000 MSS., many of them 
written for the founder , and afterwards used by the learned Aldus 
Manutius in preparing his famous editions of the classics. 

On an eminence , 3 /i M. distant, stands the handsome church 
of *8. Maria del Monte, a work of Bramante. Productive sulphur- 
mines in the vicinity, towards the S. 

The train crosses the stream Pisciatello, the upper part of which, 
called Vrgone , is identical with the Rubicon of the ancients, the 
boundary between Italy proper and the province of Gallia Cisalpina, 
and memorable for its passage by Caesar at the beginning of the 
civil war between him and Pompey, B.C. 49. 

The most recent investigations tend to show that the Rubicon has 
entirely quitted its ancient course. It appears originally to have fallen 
into the Fiumicino, farther S., while at the present day its upper part 
(Urgone) unites with the Pisciatello. Most of the towns and villages of 
this district have in turn laid claim to the distinction of possessing the 
Rubicon within their territory. Nor did they rest satisfied with a mere 
literary feud in order to gain the object of their ambition. An action in- 
volving this question was instituted at Rome, and in 1756 the 'Rota' de- 
cided in favour of the claim of the Uso (see below), beyond the small 
town of Savignano. On the road between Cesena and Savignano stands a 
column bearing a decree of the Roman senate, which threatens to punish 
those who should without authority trespass beyond the Rubicon. Montes- 
quieu regarded this as genuine, but it is an obvious imposition and not the 
only one connected with the interminable dispute regarding the Rubicon. 

56M. Gambettola; 60^2 M. Savignano. The train crosses the 
Uso. 63 M. S. Arcangelo, where Pope Clement XIV. (Ganganelli) 
was born in 1705 (d. 1771). The Marecchia is next crossed. 

69!/2 M. Rimini. — Aquila d'Oko, in the Corso, close to the Piazza; 
Albergo Nuovo; omnibuses at the station from both. — Trattoria oVEuropa, 
Piazza Cavour; Caffe delta Speranza , Piazza Giulio Cesare. — Railway 
Restaurant, good wine of the country. 

Carriage from the station to the Piazza, with one horse 1 fr., with two 
horses 1 fr. 20 c. — Tramway to the bathing-place, completed in 1879. 

Rimini, beautifully situated on the Adriatic at the mouth of the 
Ausa and Marecchia, with 10,000 inhab. (inch villages 35,300), and 
extensive fisheries and silk manufactories, has of late come into 
notice as a sea-bathing place. Handsome public rooms with a cafe" 
and restaurant, and numerous lodging-houses have been erected on 
the pleasant promenade on the beach. 

Wtuftier ,* lietcsJ.eJpi"? 

to Ancona. RIMINI. 11. Route. 85 

Rimini, the ancient Ariminum, a town of the Umbrians', became a 
Roman colony in B.C. 269, and formed the frontier-fortress of Italy in the 
direction of Gaul , and the termination of the Via Ftaminia from Rome, 
constructed in 220. The town was extended and embellished by Julius 
Csesar and Augustus. During the Exarchate, it was the northernmost of 
the Pentapolis Maritima, or 'Five Maritime Cities', which were ruled over 
by one governor. The other four were Pesaro, Fano, Sinigaglia, and Ancona. 
In 260 Ariminum became an episcopal see, and in 350 a council against 
Arianism was held here. The town afterwards belonged to the Lombards. 
In 1200 it was given by Otho IV. to the Malatestas , who were at first 
vicegerents of the emperor, but afterwards hereditary princes. In 1503 they 
surrendered the town to the Venetians, from whom it was soon wrested by 
the Pope. — It was from the history of the Malatestas that Dante derived 
the episode of 'Francesca da Rimini' in the 5th canto of the Inferno. 

A broad road leads from the Station (PI. D, 4) to the gate, within 
which it is called the Via Principe Umberto. After 4 min. we follow 
the Via al Tempio Malatestiano to the left. 

*S. Francesco (Duomo , Tempio dei Malatesta; PI. 3; C, 5), 
built in the 14th cent, in the Italian Gothic style, was magnificently 
remodelled in 1447-50 by Sigismundo Pandolfo Malatesta from 
designs by Leo Battista Alberti in the early Renaissance style. It is 
one of the principal works of the master , but of the facade unfor- 
tunately the lower part only has been completed. On the cornice 
are the arms of the Malatesta and other families allied with them 
(the elephant and rose being the armorial bearings of Sigismundo 
and his wife Isotta). The seven vaults on the S. side contain sarco- 
phagi of the poets, orators, philosophers and warriors whom Sigis- 
mundo Malatesta (d. 1468), the undaunted enemy of Pope Pius II., 
entertained at his court. 

The Interior , without aisles , has an open roof and large lateral 
chapels. The massive pilasters with rich ornamentation were designed by 
Alberti. To the right of the entrance is the monument of Sigismund. 
Between the first and second chapel on the 'right is the entrance of the 
Chapel of Relics (Santuario, shown by the sacristan), containing a "Fresco 
by Piero delta Francesca (' Petri de Burgo opus 245V): Sigismund Malatesta 
kneeling before his patron St. Sigismund, king of Hungary. In the Cap- 
pella di S. Michele , the 2nd to the right, is the tomb of Isotta (d. 1450), 
Sigismund's wife. — The first chapel to the left, restored in 1868, was 
destined by Sigismund for the reception of his ancestors and descendants, 
as the inscription on the sarcophagus on the left announces. 

From the small piazza in front of the church, the Via Patara 
leads S. to the Piazza Giulio Cesare (PI. C, 5), the ancient forum. 
A stone Pedestal here bears an inscription of 1555, to the effect 
that Caesar harangued his army from it after the passage of the Rubi- 
con (?). Near it is a chapel, on the spot where St. Anthony once 
preached, and another on the canal is said to mark the spot where 
the saint preached to the fishes because the people refused to hear 
him. — The Corso d'Augusto, which intersects this piazza, leads to 
the left to the Porta Romana, and to the right to the Piazza Cavour 
and the bridge of Augustus. 

The *Porta Romana or Arco d'Augusto (PI. D, 6) is a triumphal 
arch of travertine, of simple design, erected to Augustus in B.C. 
27 out of gratitude for the restoration of the Via Flaminia," as the 

86 Route 11. RIMINI. From Bologna 

inscription records (which, however, has been inaccurately restored ; 
the letters to the right outside the gate also belong to it). Above 
are medallion figures, on the outside those of Jupiter and Minerva, 
on the inside those of Neptune and Venus. — The scanty remains of 
an Amphitheatre (to which the Via dell' Anflteatro, the second side- 
street of the Corso from the Porta Romana, leads) do not merit a visit. 

The Palazzo del Comune (PL 9), in the Piazza Cavour, contains 
a small picture-gallery comprising an *altar-piece by Domenico del 
Ghirlandajo, and a Pieta by Giovanni Bellini (about 1470). — In front 
of it rises a bronze Statue of Pope Paul V. (inscription on the pedestal 
obliterated). Beyond the Teatro Vittorio Emannele(Pl. 10), erected in 
1857, is the ancient Palace of the Malatestas (' Castello Sigismondo' ■ 
PI. B, 5), now a prison, and in a very dilapidated condition. Their 
arms are still to be seen over the entrance. The townwall, to the 
right of the palace, commands a fine view of the mountains. 

The Library (PI. 8), in the Via Gambalunga to the E. of the 
Piazza Cavour, founded in 1617 by the jurist Gambalunga, contains 
23,000 vols, and several MSS. An arcade in a court to the left, 
now half built up , contains Roman inscriptions and sculptures, 
among which are a female figure in relief, with thin, close-fitting 
drapery ; a fine female head, etc. 

At the end of the Corso is the five-arched *Ponte d'Augusto, 
the highest of the bridges by which the Marecchia (the ancient 
Ariminus) is crossed at Rimini, and one of the finest ancient struc- 
tures of the kind. It leads to the Borgo S. Giuliano, where the Via 
^Emilia united with the ViaFlaminia, which led to Rome. Here, too, 
is situated the church of — 

S. Giuliano (PI. 6), containing the Martyrdom of St. Julian, an 
altar-piece by Paolo Veronese, and an old picture by Lattanzio 
delta Marca (1357), the Life of the saint. 

In the Castello di S. Leo, 18 M. to the W. of Rimini, the notorious im- 
postor Vagliostro (Giuseppe Balsamo) died in confinement in 1794. From 
S. Leo a bridle-path, much frequented by fishermen, leads by Camaldoli and 
Vallombrosa to Florence. 

About 12 M. from Rimini is situated the ancient republic of San Ma- 
rino, the smallest in the world (8000 inhab.) , said to have been founded 
in an inaccessible wilderness by St. Marinus at the time of the persecutions 
of the Christians under Diocletian. This diminutive state braved all the 
storms of mediaeval warfare, and even the ambition of Napoleon. It retained 
its ancient constitution till 1847 , when its senate was converted into a 
chamber of deputies. The precipitous rock in a bleak district on which 
the town (Albergo Bigi) is situated is reached by one road only from Rimini. 
The village of Borgo at the base is the residence of the wealthier inhabitants. 
The celebrated epigraphist and numismatist Bartolommeo Borghesi born at 
Savignano in 1781, was from 1821 until his death in 1860 a resident at 
S. Marino, where he arranged and described his admirable collections and 
received visits from foreign savants. ' 

Beyond Rimini the line skirts the coast, passes (75i/ 9 M.) 
Riccione , crosses the streams Marano and C'onc.a (the Crustumius 
Rapax of Lucan), and reaches (81 M.) La Cattolica, so called from 
having been the residence of the Roman Catholic bishops during the 

to Ancona. PESARO. 11. Route. 87 

Council of Rimini in 359. A chain of hills descends here to the 
sea; the train ascends for some distance, and then passes through 
them by means of a long tunnel. It crosses the Tavollo and passes 
the Villa Vittoria , situated on the left, on the road to Rimini. We 
then cross the Foglia, the ancient Isaurus or Pisaurus, to — 

90Y2 M. Pesaro. — Albergo Zongo, near the Piazza, tolerable; 
starting-point of the diligence to Urbino in the afternoon (1, 2, or 3, accord- 
ing to the season). — Caffe delict Piazza, in the piazza, next door to the 
Urbino diligence office, p. 88); del Commercio , in the Corso. — Carriage 
from the station to the town, one-horse 80 c, two-horse 1 fr. 5 one-horse 
carr. to Urbino about 12 fr. 

Pesaro, with 10,500 inhab. (with suburbs 19,700), the ancient 
Pisaurum, is the capital of the united provinces of Pesaro and Ur- 
bino, and formerly belonged to the Pentapolis Maritima. 

Of the provinces of the former States of the Church situated on the 
Adriatic, the four southern are called the Marches ('Ze Marche'), viz. Pesaro- 
Urbino, Ancona, Macerata , and Ascoli, comprising an area of 375X) sq.M., 
with 936,000 inhab. In the Roman period the S. part as far as Ancona 
was called Picenum , whereas the N. part belonged to Ifmbria. — Pesaro, 
a Roman colony as early as B.C. 184, was destroyed by Totilas, and rebuilt 
by Belisarius. It was subsequently ruled over by the Malatesta family, 
then by the Sforza, and later by the liovere, dukes of Urbino, under whom, 
chiefly through the influence of Lucrezia d'Este, it became a great centre 
of art and literature , and was visited by Bernardo and Torquato Tasso. 
In 1631 the town was annexed to the States of the Church. — The figs of 
Pesaro are excellent. 

Pesaro was the birthplace of the celebrated composer Gioacchino 
Rossini (b. 1789, d. at Paris 1868), the 'swan of Pesaro', to whom 
a bronze statue (on the right as the station is quitted) was erected 
in 1864 by his admiring friends, Baron Salamanca of Madrid and 
G. Delahante of Paris. 

The road from the station to the town , to the right , passes 
the back of Rossini's monument , and enters by the same gate as 
the old diligence-road. To the left is the Teatro Rossini, and in a 
•straight direction the Piazza, with the handsome and massive Pre- 
fettura, the ancient palace of the dukes of Urbino. The great hall, 
44 yds. long and 16 yds. wide, still contains a coffered wooden ceiling 
with its original painting. — Opposite the Prefettura is a facade, 
erected in 1848, with statues of Rossini and Perticari in marble, 
behind which is the former church of S. Domenico, of the 15th cent. , 
with a handsome portal. 

The Biblioteca Olivieri contains 13,000 vols, and 600 MSS., 
including reminiscences of the golden age of Pesaro under the dukes, 
letters and notes by Tasso, etc. There is also a small museum here. 
In the entrance, the court, and the staircase are a few sculptures and 
inscriptions (on the staircase is an interesting Greek inscription on 
the fluting of a Doric column). The Palazzo del Municipio, also in 
the Piazza (nearer the sea), contains an admirable Majolica Collec- 
tion, chiefly from the famous manufactory of Urbino (permesso from 
the secretary of the Municipio required; best time about 11 a.m.). 

The Foglia is crossed by a bridge of Roman origin. 

88 Route 11. URBINO. From Bologna 

None of the churches possess much merit. 8. Francesco con- 
tains an *Enthroned Madonna by Giovanni Bellini , a work (about 
1470) in which the master first showed his skill in the recently in- 
vented art of oil-painting. S. Cassiano has a St. Barbara by Simone 
da Pesaro, 8. Spirito a *Christ on the Cross by Luca Signorelli, and 
8. Giovanni Evangelista a Pieta by Zoppo. 

Opposite the spacious Lunatic Asylum (Manicomio or Ospizio 
degli Incurabili) are the small Orti Oiuli, where a bastion of the 
townwall commands a fine view of the Foglia and Monte S. Bartolo. 
— A memorial tablet near it records that the house once stood here 
where Bernardo and Torquato Tasso lived and wrote their poetry 
whilst at the court of the Rovere. 

Near Pesaro is Monte S. Bartolo, where the Roman dramatist L. Attius 
is said to have been horn and to be interred. Beyond it lies "L'lmperiale, 
once a favourite villa of the dukes, erected by Leonora Gonzaga, praised 
by Bernardo Tasso, and adorned with frescoes by Raffaello dal Colle. It 
has recently been restored, but the larger unfinished building is in a rui- 
nous condition. One of the finest 'Views in the environs is obtained from 
an eminence behind the monastery. 

An Excursion to Urbino is most easily accomplished from 
Pesaro. Diligence daily, ascending in 5, and descending in 4 hrs. ; 
departure from the Albergo Zongo at Pesaro between 1 and 3 p.m., 
according to the season, and from Urbino between 2 and 3 a.m. ; 
a post-conveyance also runs daily between Pesaro and Urbino. The 
road leads through the valley of the Foglia, which falls into the sea 
at Pesaro , and then ascends , passing several unimportant villages. 
At the inn 'del Cappone', halfway, the horses are changed. Beyond 
Moline the road ascends in long windings. The diligence stops in 
the main street , flanked on the left by arcades, in which the inn 
and cafe' are situated. 

Urbino (*Albergo dell' Italia'), the ancient Urbinum Hortense, 
celebrated as the birthplace of the greatest painter of all ages, 
Raphael Santi (b. 28th March 1483, d. at Rome, 6th April 1520), 
lies on an abrupt hill, surrounded by barren mountains. The town, 
with 16,500 inhab. (inol. villages), has a university with as many 
professors as students, and merits a visit for the sake of its monu- 
ments and historical associations. The situation is picturesque. 

In the 13th cent, the town came into the possession of the Monte/ellro 
family, and under Fedekigo Montefeltro (1444-82) and his son Guidobaldo 
(1482-1508) attained to such prosperity as entirely to eclipse the neigh- 
bouring courts of the Malatestas at Rimini and the Sforzas at Pesaro. 
Federigo Montefeltro, who distinguished himself as a condottiere in the feuds 
of the 15th cent., married his daughter in 1474 to Giovanni delia Eovere 
a nephew of Sixtus IV., and was in consequence created Duke of Urbino.' 
His court was regarded as a model among the princely courts of that period. 
It was visited for shorter or longer periods by numerous scholars and ar- 
tists , amongst whom the prince was pre-eminent for learning. His son 
Guidobaldo, in spite of ill health and other misfortunes, zealously fol- 
lowed his example , with the able assistance of his beautiful and ta- 
lented wife Elizabeth Gonzaga. A famous description of the court of Ur- 
bino under Guidobaldo, depicting it as the most refined social school of the 

to Ancona. URBINO. 11. Route. 89 

day, is given by Count Baldassar Castiglione in his 'Cortigiano', the ideal 
of a courtier. In 1497 Guidobaldo was expelled by Cesare Borgia, the son 
of Alexander VI., after whose death, however, he returned to Urbino in 
1503. He died in 1508 and bequeathed his dominions to his nephew Fran- 
cesco Maria delta Rovere, the favourite of Pope Julius II. In 1626 the duchy 
was incorporated with the States of the Church , when Urban VIII. per- 
suaded the last and childless Duke Francesco Maria II. to abdicate. 

Amongst the most distinguished Artists employed at the court of Ur- 
bino, during the zenith of its splendour under Federigo and Guidobaldo, 
were Paolo Uccello, Piero delta Francesco, and Melozzo da Forli. Even for- 
eign painters, like Justus van Ghent, a picture by whom is still preserved 
in the gallery (see below), were attracted to the court. The peculiar bond 
of union which existed here between the interests of science and art is 
chiefly exhibited in the library pictures or ideal portraits of scholars painted 
by Melozzo da Forli and others, but which have been removed from Urbino 
together with the library. Timoteo Viti, or della Vite, of Ferrara 
(1467-1523), the best pupil of Francesco Francia, spent the greater part of 
his life in Urbino ; he was the first painter who exercised an influence on 
Raphael, but at a later period he himself became subject to that great 
master's magic spell. — The master, however, in whom we are now spe- 
cially interested , is Giovanni Santi of Urbino (? 1450-94), the father of 
Raphael, whose frescoes at Cagli (p. 94) and Fano (p. 91) show considerable 
power and a keen sense of the graceful. As Giovanni died when Ra- 
phael was in his 11th year, the latter can hardly have had the benefit of 
his instruction. After his father's death, Raphael remained in Urbino till 
1500, but under the tuition of what master is unknown. Another 
native of Urbino was Fedeeioo Baeoccio (1528-1612), some of whose works 
are able , while others display the customary affectation of the post- 
Raphaelite period. 

In the centre of the town is the Pian del Mercato , or market- 
place, where the street in which the inn is situated terminates. — 
The Via Pucinotti ascends hence to the right in a few minutes to 
a larger, hut somewhat dull piazza, in which on the right are the 
cathedral and the ducal palace. 

The Cathedral contains some interesting pictures. 

In the N. Aisle a St. Sebastian by Federigo Baroccio. In the Chapel 
to the left of the high altar, the Lord's Supper, also by Fed. Baroccio. 
High Altar-piece: St. Martin and Thomas a Beckett, with a portrait of 
Duke Guidobaldo , by Timoteo Viti. In the sacristy is a Scourging of 
Christ by Piero delta Francesca, a most elaborately executed work in the 
miniature style. — The Crypt (entered from the right corner of the small 
piazza between the cathedral and the palace) possesses a Pieta by Giov. 
da Bologna. 

The **Ducal Palace, erected by Luciano Laurana of Dalmatia 
in 1468 by order of Federigo Montefeltro , was completed by 
Baccio Pontelli. The requirement of strength , coupled with the 
unevenness of the ground, has given rise to the irregularity of the 
building, but at the same time has enhanced its picturesqueness. 
The palace has always been much admired , and was regarded 
by the contemporaries of the founder as an embodiment of their ideal 
of a princely residence. According to modern standards, however, 
its dimensions are not grand, and even the court by Baccio, the en- 
trance to which is opposite the cathedral, is pleasing rather than 
imposing. The ornamentation of the apartments , the coloured 
friezes , the pillars and chimney-pieces (by Francesco di Giorgio of 
Siena and Ambrosio Baroccio, an ancestor of the painter), are all in 

90 Route 11. URBINO. From Bologna 

the best Renaissance style. On the staircase is a statue of Duke 
Federigo, by Girol. Campagna. The celebrated library of the palace, 
founded by Federigo, and the other collections have been trans- 
ferred to Rome. The upper corridors contain a well-arranged col- 
lection of inscriptions from Rome and the Umbrian municipia, 
established by the epigraphist Fabretti. The palazzo is now used 
as a 'Residenza Governativa', and contains the archives. In 1878 
the Italian government voted 50,000 fr. for the restoration of the 
edifice, and that of the front between the two towers was first un- 

Opposite the palace rises an Obelisk, facing which is the church 
of S. Domenico, with a pleasing portal and reliefs in terracotta 
above the door. 

We pass the Palazzo Ducale and proceed in a straight direction. 
The street contracts ; the corner house to the right, opposite the 
palace, is the University, with armorial bearings over the door. 
Farther on, descending a little, we come to the entrance (standing 
back from the street to the right) of the — 

*Instituto delle Belle Ami nelle Mabche, which contains 
gallery of pictures, recently collected from suppressed churches and 
monasteries (custodian's fee Y2 f r 0- 

Principal Saloon. Eight and left of the door : Lorenzo da San Se- 
verino. Crucifixion (repulsive). On the principal wall to the right : Timoteo 
Viti, St. Rochus ; 76. Justus van Ghent, Holy Communion, interesting from 
its numerous portraits (including Duke Federigo, and, to the right of the 
table, Caterino Zeno, the Persian ambassador), 1474; 79. Timoteo Viti, To- 
bias; "82. Giovanni Santi, Madonna with John the Baptist, SS. Sebastian, 
Jerome, Francis, and three kneeling donors, members of the Buffi family ; 
93. Timoteo Viti, Madonna and Child with St. Joseph; 101. Antonio Alberti of 
Ferrara, Madonna with twelve saints, stiff figures on a gold ground 1439; 
a 102. Giov. Santi, Pieta; 114, 115. Early Venetian School, Madonna and saints. 
On the main wall to the left : Titian, 140. Holy Communion , 158. Resur- 
rection, rapidly painted in advanced life. 

The Gkound Fi.ooe contains casts, chiefly of ornaments from the Pa- 
lazzo Ducale , several original monuments of Dukes of Urbino from S. 
Francesco, and some fine majolicas. 

In the Conteada Rapfaello , leading to the left from the 
market-place to the Fortezza, No. 275-278 on the left, with an in- 
scription, is the house in which Raphael was born. It was purchased 
in 1873 at the suggestion of Count Pompeo Gherardi , aided by a 
donation from Mr. Morris Moore, and now belongs to the 'R. Acca- 
demia Raffaello'. Visitors knock at the door of No. 278 (J/2 &•)• 

The rooms are adorned with engravings from Raphael's pictures. In 
the room to the right is a Madonna with the sleeping Child (retouched) 
long regarded as an early work of Raphael, but ascertained to have been 
executed by his father Giovanni Santi. It is proposed to erect in his native 
town a monument worthy of the great master, for which purpose a com- 
mittee was constituted some years ago. 

A little farther up the Contrada Raffaello we turn to the right 
into the side-street of S. Lucia, which leads to the church of S. Spi- 
rito, containing a * Crucifixion and Descent of the Holy Ghost by 
Luca Signorelli, originally a church banner, of 1495. 

to Ancona. FANO. 11. Route. 91 

Returning to the market-place , and descending the Via Bal- 
bona, we follow the "Via della Posta Vecchia, the first side-street to 
the right, and then the Via S. Giovanni, the first street to the left, 
which leads straight to the Oratorio della Confratemita di S. Gio- 
vanni. The walls of the interior are covered with scenes from the 
history of the Virgin and John the Baptist, by Lorenzo da 8. Seve- 
rino and his brother, of the school of Giotto (1416). 

In the Theatre , once famous for its decorations by Qirolamo 
Genga, the first Italian comedy was performed. This was the Ca- 
landra of Cardinal Bibbiena (1470-1514), the friend of Pope LeoX. 
and patron of Raphael. 

The hill of the old Fortezza (ascend the Contrada Raffaello , at 
the top take the Via dei Maceri to the left, and knock at No. 1461 ; 
fee 25-50 c.) commands an interesting *Survey of the barren chain 
of the Apennines. A powder-magazine now stands at the top. 

About 1 M. to the E. of Urbino, to the left of the Pesaro road, 
are situated the conspicuous old monastery and church of S. Ber- 
nardino, with the new cemetery of Urbino. This spot commands a 
fine view of the town. The church contains the tombs of the Dukes 
Federigo and Guidobaldo, with their busts. 

Fkom Ukbino to Fossombbone (p. 93) ll'/a M. ; no regular communi- 
cation (carriage 10 fr.). The 'Corriere del Furlo' passes through Fossom- 
brone at 11 a.m. Carriage from Urbino to Gubbio 40 fr. (comp. p. 93). 
From Urbino to Urbania, the ancient Urbinum Metaurense , later Castel 
Durante , which was probably the birthplace of Bramante, diligence daily 
at 3 p.m., corresponding with others to S. Angelo, Citta di Castello, etc. 

The Railway from Pesabo to Ancona skirts the coast, oc- 
casionally approaching close to the sea , of which a pleasant view 
is afforded. 

98 M. Fano {* Alb ergo del Moro , R. li/ 2 , B. 1/2 fr.), the 
Fanum Fortunae of antiquity, is indebted for its origin to a temple 
of Fortune, a fact commemorated by a modern statue of fortune on 
the public fountain. It afterwards prospered, and is now a pleasant 
little town (20,400 inhab., incl. suburbs), surrounded by ancient 
walls and a deep moat. The once celebrated harbour is now unim- 
portant. Pope Clement VIII. (Aldobrandini) was born at Fano in 
1536. The first printing-press with Arabic type was set up here in 
1514 at the cost of Pope Julius II. As a sea-bathing place Fano is 
less expensive than Rimini. 

In the centre of the town is the Piazza, in which rises the 
Theatre, formerly one of the most famous in Italy, erected by To- 
relli, a native architect, and decorated by Bibbiena (d. 1774), but 
recently almost entirely rebuilt. A room in the building temporarily 
contains a David with the head of Goliath, by Domenichino (form- 
erly in the Collegio Nolfi) , which unfortunately was much injured 
by thieves in 1871. 

The S. side of the Piazza, which is enlivened by a fountain of 

92 Route 11. SINIGAGLIA. 

flowing water, is skirted by the Corso. Following the latter to the 
right , we reach the Via dell' Arco d'Augusto , the second cross- 
street to the left. In a small piazza here rises the Cathedral op 
S. Fortunato, the four recumbent lions in front of which formerly 
supported the pillars of the portico. 

In the Interior the chapel of S. Girolamo (the 2nd to the left) contains 
a monument of the Rainalducci family; nearly opposite (4th to the right) 
is a chapel adorned with sixteen frescoes by Domenichino, once admirable, 
now disfigured by restoration. — In the chapel of the sacristy, a Madonna 
with saints, by L. Caracci. 

Farther on we come to the *Arch op Augustus, which spans 
the street , a structure of simple design , to which a second story 
was added in the 4th cent. , when it was re-dedicated to Constan- 
tine. It once had three openings , as is shown by a -view of it on 
the adjacent church of S. Michele. 

Adjoining the arch towards the town is the Spedale degli Esposti, 
a pleasing edifice adorned with loggie. 

Returning to the piazza, we follow the Via Boccaccio opposite the 
fountain, and then take the Via Bonaccorsi, inclining to the left, to 
the church of S. Maria Nuova, with portico. 

Interior. 1st chapel on the left: Giovanni Santi , Salutation; 2nd 
chapel: Pietro Perugino , Annunciation, 1498. 3rd chapel on the right: 
"Perugino, Madonna and saints, 1497; admirable predelle, recalling Ra- 
phael's style. 

S. Croce , the hospital-church , contains a *Madonna with four 
saints, by Giovanni Santi. — 8. Paterniano, dedicated to the first 
bishop of Fano, a handsome structure, possesses a Betrothal of the 
Virgin, by Guercino. — S. Pietro, an imposing and richly decorated 
church, is embellished with frescoes by Viviani; in the chapel of the 
Gabrielli (1st on the left) an Annunciation by Guido Beni. — In 
the vestibule of S. Francesco (closed) are several monuments of 
the Malatesta of 1488. 

Pope Clement VIII. (Aldobrandini) was born at Fano in 1536. 
The first printing-press with Arabic types was established here in 
1514 at the expense of Pope Julius II. 

Interesting excursion to the Monte Giove, by a good road (4 M.). At 
the top is a monastery, where visitors are lodged. Splendid view of the 

From Fano to Fossato by Fossombrone and the Furlo Pass, see p. 93. 

Beyond Fano the train crosses the river Metaurus (see below), 
celebrated as the scene of Hasdrubal's defeat (B.C. 207); then the 
Cesano, near (105 M.) stat. Marotta. 

112 M. Sinigaglia (*Albergo Roma, near the harbour; Tratto- 
ria del Giardino, near the Municipio), the ancient Sena Gallica, with 
22,340 inhab. (incl. villages), chiefly occupied in the fishing trade. 
The town was destroyed by Pompey di. ring the Civil War between 
Marius and Sulla. It was an episcopal si o as early as the 4th cent., 
but was afterwards frequently devastated by fire and sword, so that 
it now presents quite a modern appearance. Pope Pius IX. (Conte 
Mastai-Ferretti) was born here on 13th May, 1792 (d. 1878). A fair, 

FOSSOMBRONE. 12. Route. 93 

instituted in the 13th cent., is held here from 30th July to 8th Aug. 
annually; it was once the most frequented in Italy, hut has long 
since lost its importance. In summer Sinigaglia is a favourite sea- 
bathing place, and has large bath-establishments. — The monastery- 
church of S. Maria delle Grazie (2 M. distant) contains in the choir 
a picture by Perugino (retouched) , and over the 3rd altar on the 
right a small Madonna by Fra Carnevale. 

1 1 9 y 2 M- Case Bruciate. Pleasant view of the promontory of 
Ancona , rising from the sea. The train crosses the Esino and 
reaches (122 M.) stat. Falconara, where the line to Rome diverges 
(passengers in the latter direction change carriages; see R. 14). 
The town lies on the hill to the right. 

127 M. Ancona, see R. 13. New station, completed in 1879. 

12. From Fano through, the Furlo Pass to Fossato. 

The high-road which connects Rome with the Valley of the Po traverses 
the Umbrian plains of Terni and Spoleto, and then ascends the valley of 
the Topino and the Chiascio , until it reaches its culminating point on the 
Apennines. Descending on the E. side of that range, it follows the course 
of the Metaurus to its mouth at Fano , skirts the coast, and leads N. to 
Bologna and the valley of the Po. It is identical with the ancient Via 
Flaminia, constructed in B.C. 220 by the Censor C. Flaminius (who fell 
at the Battle of the Trasimene Lake , see p. 46) , in order to secure pos- 
session of the district of the Po which had been recently wrested from the 
Gauls. This road is still one of the most important in Central Italy , but 
since the completion of the Apennine Railway from Bologna to Florence, 
and of the line from Ancona to Rome (R. 14), it has been little frequented by 
tourists. It passes through attractive scenery and several interesting towns. 

Cokrieke daily from Fano to Fossato in ll'/2 hrs.; dep. from Fano at 
8.30 a.m., arr. at Fossombrone 11 a.m., at Cagli 3 p.m., at Schieggia 
6.30 p.m. and at Fossato 9 p.m. — Those who desire to make the inter- 
esting circuit by Gubbio must hire a carriage at Schieggia. — The most 
attractive plan of making the whole tour is to combine it with a visit to 
Urbino : 1st day, from Pesaro to Urbino ; 2nd day , one-horse carriage to 
Fossombrone (in 2 x /2 hrs., 10 fr.), corriere to Schieggia, one-horse carriage 
to Gubbio; 3rd day, by diligence or carriage to Fossato, and thence by 
train to Foligno and Rome. 

Fano, see p. 91. The road, the ancient Via Flaminia, quits 
Fano by the Arch of Augustus and the Porta Maggiore, and skirts 
the N. bank of the Metaurus, the fertile valley of which is well cul- 
tivated. About 1 M. from Fossombrone, near the church of 8. Mar- 
tino al Piano, was once situated the Roman colony of Forum Sem- 
pronii, of which but scanty remains now exist. After its destruction 
by the Goths and Lombards, the modern Fossombrone sprang up. 

15V2 M. Fossombrone (Tre Re; Pavone), long in possession of 
the Malatesta family, accrued to the States of the Church under 
Sixtus IV. It is now a busy little town with 9100 inhab. and silk- 
factories, prettily situated in the valley, which contracts here, and 
commanded by a castle. Ancient inscriptions on the cathedral, in 
the Seminary, etc. — From Fossombrone to Urbino, see p. 91. 

The Via Flaminia about 2 M. from Fossombrone crosses the 

94 Route 12. CAGLI. From Fano 

Metaurus, which descends from the valley near <S. Angelo in Vado 
from the N., and follows the left bank of the Candigliano, which 
at this point empties itself into the Metaurus. The valley soon 
contracts ; to the right rises the hill of Pietralata, occasionally 
named Monte d'Asdrubale. Here, according to the popular tradition, 
was fought the memorable battle of the Metaurus in which, B.C. 
207, Hasdrubal, whilst marching to the aid of his brother Hannibal 
with 60,000 men, was signally defeated and slain by the consuls 
Livius Salinator and Claudius Nero. This was the great event 
which decided the 2nd Punic War in favour of Rome. 

The valley now becomes still more confined and is bounded by 
precipitous slopes. At the narrowest part, where the rocky walls 
approach so near each other as to leave space for the river only, 
is the celebrated * Furlo Pass (Furlo from forulus = passage, the 
ancient petra intercisa), a tunnel 17 ft. wide, 14ft. high, and about 
32 yds. in length. The founder of the work was the Emp. Ves- 
pasian, as the inscription preserved at the N. entrance records (Imp. 
Caesar. Augustus. Vespasianus. pont. max. trib. pot. VII. imp. 
XXVIII. cos. VIII. censor, faciund. curavit). 

A little beyond it is the small church Badia del Furlo. At 
the confluence of the Candigliano and Burano, 9 M. from Fossom- 
brone , lies the village of Acqualagna. The road crosses the Can- 
digliano and then follows the left bank of the Burano. At the foot 
of the hill on which Cagli is situated, an antique bridge, built of 
huge masses of rock, crosses a tributary brook. 

31 M. Cagli [Posta, in the Piazza, charges according to bar- 
gain) occupies the site of the ancient borough of Coles, or Calle. 
S. Domenico contains one of the chief works of Giovanni Santi, 
Raphael's father, a Madonna with saints, al fresco. The angel on the 
right of the Madonna is said to be a portrait of the young Raphael. 
Also a Pieta with St. Jerome and Bonaventura, by the same master. 
(S. Francesco and <S. Angelo Minore also possess several pictures. 

Travellers beyond Cagli are generally conveyed in smaller car- 
riages. About 6 M. beyond Cagli is Cantiano , with 3000 inhab. ; 
the church della Collegiata contains a Holy Family by Perugino. — 
The road ascends rapidly, and reaches the height of the pass, 
2400 ft. above the sea. A little before arriving atSchieggiathe road 
crosses a ravine by the curious Ponte a Botte, constructed in 1805. 

431/2 M. Schieggia, an insignificant place, lies at the junction 
of the Fossato and Foligno, and the Gubbio roads. On Monte Petrara, 
in the vicinity, stand the ruins of the celebrated temple of Jupiter 
Apenninus, whose worship was peculiar to the Umbrians. Several 
bronzes and inscriptions have been discovered in the environs. 
Picturesque oak-plantations in the neighbourhood. 

The main road continues to descend the green valley of the 
Chiascio, and leads by Costacciaro and Sigillo (stalactite caves) to — 

55 M. Fossato. a station on the Ancona and Rome line, p. 102. 

to Gubbio. GUBBIO. 2 2. Route. 95 

From Schieggia to Gubbio, and thence to Fossato. 

Between Schieggia and Gubbio (about 6 M.) there is no regular 
communication ; one-horse carriage 5 fr. and a gratuity (in the reverse di- 
rection 6 fr.). — Gubbio alone is most conveniently visited from the Fos- 
sato station (p. 102) with which it communicates three times daily by 
diligence (in 2'/2 hrs. ; fare 2 fr. ; office at Gubbio, Corso 28; carriage 10 fr.). 

The hilly road between Schieggia and Gubbio ascends towards 
the S.W. The highest mountains visible are the Monte Cucco and 
the Monte a"Ansciano. After a good hour's drive we reach the sum- 
mit of Monte Calvo (2970 ft.). The road then descends rapidly in a 
ravine, bounded by precipitous rocks , at the end of which lies 
Gubbio (a drive of 25 min. from the pass) ; to the left is the ancient 
aqueduct of Gubbio. 

Gubbio (* Leone d'Oro, bargaining necessary; Rosetta , primi- 
tive, but clean and cheap; both in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele), 
with 5000 inhab., lies at the foot and on the slopes of Monte Calvo. 
The town presents quite a mediaeval appearance , and the proximity 
of the Apennines also give it a different character from most other 
Italian towns. Conspicuous among the houses is the huge Palazzo 
dei Consoli, and above them towers the church of S. Ubaldo. 

Gubbio is the ancient Iguvium or Eugubium, mentioned by Cicero and 
Caesar. It was destroyed by the Goths, was besieged in 1155 by the Emp. 
Frederick I., then became an independent state, afterwards belonged to the 
duchy of TJrbino, and with it finally accrued to the States of the Church. 

Gubbio was the native place of Oderisi, a famous miniature painter 
(d. about 1300), who is called by Dante in his Purgatorio (xi,80) TOnor 
d'Agobbio'' ; but no authentic work by his hand now exists. In the 14th 
and 15th cent, a branch of the Umbrian school flourished here, and among 
its masters, whose renown extended even beyond their native place, were 
Guido Palmeeucci (1280-1345?) and several members of the Nelli family, 
particularly Ottaviano Nelli (d. 1444). — Gubbio occupies a still more 
important page in the history of Artistic Handicrafts. Like Urbino, 
Pesaro, and Faenza, it was noted for the manufacture of Majolica, or earthen- 
ware vases and tiles which were covered with a white coating of colour 
before being baked. One of the most distinguished majolica painters was 
'Maestro Giorgio' of Gubbio, who is said to have invented, or rather re- 
discovered and perfected, the metallic, ruby-coloured glazing for which the 
Italian majolicas are remarkable. 

At the bottom of the spacious Piazza Vittorio Emanuele is the 
church of S. Francesco. We ascend hence by old-fashioned streets 
to the Piazza della Signorja, on the slope of the hill, supported 
by massive vaults, where the most conspicuous building is the — 

*Palazzo dei Consoli, a huge pinnacled edifice with a tower, 
erected in 1332-46 by Giovanello Maffei of Gubbio, surnamed 
Gattapone, and at present disused. The ground-floor contains two 
slabs with Etruscan inscriptions. Fine *view from the tower (fee 
Y2 fr.)- — Opposite rises the — 

Palazzo Pretorio, now 'Residenza Municipale', containing 
several collections recently united here (fee Y2-I fr.). 

On the first floor are the so-called Eugubian Tablets, which were dis- 
covered in 1440 near the ancient theatre. They are of bronze, and bear 
inscriptions, four in Umbrian, and three in Latin characters, which long 
baffled the investigation of the learned. They contain in the Umbrian 
language, an old Italian dialect akin to Latin , liturgical regulations and 

96 Route 12. GTJBBIO. 

formulae of nearly uniform import, dating from different periods. The 
older, in the Umhrian character, are read from right to left. The later, in 
Latin letters, date from about the 2nd cent. B.C. 

The upper saloon (handsome door) contains a number of pictures, 
including several fine works , chiefly of the Umbrian school ; admirable 
'- wood-carving of the 15th and 16th cent.; cabinets, chairs, and a num- 
ber of ancient and modern *majolicas. 

The third side of the piazza is occupied by the modern Palazzo 
Ranghiasci-Brancaleone, the property of the Marchese of that name, 
who has a valuable collection of pictures and antiquities. Conte 
Fabiani-Beni, Piazza S. Martino, also possesses several good pictures. 

Ascending the Via dei Duchi to the left, and then following the 
Via di S. Ubaldo, we reach the *Palazzo dei Duchi, an old Go- 
thic edifice, which was remodelled by Luciano Laurana, the archi- 
tect of the palace of Urbino. The colonnaded court is almost an 
exact reproduction of that of Urbino. The interior is quite a ruin. 

Opposite the entrance to the court of the Pal. dei Duchi rises 
the Cathedral of S. Mariano and Jacopo Martirb , a structure 
of the 13th cent., destitute of aisles and so built against the slope 
of the hill that its back is embedded in the ground. The facade is 
adorned with early mediaeval sculptures of the Four Evangelists. 
Among the pictures in the interior (first altar on the left) is a Ma- 
donna with SS. Ubaldo and Sebastian , by Sinibaldo Ibi of Gubbio. 
By the 2nd altar a *Coronatiou of Mary Magdalene by Timoteo della 
Vlte. The sacristy contains a Flemish vestment, presented by Pope 
Marcellus II. 

The church of S. Maria Nuota, situated near the E. end of the 
Via delle Fonti, running above and parallel with the Corso , at the 
corner of the Via Nelli, contains an admirably preserved Madonna 
by Ottaviano Nelli, 1403. 

S. Pietro, 8. Domenico, S. Agostino (frescoes in the choir), and 
8. Maria della Piaggiola (outside the Porta Vittoria ; over the high- 
altar, *Madonna by Gentile da Fabriano) , also contain pictures of 
the same period. 

The ancient town extended farther into the plain than the mo- 
dern. Among the ruins still existing is a Theatre, discovered in 
1863, apparently of the republican era. It is not entirely excavated, 
but part of the external row of arches is preserved, and the stage, 
looking towards the town, is distinctly traceable. (It is reached from 
the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele by the Porta Trasimeno; we then 
turn to the right , and lastly pass through a modern gateway on the 
left, towards a farm.) 

The road to Fossato, 11 M., skirts the foot of the range of hills, 
and then passes through a defile into the level valley of the Chiascio 
in which Fossato is situated, see p. 102. 

From Gubbio to Perugia by the high-road 25 M. (carr. in 6 hrs., 
30 fr.) ; bleak hill-country. The route via. Fossato and Foligno is pleasanter. 

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13. Ancona and its Environs. Osimo. Loreto. 

Hotels. *Vittoria (PI. b; C, D, 3), in the Corso , kept by Pieiro 
Ragni, newly fitted up, R. 2, B. iy 4 , D. 4, L. & A. 1 fr. ; La Pace (PL a; 
C, 3), on the quay; 'Milano (PL c; C, 4), Corso di Porta Pia, commercial, 
with restaurant and garden. Hotel-omnibuses at the station. — Gaffe del 
Commercio at the theatre; Dorico, opposite the Exchange (p. 98). 

Post Office (PL 20; 8-8 o'clock), Piazza Roma. — Telegraph Office, 
Via del Porto. 

Cabs. One-horse cab from station to town, incl. luggage, 1, at nigh 
l>/z fr. ; two-horse l>/2 or 2 fr. — For 1 hr. l>/2-2 fr. ; each 1/2 hr. more, 
60-80 c. — Beyond the town, 2 fr. 50 or 3 fr. 60 c. for 1 hr. ; each 1/2 hr. 
more, 1 fr. 15 or 1 fr. 70 c. 

Steamboats of the Peninsular and Oriental Company on Sat. mornings 
to Brindisi and Alexandria; on Sund. or Jlond. to Venice. Societa Florio, 
on Mond. mornings to Zara in Dalmatia, in 9 hrs. ; on Jlond. afternoons 
to Tremiti, Bari, Brindisi, the Pirseus, and Constantinople; on Tuesd. 
afternoons to Venice. Austrian Lloyd, to Zara and Fiume every alternate Sat. 

Sea Baths, near the railway-station. Warm Baths, Piazza Stramura 
(PI. E, 4). 

Ancona, the capital of a province, with 28,000 inhab. (incl. 
suburbs 46,500), of whom upwards of 2000 are Jews, and possessing 
an excellent harbour, is beautifully situated between the promon- 
tories of Monte Astagno (PL C, 6) and Monte Ouasco (PI. C, 1). 
Since 1860 the government has improved the harbour and endeav- 
oured to foster the trade of Ancona, but business has declined 
somewhat of late years, perhaps owing to the abolition of the free 
harbour in 1869. Silk and oil are largely manufactured here. 

Ancona was founded by Doric Greeks from Syracuse, and thence named 
Dorica Ancon (i. e. 'elbow', from the form of the promontory). It was 
afterwards a Roman colony, and the harbour was enlarged by Trajan. In 
the middle ages it repeatedly recovered from the ravages of the Goths and 
others, and in 1532 was made over by Gonzaga to Pope Clement VII., who 
built a fort and garrisoned it. Ancona is also frequently mentioned as a 
fortress in modern history. Thus in 1796 it was surrendered to the French, 
in 1799 to the Austrians, in 1805 to the French again ; and in 1815 it was 
ceded to the pope, to whom it belonged till 1860. In 1832-38 the citadel 
was garrisoned by the French, in order to keep in check the Austrians, 
who held Bologna and the surrounding provinces. In 1849 the town revolted, 
but on 18th June was re-captured by the Austrians. On 20th Sept., 1860, 
eleven days after the Battle of Castelfidardo (p. 99), it was finally occupied 
by the Italians. 

The Harbour, an oval basin of about 990 by 880 yds. in dia- 
meter, is considered one of the best in Italy. A handsome quay, 
called the Banchine, has recently been completed. The N. pier 
is of ancient Roman origin. At the beginning of it rises the marble 
*Triumphal Arch (PI. 2; B, 1), erected A. D. 112 by the Roman 
senate in honour of Trajan on the completion of the new quays, as 
the inscription Tecords, and one of the finest existing ancient works 
of the kind. The holes to which its original bronze enrichments 
were attached are still observed. The new pier constructed by 
Pope Clement XII. , a continuation of the old , also boasts of a 
Triumphal Arch (PI. 1 ; B, 1), designed by Vanvitelli, but far inferior 
to the other. Its facade is towards the sea and has no inscription. 
At the S. angle of the harbour is the old Lazzaretto, built in 1732, 
Baedbk-" ""'■' " " iV """ 7 

98 Route 13. ANCONA. Environs 

now a bonded warehouse (Magazzini Generali, PI. B, 5). The 
harbour is defended by several forts. 

The *Cathedral of S. Ciriaco (PI. 6 ; C, 1), dedicated to the first 
bishop of Ancona, stands on the Monte Guasco (PI. C, 1), one of 
the above-named promontories, which shelters the harbour from 
the N.E., and an excellent point of view. The church occupies the 
site of a temple of Venus mentioned by Catullus and Juvenal, and 
contains ten beautiful columns which once belonged to the ancient 
temple. Like St. Mark's at Venice, it is in a mixed Lombard and 
Oriental style of architecture , and in the form of a Greek cross, 
each of the arms being flanked with aisles. The octagonal dome 
over the centre of the cross is one of the oldest in Italy. The facade, 
which is said to have been designed by Margaritone d'Arezzo in the 
13th cent., has a beautiful Gothic portico, the foremost columns of 
which rest on red lions. 

The Crypt of the Right Transept contains the "Sarcophagus of Titus 
Oorgonitis, I J ra?tor of Ancona , with scenes from the life of Christ (the 
Nativity, Adoration, Baptism, Entry into Jerusalem, Christ before Pilate, 
Christ as Judge, Christ and the apostles with Gorgonius and his wife at 
the Saviour's feet), and other Christian antiquities (Mary and two saints, 
head of Christ of 1213, Entombment in painted terracotta, etc.). — The 
Crypt of the Left (modernised) Transept contains the tombs of SS. Cyria- 
cus, Marcellinus, and Liberius, in the rococo style. 

Within a house at the foot of the cathedral are scanty remains 
of a Roman Amphitheatre. 

The Palazzo Comunale (PI. 15 ; C, 2) contains a few unimportant 
Roman antiquities, and several ancient and modern pictures. 

The Strada delle Scuole descends thence to the left , to the 
church of S. Francesco (PI. 9; D, 3; now a barrack), resting on a 
massive substructure, with a very rich Gothic *portal. — The street 
next leads (r.) to the Prefettura. In front of the fine Renais- 
sance archway leading into the court we turn to the right (Contr. 
della Catena) to the church of S. Maria della Piazza (PI. 11 ; C, 3), 
with its peculiar Romanesque-Lombard *Fa<;.ade of the 12th cent, 
and traces of a projected portico. The choir contains a *Madonna 
with saints, by Lorenzo Lotto. — We now return through the 
Prefettura (with fine pointed arcades to the left in the court) to the 
Piazza Maggioue, or di S. Domenico (PI. D, 3), surrounded by lofty 
houses and adorned with a statue of Clement XII (Corsini, 1730-40). 
The church of «S. Domenico contains two pictures by Titian (in the 
choir and overthe last altar on the right) and a very large Assumption 
by Lor. Lotto (first altar on the right). 

The street quitting the piazza on the side opposite the statue 
leads to the *Loggia dei Mercanti (Exchange, PI. 14 ; C, 3), an early 
Gothic edifice with Moorish touches, by Tibaldi ; over the door is 
an equestrian statue. — The street to the left leads to the Piazza 
del Teatro (PI. C, 3), the centre of business, beyond which rises 
the church of S. Agostino (PL 4 ; C, 4) with a late Gothic portal 
showing a Renaissance tendency. 

of Ancona. LORETO. 13. Route. 99 

From the Piazza del Teatro the well -paved Coaso Vittoeio 
Emanuele (PI. C, D, 4) ascends towards the E., through the new 
quarters of the town. At the end is the spacious Piazza Cavoub., 
with a colossal statue of the minister in the centre (PI. 21 ; E, 4), 
erected in 1868. 

Excursions from Ancona. 

The Province of Ancona, the ancient Picenum, is a remarkably fertile 
district, replete with beautiful scenery. The Apennines send forth a series 
of parallel spurs towards the sea, forming a number nf short, but pictures- 
que valleys. The towns and villages are invariably situated conspicuously 
on the heights. To the W. the view is bounded by the Central Apen- 
nines , which here attain their greatest elevation in several continuous 
ranges, from the Montagna della Sibilla to the Gran Sasso d'ltalia (0817 ft.), 
and are covered with snow till July. Towards the E. glitters the broad 
Adriatic, on which numerous sails are visible in clear weather. 

On the coast, 9 M. to the S. of Ancona, rises the *Monte 
Conero (1763 ft.), with an old Camaldulensian monastery, com- 
manding a superb panorama. The pedestrian follows a tolerable 
road over the coast-hills nearly to (7 M.) Sirolo (2000 inhab.), 
whence a path to the left ascends in 3 /i hr. to the top. A carriage 
(see p. 97) may be taken as far as the foot of the hill. 

The Ancona-Foggia Railway (to Loreto, 15 M., in 54 min., 
fares 2 fr. 70, 1 fr. 90, 1 fr. 45 c. ; to Porto Civitanova, 27 M., in 
1 hr. 5 min. to l 3 /4hr.) penetrates the heights enclosing Ancona by 
means of a tunnel. To the left, Monte Conero. 4 M. Varano. 

10 M. Osimo (Albergo della Corona , in the market-place ; om- 
nibus from the station to the town, 2y 2 M., 60 c), the ancient 
Auximum, colonised by the Romans B.C. 157, and mentioned by 
Csesar, is now a country-town with 5000 inhab., and lies on a hill 
in a commanding position. The greater part of the *Town Wall, 
dating from the 2nd cent. B.C., still exists. A walk round it affords 
a beautiful view. The Palazzo Pubblico in the large Piazza contains 
inscriptions and statues of celebrated natives of the place, dating 
from the imperial epoch, but barbarously mutilated on the occasion 
of the capture of the town in the 16th cent. One of the inscriptions 
mentions Pompey, who resided at Picenum. ■ — • From Osimo to 
Loreto one-horse carr. in iy 2 hr. (about 5 fr.). 

Proceeding hence by railway, we perceive, to the right, Castel- 
fidardo, where on 18th Sept. 1860, the papal troops under Lamo- 
riciere were totally defeated by the Italians under Cialdini. 

15 M. Loreto {Campantlla, or Posta , in the principal street; 
Pace; omnibus to the town 60 c), situated on a hill at some dis- 
tance from the line, and affording admirable *Views of the sea, 
the Apennines , and the province of Ancona, is a celebrated resort 
of pilgrims (nearly half a million annually). It consists of little 
more than a single long street, full of booths for the sale of rosa- 
ries, medals, images, etc., and is much infested by beggars. 

According to the legend, the house of the Virgin at Nazareth became 
an object of profound veneration after the year 336 , when the aged 


100 Route 13. LORETO. 

Empress Helena, mother of Constantine, made a pilgrimage thither, and 
caused a basilica to he erected over it. Owing to the incursions of the 
Saracens the basilica fell to decay , and after the loss of Ptolemais the 
Casa Santa was miraculously transplanted by the hands of angels in 1291 
to the coast of Dalmatia (the precise spot being between Fiume and 
Tersato), where it remained undisturbed during three years. For some un- 
known reason, however, it was again removed by angels during the night, 
and deposited near Recanati , on the ground of a certain widow Laureta 
(whence the name Loreto). A church was erected over it, and houses soon 
sprang up for the accommodation of the believers who flocked to the spot. 
In 1586 Pope Sixtus V. accorded to Loreto the privileges of a town. 

Among the numerous pilgrims who have visited this spot may be 
mentioned Tasso, who thus alludes to it : — 

'Ecco fra le tempeste, e i fieri venti 

Di questo grande e spazioso mare, 

sattta Stella, il tuo splendor rrCha scorto, 

Of illustra e scalda pur Vumane menti '. 

The *Chiesa della Casa Santa has been, repeatedly restored 
since 1464. The handsome facade -was erected under Sixtus V., a 
colossal statue of whom adorns the entrance flight of steps. Over 
the principal door is a life-size statue of the Madonna and Child, 
by Girolamo Lombardo , his sons , and his pupils ; there are also 
three superb bronze-doors, executed under Pope Paul V., 1605-21. 
The campanile , designed by Vanvitelli , is a very lofty structure in 
arrichly decorated style, surmounted by an octagonal pyramid. The 
pincipal bell, presented by Pope Leo X. in 1516, weighs 11 tons. 

In the Jntekioe, to the left of the entrance, is a beautiful 'font, cast 
in bronze by Tiburzio Verzelli and Giambatlista Vitale , and adorned with 
basreliefs and figures of Faith, Hope, Charity, and Fortitude. On the al- 
tars and in the chapels of the nave are -Mosaics representing St. Francis 
of Assisi, by Domenichino, and the Archangel Michael, by Guido Rem; also 
a number of valuable pictures, frescoes, and sculptures. 

In the centre of the church rises the 'Casa Santa' (or 'Holy House'), 
a simple brick-building, 13'/2 ft. in height, 28 ft. in length, and 12 l /2 ft. 
in width, surrounded by a lofty "Marble Screen designed by Bramanle, 
and executed by Andrea Sansovino, Girolamo Lombardo, Giovanni da Bo- 
logna, Bandinelli. Tribolo, Guglielmo della Porta, etc., with bronze doors by 
Girolamo Lombardo. This handsome work was begun under Leo X., con- 
tinued under Clement VII., and completed under Paul III. It is adorned 
with statues of prophets and sibyls, and with reliefs, among which may 
be mentioned : — 

W. Side. Annunciation , by Sansovino, termed by Vasari, 'una opera 
divina 1 ; smaller representations by Sangallo , Gir. Lombardo , and Gugl. 
della Porta. 

S. Side. Nativity, by Sansovino; David and Goliath, Sibyls, Ado- 
ration of the Magi, by other masters. 

E. Side. Arrival of the Santa Casa at Loreto, by Niccolb Tribolo; 
above it Death of the Virgin, by Domenico Aimo of Bologna. 

N. Side. Nativity of the Virgin, begun by Sansovino, continued by 
Baccio Bandinelli and Rafaele da Montelupo. Basreliefs : Nuptials of the 
Virgin, by the same masters. 

In a niche of the interior is a small image of the Virgin and Child 
in cedar, painted black, attributed to St. Luke. It is richly adorned with 
jewels, the lustre of which is enhanced by silver lamps always kept 
burning. In 1798 it was carried off to Paris by the French. 

In the N. Tkansept is the entrance to the Treasunj (open to the 
public on Rund. till 11.30 a.m.; at other times fee 1 fr.), which contains 
valuable votive offerings and curiosities, the ^zifts of monarehs and persons 
of rank. Several of the treasures disappeared at the time of the Peace of 

JESI. 14. Route. 101 

Tolentino (1797). The ceiling-painting is by Pomarancio, who also painted 
the now damaged frescoes in the dome. 

In the Piazza in front of the church are situated the Jesuits' 
College and the — 

*Palazzo Apostolico , begun in 1510 from designs by Bra- 
mante. It contains a small picture-gallery [Titian, Christ and the 
woman taken in adultery ; Vouet, Last Supper; Schidone, St. Clara; 
Guercino, Descent from the Cross ; Ann. Carracci, Nativity of Christ, 
etc.), and a.*Collection of Majolicas (formerly in the adjacent chem- 
ist's shop), chiefly from the celebrated manufactory in Urbino. 

Railway from Loreto in 20 min. to — 

17'/ 2 M. Recanati, loftily situated at some distance from the 
line, and commanding charming views. It was a fortified and impor- 
tant place in the middle ages. A charter of municipal privileges ac- 
corded to it by Emp. Frederick II. in 1229 is shown at the Palazzo 
Comunale. The Cathedral of S. Flaviano , with a Gothic porch, 
contains the monument of Gregory XII., of 1417. Several of the 
palaces deserve notice, especially that of the Leopardi, containing 
the collections of the scholar and poet Giacomo Leopardi (d. 1837). 

Excursion from Eecanati to Macerata (p. 103), passing the ruins of 
Helvia Ricina (remains of an amphitheatre, bridge, etc., on the Potenza). 
Omnibus from Macerata to stat. Civitanova. 

The train crosses the Potenza. 23 M. Potenza Picena , named 
after a Roman colony, the ruins of which have disappeared. On the 
hill, 4 l /2 M. distant, lies Montesanto. 

27 M. Porto Civitanova, at the mouth of the Chienti; the town 
of Civitanova lies 1 M. inland. — Thence to Macerata, see p. 103. 

To Pescara, Foggia, etc. see Baedeker's S. Italy. 

14. From Ancona to Foligno (Orte, Rome). 

80 SI. Railway. Express in 4s/ 4 hrs. (fares 14 fr. 60, 10 fr. 26 c). Or- 
dinary train in 43/ 4 -6i/4 hrs. (fares 13 fr. 85, 9 fr. 50, 6 fr. 60 c). To Rome 
(184 M.) in 91/2-10'/, hrs. (fares 35 fr. 60, 24 fr. 70 c). 

The train runs on the rails of the Bologna line, which with the 
old road skirts the coast (to the right a retrospect of the town and 
harbour), as far as (5 M.) Falconara (p. 93). 

Here the train diverges to the S.W. into the valley of the 
Esino (Lat. Msis) , which it soon crosses at (10 M.) Chiaravalle, 
a small town with a Cistercian monastery. 

17 M. Jesi, with 19,300 inhab. (incl. villages), now one of the 
most prosperous manufacturing towns of the province, was the an- 
cient ALsis, where the Emp. Frederick II., the illustrious son of 
Henry VI. and Constantia of Sicily, and grandson of Frederick Bar- 
barossa, was born on 26th Dec. 1194. Hence Jesi bears the name 
of the 'royal city'. The cathedral is dedicated to the martyr St. 
Septimius, who was the first bishop of the place in 308. Jesi was 
also the birthplace of the composer G. Spontini (b. 1778, d. 1851). 

The valley contracts, and the train crosses the river twice. 26 M. 

102 Route 14. FABRIANO. From Ancona 

Castel Planio. Beyond (30 M.) Serra S. Quirico, near Monte Rosso, 
the valley narrows to a wild ravine, endangered by falling rocks. 
Long tunnel through the Monte Rosso. 37 M. Albaccina. 

About 772 M. to the S. lies Matelica, a town with 4000 inhab., pos- 
sessing pictures by Palmezzano and Eusebio di S. Giorgio in the church 
of S. Francesco, and a small picture gallery in the Pal. Piersanti. From 
Matelica to Camerino (p. 103) 372 M., to San Severino (p. 103) 11 M. 

44'/ 2 M. Fabriano (Leon d'Oro; Campana), a prosperous town 
with 18,000 inhab. (inch suburbs), noted since the 14th cent, for its 
paper-manufactories, lies near the sites of the ancient Tuficum and 
Attidium. The Town Hall contains ancient inscriptions and a small 
collection of pictures. The Campanile opposite bears a bombastic in- 
scription about the unity of Italy. The churches of S. Niccolb, 
S. Benedetto, S. Agostino, and 8. Lucia, and the private houses 
Casa Morichi and Fornari, contain pictures of the Fabriano school, 
the chief master of which was Gentile da Fabriano (71370-1450; 
see p. 48). The Marchese Possenti has a valuable ""Collection of 
ivory objects. 

From Fabriano a good mountain-road (9 M.) leads by the picturesque 
La Oenga to the lofty Sassoferrato, situated in a fertile valley, consisting 
of the upper and lower town, with 2000 inhab., and possessing interesting 
churches and pictures. Giarnbattista Salvi, surnamed Sassoferrato, was 
born here in 1605 ; he was especially noted for his Madonnas, and died at 
Rome in 1685. *S'. Pieiro contains a Madonna by him. In the vicinity are the 
ruins of the ancient HenUnum, where, B. C. 296, the great decisive battle took 
place between the Romans and the allied Samnites, Gauls, Umbrians, and 
Etruscans , in which the 'consul Decius heroically sacrificed himself. The 
Roman supremacy over the whole of Italy was thus established. 

Beyond Fabriano the train skirts the brook Giano , and pene- 
trates the central Apennine chain by a tunnel li/ 4 M. long. 

54'/ 2 M. Fossato (diligence to Gubbio three times daily; p. 95); 
here we enter the plain of the Chiascio. To the left on the hill, 
Palazzolo ; to the right, Pellegrino; then, to the left, Palazzo and 
S. Facondino. 

58 M. Gualdo Tadino, a small town with 7000 inhab., lies about 
2 M. from the railway, near the insignificant ruins of the ancient 
Tadinum. In 552 Narses defeated and slew the Ostrogothic king 
Totilas here, and owing to this victory, soon gained possession of 
Rome. The church of S. Francesco contains an altar-piece by Niccolb 
da Foligno, of 1471. The cathedral has a fine rose-window; in the 
sacristy, pictures by Niccolb da Foligno. 

The train gradually descends to (69 M.) Nocera, an episcopal 
town, on the site of the ancient Nuceria, a city of the Umbri, near 
which aTe mineral springs, known since 1510. It then enters the 
narrow Val Topina, crosses the brook several times, passes through 
a tunnel, and descends by Ponte Centesimo to — 

80 M. Foligno; thence to Rome, see p. 75 et seq. 

to Borne. MACERATA. U. Route. 103 

High Road from (Ancona) Civitanova to Foligno (Rome). 

75 M. No through-conveyance. We quit the railway at Civitanova. 
The road ascends the fertile valley of the Chienti , affording a view of the 
Sibilla (9111 ft.), which is covered with snow until late in summer. 

16 M. Macerata (Pace; Posta), a flourishing town with about 20,000 
inhab., capital of the province of Macerata, picturesquely situated on the 
heights between the valleys of the Chienti and Potenza , possesses a uni- 
versity, an agricultural academy, etc. In the Cathedral a Madonna with 
St. Francis and St. Julian , ascribed to Perugino. In S. Giovanni an As- 
sumption of the Virgin, by Lanfranco. The Palazzo Municipale and the 
Pal. Compagnoni contain inscriptions and antiquities from Helvia Ricina 
(p. 101, where the amphitheatre deserves notice), after the destruction of 
which the modern towns of Recanati and Macerata sprang up. Macerata 
also has a public Library and a triumphal arch, called the Porta Pia. Out- 
side the gate, z j\ M. from the town, is the church of the Madonna delta 
Vergine, ascribed to Bramante. 

(About 6 M. to the S.W. of Macerata, or 3 M. E. of Tolentino, is the 
village of Urbisaglia, the Roman Urbs Salvia, with extensive ruins, amphi- 
theatre, walls, baths, etc.) 

28'/2 M. Tolentino (Corona), the ancient Tolenlinum Picenum, on the 
Chienti, with 11,000 inhab., with a curious Gothic gateway, was once 
strongly fortified. The town-hall in the Piazza contains a few antiquities. 
The cathedral of S. Nicola di Tolentino is entered by a Gothic vestibule. 
In the interior, rich carving on the ceiling, and frescoes from the life of 
St. Nicholas, by Lorenzo and Jacopo da San Severino. The chapel of the 
saint contains two paintings , the Fire at St. Mark's at Venice, and the 
Plague in Sicily, ascribed to Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese (?) respectively. 
The environs are picturesque, and command fine views of the mountains. — ■ 
The learned Francis Philelphus, one of the first students and disseminators 
of classical literature, was born here in 1388. 

[San Severino, 6 M. to the N.W. of Tolentino, in the valley of the Po- 
tenza, arose from the ruins of the ancient Septempeda. In the church del 
Castello, frescoes by Diotisalvi d'Angeluzzo, and an altar-piece by Niccolb da 
Foligno (1468); in the sacristy of the Duomo Nuovo a Madonna by Pinturicchio. 
S. Lorenzo stands on the site of an ancient temple. Inscriptions and anti- 
quities in the town-hall, and at the residence of the Conte Servanzi-Collio. 

From San Severino 12i/ 2 M. to Gamerino (diligence daily, 1 fr.), the an- 
cient Camerinum Umbrorum, on a height at the foot of the Apennines. 
This was once the capital of the Umbrian Camertes, who during the Samnite 
wars allied themselves with Rome against the Etruscans. It is now the 
chief town of the province, with 12,000 inhab. (incl. villages), a university, 
and a bishopric (founded in 252). The cathedral of S. Sovino occupies the 
site of a temple of Jupiter; in front of it is a bronze Statue of Pope Sixtus V., 
of 1587. The painter Carlo Maratta was born here in 1625 (d. at Rome in 
1713). — From Camerino to (6 M.) La Muccia, on the Roman road, see below. 

Another road leads from S. Severino to the N. by Matelica (11 31.) to 
Fabriano (25 M.), see p. 102.] 

The Roman road leads from Tolentino on the left bank of the Chienti, 
through a pleasant district and plantations of oaks, to Belforle, the post- 
stations Valcimara and Ponte delta Trave , and (I8V2 M. from Tolentino) — 

47 M. La Muccia (Leone), the usual halting-place of the vetturini. At 
Oelagno the road begins to ascend, and the country becomes barren and 
bleak. The passage of the Apennines from La Muccia to Foligno takes 6 hrs. 
by carriage. Serravalle lies in a narrow ravine; above it rise the ruins of 
an old castle. The sources of the Chienti (see above) are l'/a M. farther. The 
road now ascends to the table-land of Colfiorito (2903 ft.), skirts a small lake, 
traverses a grove of oaks, and descends somewhat abruptly by Case Nuove and 
Pale to Foligno. Above Pale towers the lofty Sasso di Pale, one of the last 
spurs of the Apennines. In descending, the road affords a beautiful "View 
of Foligno and the charming valley of the Clitunno. The road follows the 
course of the brook, and '/•-' M. from Foligno reaches the Via Flaminia (p. 93). 

75 M. Foligno, see p. 75. 



(Plans of Rome in Appendix, at the end of the Volume.) 

Arrival. At the railway-station (Plan I, 25) numerous hotel-omnibuses 
are in waiting, for the use of which a charge of l-l'/'i fr. is made in the 
bill. One-horse cab ('botti' and 'citadine', p. Ill) for 1-2 or 3 pers., 1 fr. ; 
at night 1 fr. 20 or 1 fr. 40 c; each additional pers. 20 c, at night 40 c; 
two-horse carr. , for 1-4 pers., 1 fr. 70, at night 1 fr. 90 c. ; small ar- 
ticles of luggage free; each small box 20 c, trunk 50 c. ; porter 25-60 c. 
— Police-Office (Questura): Via S.S. Apostoli 17 (PI. II, 16, 19). — Railway 
enquiry-office in the town, Via della Propaganda. 

Embassies and Consulates. There are two classes of diplomatic agents 
at Rome, those accredited to the Italian government, and those accredited 
to the Papal court. The offices of two of the former class alone need here 
be mentioned: English Embassy, Sir Augustus Berkeley Paget, Via Venti 
Settembre, near Porta Pia ; American Embassy , George Perkins Marsh, 
Via della Fontanella di Borghese 35. — English Consulate : Alex. Mac- 
bean , consul, Corso 378. American Consulate: Eugene Schuyler, consul 
general, Palazzo Altemps, 2nd floor ; James Hooker, consul, Via Mario de' 
Fiori 42. 

Hotels (comp. pp. vi, xxii). The best and most expensive, are in the 
Strangers* Quarter, between the Porta del Popolo and the Piazza di Spagna, 
and also between the latter and the railway-station (some of them incon- 
veniently situated): — 

-Costanzi (PI. I, 23, p), Via S. Nicola di Tolentino 14, R. 4-6, D. 5, fr. ; 
"Quirinale (PL I, 25, A), Via Nazionale, a large hotel belonging to M. Baur 
of Zurich, B. I1/2, D. 5, 'pension' 12 fr. and upwards ; 'Russia (PI. I, 18, 6), 
Via Babuino 9, with a pleasant garden; Roma (PI. I, 17, i), Corso 128, 
R. 4, 1). 5, B. l'/2 fr., good cuisine; -Londra (PI. I, 17, c), Piazza di Spagna 
13, D. 5fr. ; "Europa (PI. I, 20, d), Piazza di Spagna 35; "Inghilterra (PI. I, 
17, /), Via Bocca di Leone 14; Hotel du Louvre (PI. I, 23, y), Via S. Nicola 
di Tolentino (the four last belong to Sign. Silenzi); Bristol (PI. I, 22, x), 
Piazza Barberini ; Hotel Continental, new, near the station; Serny, Via 
S. Sebastiano 3, and Hotel de Paris, adjacent, both for families; "Hotel 
Hassler (PI. I, 17, u), corner of the Via Bocca di Leone and Via Car- 
rozze, a German house, R. from 2, D. 4'/2 fr. ; Allemagna (PI. I, 17, k), 
Via Condotti 88; della Citta (PI. I, 18, 0), Via Babuino 196. Charges at 
all these about the same: R. from 3, D. 5-6, B. l</ 2 , A. 1 fr. ; 'pension' for 
a prolonged stay, 10-12 fr. per day, and upwards. 

Somewhat less expensive : — Anglo -Americans (PI. I, 17, t) , Via 
Frattina 128, well spoken of, D. 4'/2 fr. ; Molaro (PI. I, 19, w), Via Gre- 
goriana 56, Italia (PI. I, 23, a a), Via Quattro Fontane 12, and Vittoria 
(PI. I, 19, I), Via Due Macelli 24, well spoken of; Sud (PI. I, 19, „), via 
Capo le Case 56; Cavour, at the corner of the Via del Viminale and Via 
Principe Umberto , near the railway - station ; La Pace (PI. I, 19, 2), via 
Sistina 8. 

In the interior of the city : Minerva (PI. II, 16, m), Piazza della Mi- 
nerva 69, large and much frequented, D. 4 fr. 70 c, pension without lunch 
9 fr. ; Milano (PI. I, II, 13, 16, ac), near the Pantheon, R. from 2'/2-3, B. 

Restaurants. ROME. Prelim. Information. 105 

li/i, A. 3 /i, D. 4 fr. ; Hotel and Pension Centrale (PI. I, 16, ad), Via 
della Rosa. — At all these visitors are expected to dine at the table d'hote. 

Hotels Garnis. Travellers who have some acquaintance with the lan- 
guage will find it less expensive to procure apartments at one of the follow- 
ing houses, and to take their meals at a cafe or restaurant, and they will 
also be more independent: — Oriente and Scandinavia (PI. I, 19, a b), Via 
del Tritone 6, R. 27a fr. , well spoken of; Alibert (PI. I, 17, q) , Vicolo 
d'Alibert, quiet and commended; Cesari (PI. 1, 16, n), Via di Pietra. En- 
quiry as to charges should always be made beforehand. 

Pensions. "Mme. Tellenbach , Piazza di Spagna 51, 10-12 fr. ; Miss 
Smith, in the same Piazza 93 ; Bellevue di Pincio, Via di Porta Pinciana 
18, English hostess , pension 8-10 fr. ; Mrs. Shearman (American) , Via 
della Croce 71 ; Mme. Costa, Via del Babuino 22, pension 6V2-8 fr.; Francese, 
Via Mercede 51 ; Mme. Masson, Via del Tritone 28, 2nd floor, pension 6-8V2 fr. 
— Arrangements for pension may also be made at most of the above 
mentioned hotels. 

Private Apartments. The best are situated in the quarter bounded 
by the Corso and the Via del Babuino on one side , and by the Piazza di 
Spagna and the Via Due Macelli on the other, and also in the Via Capo 
le Case, Via Sistina, Piazza Barberini, and other streets on the Pincio. 
The most expensive, and often the least sunny, are in the Corso, Piazza di 
Spagna, and Via del Babuino. A northern aspect should be studiously 
avoided, and a stipulation made for stove, carpet, and .attendance (stufa, 
tappeti, servizio). Rent of two well-furnished rooms in a good locality 150- 
250 fr., one room 50-80 fr. per month; for a suite of 3-5 rooms 300-500 fr. 
and even more. Artists generally reside in the Via Sistina, Quattro Fon- 
tane, and that neighbourhood. In the Forum of Trajan and the adjoining 
streets (as the Via della Consolazione near S. Maria della Consolazione, 
PI. II, 20) the visitor may obtain sunny apartments, conveniently situated 
with regard to the ancient part of the town. Rooms may be procured in 
almost every street in the strangers' quarter, where notices and placards 
are frequently observed ; but, as they are seldom removed when the rooms 
are let, the traveller must be prepared for a number of fruitless enquiries. 
Those who engage apartments in the Corso should come to an under- 
standing with regard to the windows for the Carnival. — House-agent, 
Karl Pochalsky, Corso 455. — Firewood at FicchelWs, Piazza di Spagna 87. 

Rome does not yet possess a complete Directory ; but much informa- 
tion is afforded by the Ouida Commerciale della Citta di Roma, published 
by Tito Monad (6 fr.). An unknown address may be ascertained at the 
Ufficio di Anagrafe on the Capitol, under the arches of Vignola, above 
the stairs leading to the Monte Caprino (p. 213). 

Restaurants (those of more moderate pretensions are called Traitorie). 
Handsomely fitted up and expensive (D. 6 fr. and upwards): — Nazzarri, 
Piazza di Spagna 81, 82; Spillmann Freres, Via Condotti 10; Spillmann 
Aini, Via Condotti 13; Renaud, Via della Croce 21 ; Cafi di Roma (p. 106). 

Second class, with good French cuisine: Corradetti, Via della Croce 
81 ; Lisi, Via Frattina 121 (these establishments also supply families with 
dinners at their own apartments, for 2 pers. 4-6, 3 pers. 6-8 fr.). — The 
Cafi del Parlamento, di Venezia, and the Birreria Morteo & Co. (Vienna 
beer), Corso 197, are also good restaurants. "Restaurant Cavour, Via della 
Mercede (PL 1, 16, 17) ; * Trattoria di Roma, Palazzo Marignoli,Via S. Claudio 90. 

The Trattorie are recommended to those who have some acquain- 
tance with the language and customs of the country : — Rosetta, Via Rosetta 
1, opposite the Pantheon to the left; Falcone, Piazza di S. Eustachio 58, 
near the Pantheon (Roman cuisine); Posla, Via Colonna 36; Restaurant 
du Chalet, beyond the new Ripetta bridge , with a pleasant garden ; Trat- 
toria di Roma, Via S. Claudio 90; Trattoria Piemontese , Piazza Trevi 10 
(Piedmontese cuisine); Rebecchino, Via Bocca di Leone 7. The following 
are unpretending: Gabbione, Via del Lavatore 40, by the Fontana Trevi; 
Tre Re, Via S. Marco 5; Torretta, Via della Torretta 1, near the Palazzo 
Borghese; Tratt. degli Artisii, Via della Vite 68 (Vienna beer); Carlin, 
Via Monte Catini 12; Genio, Via Due Macelli 12, moderate; Bucci, Pescheria 
delle Coppelle 54-57 (fish and 'zuppa alia marinara'). 

106 Prelim. Information. ROME. Cafes. 

The Osterie (wine-houses, comp. Introd.) : — Palombella, ',Via della Pa- 
lombella, at the back of the Pantheon to the right (with a better room on 
the first floor), good Montefiascone 'Est-Est', Monte Pulciano, Orvieto, and 
Aleatico; Osteria del Ghetto ('Jewish tavern'), Via Rua 111 (PI. II, 17); Cam- 
panula, near the Theatre of Marcellus , Via di Monte Savelli 78, a side- 
street of the Via Montanara; the Osteria Via della Croce 76 a; the Osteria 
opposite the Fontana Trevi 95; the Osteria Via della Pietra 67 (good Gen- 
zano). In jTrastevere : Cucciarella, Via dell' Arco dei Tolomei 23, a cross- 
street on the W. side of the Lungaretta (coming from the Ponte S. Barto- 
lommeo to the right, then to the left). There are also favourite Osterie 
on the Monte Testaccio (p. 253), on the Pratt del Castello (p. 186; much fre- 
quented on Sundays and holidays), and by the Ponte Nolle (p. 357). 

The ordinary wines of the environs of Rome (Vino dei Caslelli Romani) 
are generally served in clear bottles containing one, a half, or a fifth litre 
(mezzo litro 6-10s.), and the better qualities in smaller bottles (fiaschetti). 
Amongst these last are Velletri, Genzano (8-10s. per mezzo litro), Orvieto 
(18s.), Montefiascone ('Est-Est', comp. p. 66; 30s.), and Aleatico (25s.). 

Among the Tuscan Wine-Houses is the Cantina Toscanelli, Via della 
Colonna 27; Tuscan and Piedmontese wine also in the Via dell' Archetto. 
The Tuscan wine is generally served in large bottles (fiaschi) coved with 
rereeds , and payment is made according to the quantity consumed (6-10s. 
per mezzo litro). 

Foreign wines are sold at the restaurants (p. 105), and by Morin, Via 
Due Macelli 62; Presenzini, Via della Croce 32; Burnetii- Guichard Aine", 
Via Frattina 116. — French wines are sold by Boudrant, Corso 477, and 
also by the Liquoristi : "Aragno , Corso 237 , Piazza Sciarra , and Piazza 
Monte Citorio 118-120 (good Roman wine); Giacosa, Via della Maddalena 
17-19; Vine. At till, Via del Tritone 13 A; Morteo (see p. 105). 

Beer (birra). The best is sold at the "Birreria Morteo & Co. , Corso 
197, entrance to better dining-room by Via S. Claudio 79 (Vienna beer 
and good cuisine), see p. 105; branch-establishment, Via delle Vergini 6, 
adjoining the Teatro Quirino, near the Fontana Trevi; Carlin, see p. 105; 
'Steinfelder' at Corso 158, 159. — Roman beer is brewed and sold by 
Germans: Via de' Due Macelli 74; Via di S. Giuseppe, Capo le Case 24; 
also at the cafes and by the 'liquoristi'. 

Cafes. * Portamento, Corso 203 ; Roma, Corso 426-433, dear ; degli Specchi, 
Piazza Colonna, near the post-office; Venezia, Corso 289-290; Nazionale, 
corner of the Corso (179) and Via delle Convertite ; Greco, Via Condotti 86, 
and Artisli, Via Due Macelli 91, both frequented by artists. Other cafe's 
in almost every street; coffee generally good; sent, if desired, to private 
apartments. — Ices at the "■ Sorbetteria Napoletana , Via dell' Impresa 
22-23, to the N. of the Piazza Colonna, 30-50 c. per portion. 

Confectioners: Ronzi <£■ Singer, in the Piazza Colonna, corner of the 
Corso 349; Pesoli, Via della Stamperia 18; Ramazzolti, Via Frattina 76; 
Nazzarri, Piazza di Spagna 281, 82 (comp. p. 105). — English Baker, 
Via del Babuino 100; German, Via, Bocca di Leone 9, Via della Croce 88; 
Viennese, Via del Foro Trajano 24. — Grocers: Donzelli, Via della Croce 
11; Corso 98A; Lowe, Piazza di Spagna 76 (good tea). — Fruit-Shops: 
Gangalatiti , Piazza S. Lorenzo in Lucina 19; Posidoro , Via dell' Angelo 
Custode 53. 

Tobacco (comp. Introd.) at the Regia dei TabaccM, corner of the Corso 
and Piazza Sciarra; foreign cigars 25c. and upwards. 

Gratuities. As exorbitant demands are often made, the following aver- 
ages are given. In the galleries for 1 pers. 10 soldi, for 2-3 pers. 15s., for 
4 pers. 1 fr. ; regular frequenters 5 soldi. To attendants who open doors 
of houses, churches, gardens, etc., 5s.; for other services (guidance, expla- 
nations, light, etc.), '/2-1 fr. — It is also usual to give a trifle (l-2s.) to the 
waiters at the cafes. 

Baths (l"/2-2 fr. ; fee 25 c.) at llic hotels; also Vicnlo d'Alibert 1, Via 
Belsiana 64, Via Babuino 96, Via Ripetta 116. — Ibjdropalliic Establishments : 
Piazza Trinita de' Monti 15; Piazza del Plebiscite (PI. 1, 10); Via Crociferi44. 

Physicians. ROME. Prelim. Information. 107 

Hairdressers: Qiardinieri , Corso 423 ; Lancia , Via Condotti 48 , 1st. 
floor; Pasquali, Via Condotti 11; all with ladies' rooms. — Perfumers, 
Corso 390, 342, 343. 

Lieux d' Aisance (10 c.) : Vicolo del Sdruciolo, near the Piazza Co- 
lonna; Piazza dei Cappuccini, near the Piazza Barberini ; Passeggiata di lii- 
petta ; in the colonnade of the Piazza of St. Peter , on the side next the 
Porta Angelica ; end of the Via Belsiana ; near the Piazza Margana ; on 
the Pincio ; outside the Porta del Popolo, to the left. 

Climate (comp. Introd.). The mean temperature at Rome is GO" Fahr.; 
the greatest heat in summer being about 100° in the shade, and the greatest 
cold about 21°. Snow falls rarely, and does not lie long. The average 
temperature in January is 45°, in July 75°. The pleasantest season is 
from the beginning of October to the end of May. In summer when the 
fever-laden aria caltiva prevails, all the inhabitants who can afford it 
make a point of leaving the city. The prevalent winds are the Tra- 
montana, or north wind, which generally brings clear and bracing wea- 
ther, and the Scirocco, or south wind, which is relaxing and rainy. As 
the temperature usually falls rapidly after sunset , and colds are very 
easily caught, the traveller should not dress too lightly. Invalids should 
of course consult their medical advisers before choosing rooms, but even 
persons in robust health will do well to remember the Roman proverb : 
'■Dove non va il sole, va il medico''. 

Physicians. English: Aitken, Via Frattina 52; Gason, Via S. Sebastia- 
nello 6; Gregor, Piazza di Spagna 3; MacMillan, Palazzo del Bufalo, Via 
del Nazzareno ; Steel, Via Condotti 21, 2nd floor; Thompson (American), 
Via Nazionale 323. — German : Erhardt, Mario de' Fiori 16 ; v. Fleischl, Via 
Borgognone 82; Hoyer, Via delle Carrozze 52; Weber, Via Sistina 86; 
v. Wendt, Via Due Macelli 3; Wit/mer, Via delle Quattro Fontane 17; 
Held (homoeopath) , Palazzo Poli, Piazza Poll; Zawerthal , professor at 
the university, for pulmonary complaints, Via Fontanella di Borghese 46, 
Pal. Fausti. — Italian : Ceccarelli, Pal. Salviati, Corso ; Manassei, Via de' 
Lucchesi 9; Nardini , Pal. Doria, in the Piazza Venezia (hour for con- 
sultation 3-4); Pantaleoni, Ripetta 102; Fedeli, Via Condotti 44. — Oculists : 
Dantone, Piazza Monte Citorio 21 (hours for consultation 11-1); Businelli, 
Palazzo Fiano, Piazza S. Lorenzo in Lucina (consultations 2-4). — Sur- 
geons : Mazzoni (accoucheur and operator), Mario de' Fiori 89 ; Toriani, 
Via di Marforio 106, i., first floor. — Dentists: Chamberlain, Piazza di 
Spagna 44; Curtis (American), Piazza di Spagna 93, i. , 1st floor; Galassi, 
Piazza di Spagna 68; Castellini, Via della Colonna 28; Martin, Corso 3S9; 
Neumxmz, Via Babuino 68; Stehlin, Corso 101. 

Chemists : Sinimberghi , Via Condotti 64-66 , patronised by the English 
and American embassies; Baker <£• Co., Corso 496, patronised by the Ger- 
man embassy; Borioni, Via del Babuino 98, 99; Marignanl, Corso 435; 
other Italian chemists in every part of the town. — Surgical Instruments: 
Immelen, Via Frattina 134. 

Bankers. English: Macbean & Co., Corso 378; Magna)/, Hooker, it Co., 
Piazza di Spagna 20; Plowden <fr Co., Via Mercede 50. Italian: Cerasi, Via 
Babuino 51; Marignoli Tomassini, Corso 374; Spada, Flamini, <f- Co., Pal. 
Torlonia, Via Condotti 20. German : Schmill, Nast, d- Co., Via della Vite 11 ; 
Wedekind, Palazzo Chigi , Piazza Colonna; Theoph. Under (Swiss), Via 
Condotti 9; Canzini, Fueter, <b Co., Corso 160. — Money Changers in the Corso, 
Via Condotti, etc. (comp. Introd.). 

Booksellers. Losscher & Co., Corso 307, Palazzo Simonetti, entered from 
Via del Collegio Romano; Spithosver, Piazza di Spagna 84, 85; Midler (Li- 
hreria Centrale') , Corso 146, Pal. Bernini; English, German, and French 
books at all these. Fratelli Bocca, Corso 217, largest stock of Italian books. 
— Religiotis works and music , Via di Propaganda Fide 6. — Maps at 
Bossfs, Via Condotti 72. — Old Books at Ferretlfs, Via della Minerva 60; 
also at Lcescher's and Spithcever's. — Bookbinders. Andersen, Vicolo Due 
Macelli 35 (Roman bindings, etc.); Schmidt, Via della Purificazione 35; 
Olivieri, Via Frattina 1 ; Moschetti, Via Vittoria 47. 

108 Prelim. Information. ROME. Libraries 

Libraries. The principal public and private Roman libraries, which 
however do not lend out books, are : — Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, see 
p. 322. Permessi addressed by the cardinal secretary of state to the chief 
librarian, see p. 323. Readers admitted from the middle of Nov. to the 
middle of June, 8-12 o'clock ; the library is closed on Sundays and Thurs- 
days. — Biblioteca Alessandrina in the Sapienza (p. 194) ; enter by princi- 
pal portal, ascend stairs to the left, and traverse the gallery. Open daily 
except Sundays: from Oct. to March 8-2 and 6-9; from April to Sept. 8-2 
and 7-10. — Biblioteca Angelica (p. 193), open to the public daily 9-2, except 
Sundays; closed in Oct. — Biblioteca Barberina (p. 168), open to the public 
on Thursd. 9-2; closed from the middle of Sept. to the end of Oct. — 
Biblioteca Casanatensis (p. 197), open to the public daily, 9-3, except Sun- 
days. — Biblioteca Chisiana (p. 146), admission by permesso, obtainable 
through the traveller's embassy, Thursd. 9-12; closed in summer. — 
Biblioteca Corsiiiiana (p. 329), open to the public daily for three hours be- 
fore Ave Maria, except Sund. and Wed. ; closed from 1st Aug. to 4th Nov. 

— Biblioteca Vallicelliana (p. 202), open on Wed., Thurs., and Sat., 8'/2-12. 

— Biblioteca Vitlorio Emanuele (p. 148), open daily, 9-3 and 7-10 (in summer 
8-11). — New State Archives, see p. 148. 

Lending Libraries. English books at Lcescher's (see above). The Ger- 
man Bibliothek des Kiinstlervereins and the Bibliothek der Deutschen in Rom 
in the Palazzo Caft'arelli (p. 210) are available to subscribers only. 

Reading-Rooms. Circolo Filologico, Via del Collegio Romano (Times, 
Daily News, Athenfeum, etc. ; Journal des Debats, Revue des Deux Mon- 
des); subscription 7fr. per month. Piale, Piazza di Spagna 1. 

Newspapers, very numerous, 5-10c. per number: Op intone, 10c. ; Diritto, 
10c. ; Liberia, 5c. ; Italie (in French, containing a list of the sights of the 
day), 10c; Fanfulla (similar to the Paris Figaro), 5c. ; Capitate, radical, 
5c. ; Osservatore Romano and Voce delta Verita, both clerical. 

Teachers of Italian (2-3 fr. per lesson) : enquire at the booksellers'. 

Music. Teachers of music and singing may be heard of at the book- 
sellers' or at the music-shops mentioned below. M. Ravnkilde, a Dane, is 
a well known composer and teacher of the piano, Ripetta 39. — Pianos 
at the Stabilimento di Pianoforte e Musica, Via Condotti 29 , with a large 
musical circulating library ; Carlo Ducci , Palazzo Ruspoli , Fontanella 
Borghese ; Marchisio , Via Frattina 135 ; Franchi <b Co. , (Jorso 387 ; Paolo 
Pucci, Via Belsiana 70. Music libraries: Corso 392, 140, and 283; Bartolo, 
Via Condotti 70. — Strings at SeraJinCs, Via della Valle 46. 

Studios. Sculptors : Achtermann, Piazza de' Cappuccini 1 ; L. Ansiglioni, 
Via S. Nicola di Tolentino 2; C. & R. Cauer, Via della Frezza 59; Bausch, 
Via S. Giacomo 18; d'Epinay (French), Via Sistina 57; Oalletti , Via 
Laurina 31 ; Gerhard, Passeggiata di Ripetta 33; A. Gilbert, Via. S. Basilio 18- 
Jerichau, Piazza del Popolo 3 ; Ives (English), Via Margutta 53 ; Jos. Kopf, 
Vicolo degli Incurabili 8; Mayer, (Jorso 504; Monteverde , Piazza dell' 
Indipendenza ; Mailer (of Coburg) , Pass, di Ripetta 16 ; Piehl , Via S. 
Basilio 44; Rogers (American), Via Margutta 53; F. Schulze, Via Purifica- 
zione 14; Story (American, Via di S. Martino (a Macao) ; Voss, Piazza Bar- 
berini 28; Valentine Wood (English), Villa Campana, Via S. Giovanni. 

Painters: Alvarez, Via S. Sebastiano 3; Brandt, Via di Ripetta 39; 
L. Cabat, director of the French Academy (p. 142); Coleman (American), 
Via Margutta 33; Consoni, Palazzo Campanari, Ripetta 246; Corrodi (water- 
colours), Via dell' Angelo Custode 30; H. Corrodi, Via degli Incurabili 8; 
Flor, Via Margutta 42; Freeman, Via Margutta 83 B; Graf, Piazza Trinila 
de' Monti 15; Griswold (English), Via del Basilio 46; Hauschild, Vicolo S. 
Nicola di Tolentino 13; Kaiser, Palazzo Venezia; Kollmann,Vid. dell' Olmo 
(miniatures) ; Lemalle, of the French Academy ; Lindemann-Frommel (land- 
scape) , Via del Babuino 39 ; Ludwig, Via Sistina 72 ; Martens, Via delle 
Quattro Fontane 88; Merson, of the French Academy; Gustav Midler (of 
Coburg), Via dei Pontelici 51 ; R. Midler (water-colours), Piazza Barberini 56 • 
Nerly (landscapes and sea-pieces) , Via del Babuino 104 ; Podesli, Palazzo' 
Doria, Circo Agonale 13; Poing d'Exter (American), Via dei Greci 36; 

Studios. Shops. ROME. Prelim. Information. 109 

Riedel, Via Margutta 55 ; Schlosser, Vicolo del Vantaggio 1 ; Schobelt, Vicolo 
S. Nicola di Tolentino 13; Scifoni. Via Margutta 33; ,Seitz, Senr., Via S. 
Nicola di Tolentino 72; L. Seitz, Piazza de' Cappuccini 85; Tessy , Via 
degli Incurabili 8; Vannutelli, Palazzo Pamphilj, Circo Agonale; Vedder 
(American), Via Capo le Case 68; Vertunni (landscape), Via Margutta 53 B, 
studio I, A; R. Werner, Via Sistina 72; Zielke, Via de' Marroniti 4. 

International Association of Artists, Vicolo d'Alibert 2. 

Works of Art, both ancient and modern , are liable to duty on ex- 
portation. — Goods Agents: Giordani & Ferroni, Piazza Colonna 370 A; 
Roesler, Franz, & Co., Via del Bufalo 133; Caldani , Piazza di Pietra 41 ; 
C. Stein, Via della Mercede 42; Tombini, Via del Gambero 6. — Packer 
('Incassatore') : Ferroni, Eipetta 228. 

Shops. Antiquities : Alessandro Castellani, Via di Poli 88 ; Augusto 
Castellani, Piazza di Trevi 86; L. Depoletti , Via del Leoncino 14; Marti- 
nelti, Via Bonella 74; Giacomini , Via Bonella 42, 43, 47, Foro Romano 7 
(also works in marble and carved furniture) ; Innocenti, Via Frattina 117. 

Art, Works of, see Cameos, Casts, Copies of Bronzes, Engravings, etc. 

Articles de Votage : Barfoot (English saddlery), Via Babuino 150C and 
152; Chiara, Via delle Colonnelle 18; De' Angeli, Via della Mercede 10, etc. 

Cameos: Saulini, Via del Babuino 96; Siotto, Piazza di Spagna 97; 
Pianella, Via S. Giuseppe , Case Capo le 17 ; Raimondo d' Estrada, Via 
Sistina 26, and Via Babuino 154. 

Casts: Marsili, Via Due Macelli 86; Leopoldo and Alessandro Mal- 
pieri. Corso 54 and 51; Fedeli, Via Laurina 43 , for Renaissance ornaments. 

Clothing. For Gentlemen : Guastalla, Corso 335 (large shop) ; Fra- 
telli Bocconi , Corso 318 (moderate). See also Tailors. — Ladies' Dress 
and Millinery: Borsini-Bupres , Corso 172; R. Massoni, Corso 306; Com- 
pagnie Lyonnaise , Corso 473; Madame Boudrot , Via Condotti 81; Less 
pretending: Picarelli , Corso 316; Quattrini, Via Frattina 93 (also straw-hat 
warehouse); and see Haberdashery. 

Colours and Drawing -Materials: Corteselli , Via Sistina 150; Bo- 
vizielli, Via Babuino 136. 

Copies of Ancient Bronzes and Marbles : Hopfgarten , Via Due 
Macelli 62; Chiapparelli, Via Babuino 124; Nelli, Via Babuino 92; smaller 
works, Rbhrich, Via Sistina 105; Rainaldi , Via Babuino 51 A; Fabbi, Via 
Sistina 44. 

Drapers: Guastalla, Corso 335; Todros , Corso 418; Schostal & Haert- 
lein, Corso 161. 

Dressmakers: Angelina Givbergla, Corso 28 (good, but expensive); 
Costanza Federico, Via Easella 145, ii (for moderate requirements). 

Engravings at the Regia Calcografia, formerly the Stamperia Camerale 
(moderate prices), Via della Stamperia 6 (p. 144). 

Gloves: Chanal , Corso 143; also at Piazza S. Lorenzo in Lucina 39; 
Via della Vite 10; Via Frattina 15; Via di Pietra 76. 

Goldsmiths: "Castellani , Piazza di Trevi 86, who also possesses an 
interesting collection of ancient golden ornaments, and executes imitations 
from Greek, Etruscan, and Byzantine models; Marchesini, corner of the 
Corso and Via Condotti; Bellezza, Piazza S. Carlo, in the Corso; Ansorge, 
Piazza di Spagna 72 ; Fasoli, Via Babuino 52, and many others , chiefly 
in the Via Condotti, the Corso, and the Via Babuino. 

Haberdashery: Borgia, Via dei Prefetti; Nataletti and Ville de Lyon 
in the same street; Massoni, Corso 372; Bronner, Corso 165; Sorelle Fried- 
rich, Via Frattina 53; see also Clothing, Dressmakers, Roman Shawls. 

Hatters : Bessi, Corso 395 ; Giordani, Via Due Macelli 115 ; Miller, Via 
Condotti 16. 

Jewellery, see Goldsmiths, Roman Pearls. 

Lamps, etc.: FavciVon, Via di Propaganda 25. 

Marble-Cutters: Placidi, Via Sistina 75 C; Saleri , Via Sistina 75 A. 

Milliners, see Haberdashers, Dressmakers, etc. 

Mosaics: Gallandl (fixed prices), Piazza di Spagna 7; Barberi, Piazza 
di Spagna 99; Coriadini, Piazza di Spagna 92; Roccheggiani, Via Condotti 

110 Prelim. Information. ROME. Theatres. 

14. Mosaics and cameos, at moderate prices , in the Stabilimento , Piazza 
Borghese 106. 

Opticians: Hirsch, Corso 402; Domeniconi, Corso 227; Suscipj, Corsol82. 

Photographs : Lcescher (p. 107) ; Spithcever (p. 107 ; Braun's photographs); 
Ed. Mailer (p. 107; Simelli's photographs of architecture, Christian anti- 
quities, etc.); Monaldini, Piazza di Spagna 79, 80; Casali, Via Sistina 119 
(Jiang's photographs); Cuccioni , Piazza di Spagna 43; Hefner, Via Frat- 
tina 133 ; Alinari d: Cook , Corso 90 ; American Photographic Studio , Via 
Babuino 29; Ninci, Piazza di Spagna 28. 

Photographs for artistic purposes (reproduction of sketches, pictures, 
etc.): Many, Via Sistina 113, first floor. — Portraits: Alessandri, Corso 12; 
Le Lieure, Piazza Mignanelli 23; Montabone, Piazza di Spagna 9; Fotografa 
Nazionale, Via Gregoriana 20; Suscipj, Via Condotti48; delta Valle, Via 
della Croce 67. — Cheap photographs at Bencinfs, Via Ripetta 185. 

Roman Peakls : Bey, Via Babuino 122 ; Bartolini, Via Frattina 67. 

Roman Shawls: Bianchi, Piazza della Minerva 82 (also other Roman 
silk wares) ; Amadori, Corso 221 ; Arvolti, Via Condotti 4. 

Shoemakers : Briigner, Via in Arcione 104, i. ; Giangrandi, Via Frat- 
tina 79 ; Jen, Corso 129; Rubini, Corso 223 ; Berardi, Via della Fontanella 
di Borghese 23; Fratelli Miinster, Corso. 

Small Wares, etc.: C'agiati, Corso 167, 169; Janetti, Via Condotti 18; 
A. Cagiuti, Corso 250; Curli <i Bianchelli ('Emporio Franco-Italiano') , at 
the corner of the Corso and Via Frattina. 

Stationers: Ricci , Corso 214, Piazza Colonna; Antonelli , Corso 229, 
Piazza Sciarra; Brenta, Via del Plebiscito 104, near Palazzo Venezia. 

Tailors: Schraider, Piazza di Spagna 29; L. Evert, Piazza Borghese 
77; Mons, Via Due Macelli 48; Segre, Piazza di Trevi86; Brassini, Corso 137. 

Umbrellas : Gilardini, Corso 185. 

Watchmakers: Conii, Piazza di Spagna 53; Eolbauer , Via Due Ma- 
celli 108; Gondret, Corso 144. 

Weapons (permesso necessary, see Introd.) : Toni, Corso 41 ; Spadini, 
Via Due Macelli 66. 

Theatres. The largest is the Teatro Apollo (PI. I, 10; for operas, 
always with ballet), near the Ponte S. Angelo, seats 8 or 4 fr. — 
Teatro Argentina (PI. II, 13, 16), Via di Tor Argentina, not far from 
S. Andrea della Valle, for comic operas; Teatro Valle (PI. II, 13, 15), 
near the Sapienza, for dramas, seat 3 fr. — Besides these there are the 
smaller theatres: Teatro Capranica (PI. I, 16), Piazza Capranica , not far 
fiom the Pantheon and the Piazza Colonna, for comedies, 2 fr. — Teatro 
Metastasio (PI. I, 13, 15), near the Via Scrofa in the Via di Pallacorda, 
for vaudevilles; performances at 6.45 and 9.30 pm., seat 1 fr. 25 c. — 
Teatro Qi'irino (PI. II, 16, 19), near the Via delle Muratte and Fontana 
Trevi, for operettas and ballet, daily at 5.30 and 9 p.m., adm. 1 fr. ; Val- 
letto , near the Teatro Valle , for operettas and comedies , daily at 5 and 
9 p.m., adm. 60 c. 

The companies usually change three times ayear , one performing in 
autumn and winter till Christmas, another till Lent, and a third after Lent. 
Boxes are generally let permanently, and visits paid and received there. 
Ladies frequent the boxes only, gentlemen the pit (platea). Particulars 
about admission, etc. are published in the hand-bills. Comp. p. xx? 

Open-air Theatres (performances begin about 5 o'clock on summer 
afternoons) : at the Mausoleum of Augustus (p. 186) , Via de' Pontefici, 
near the Ripett i ; Politeama, at Trastevere, near the Ponte Sisto (operas) ; 
Aliiambra, in the Prati di Castello, opposite the new Ripetta bridge. 

Marionette Theatre: Teatro Nazionale (formerly Prandi), Piazza della 
Consolazione 97 (PI. II, 20), seat 75 e. (sometimes closed). 

Ball Playing: Sfeuistekio, at the corner of the Via Quattro Fontane 
and Via Venti Settembre (in summer only); equestrian performances, 
and sometimes operettas and dramas, at the same place. 

Cabs. Omnibuses. 

ROME. Prelim. Information. Ill 

Cabs ( Vetlure Pubbliclie) in the princi- 
pal piazzas. Each vehicle contains a tar- 
iff in Italian and French. 'Botti\ open, for 
1-2 pers. ; l, CiUadine\ closed, for 1-3 per. 

With one horse. 

Botti | Cittadine 


- 80 
1 — 



1 — 

1 20 



1 — 

1 - 



1 40 

1 40 

1 — 

- 20 
1 70 

- 45 

1 20 

- 40 

2 20 

— 55 

1 20 

— 20 

2 - 

— 50 

1 60 


2 50 

2 20 
— 55 

2 70 

— 70 

2 50 
- 65 

3 — 

— 75 

two horses. 



1 90 

2 50 



3 - 


3 40 

Within the city : 

Single drive (corsa ordinaria) . . — 80 1'— 1 — 1 "40 1 70 1 90 

To or from the station .... 1 — 1 20 1 - 1 40 1 70 1 90 

To or from the gates (except the 

Porta del Popolo, Pia, Angelica, 

and Cavalleggeri, for which an 

ordinary corsa only is charged). 

For each drive, 1 pers. more . . 

Per hour 

Each additional V< hr 

Outside the Porta del Popolo, Pia, An- 
gelica, and Cavalleggeri, within a 
distance of 2 M. (3 Kil.) per hour 

Each additional 1/4 hr — 55 — 70 — 65 — 75 — 75 — 75 

Outside the other gates , and for longer drives than those above 
mentioned, there is no tariff, but the above fares afford an idea of what 
may reasonably be demanded. On the afternoons of the eight days of the 
Carnival the two- horse vehicles are exempted from the restrictions of 
the tariff. 

Large box 50 c, small box or portmanteau 20 c. ; hand-bags, etc., free. 
The day service is from 6 a.m. to one hour after Ave Maria. 
Omnibuses. The Piazza di Venezia (PI. II, 16) is the starting-point 
of the following lines (fare 15 c.) : — • 

1. Through the Corso (but after 3 p.m. through the side-streets to the 
E. : the Piazza S.S. Apostoli, Via dell' Umilta, Piazza di Trevi, Via della 
Stamperia, Via dell' Angelo Custode, Via Due Macelli, Piazza di Spagna, 
Via del Babuino) to the Piazza del Popolo (PI. I, 18). 

2. Through the Via del Plebiscito, Piazza Gesit , Via de' Cesarini , Via 
del Sudario, Piazza Valle , Via dei Massimi, Piazza S. Pantaleo (corre- 
spondence with the Piazza del Popolo , see below) , Via di S. Pantaleo, 
Piazza del Pasquino, Via del Governo Vecchio, and Piazza dell' Okologio 
(PI. II, 10) ; then through the Via dei Banchi Nuovi, Via Banco S. Spirito, 
Ponte S. Angelo, and Borgo Vecchio, to the Piazza S. Pieteo (PI. I, 4, 7). — 
(The omnibuses of this line return through the Borgo Nuovo, by the Ponte 
S. Angelo, etc., the Via Banchi Vecchi, Vicolo Sforza-Cesarini, and Piazza 
dell' Orologio ; then through the Via Pasquino to the Piazza Agonale or 
Navona, Via dei Canestrari, Piazza and Via della Valle, Via di Mon- 
terone, Via della Pigna, Via del Gesii, etc.) 

3. Through the Via del Plebiscito, Piazza Gesii, Via dei Cesarini, Via 
di Monte della Farina, Piazza S. Carlo Catinari, Via Giubbonari, Via del 
Monte di Pieta, and Via dei Pettinari , to the Ponte Sisto (PI. II, 14); 
then through the Piazza di Ponte Sisto , Vicolo del Cinque , Via della 
Paglia, Piazza di S. Maria in Trastevere, and Piazza S. Oalisto , to the 
Via di S. Feanoesco a Ripa (PI. Ill, 15). — (The omnibuses of this line 
return by the same route as far as S. Maria in Trastevere; then traverse the 
Piazza S. Apollonia, Via del Moro, and Piazza di Ponte Sisto, and follow 
the above route to the Piazza S. Carlo Catinari, and run alternately through 
the short connecting streets to the Via Botteghe Oscure, Via S. Marco, Via 
degli Astalli, Via del Plebiscito, and Piazza Venezia.) 

4. Through the Ripresa dei Barberi, Via di Foro Trajano, Foro Tra- 
jano, Via Alessandrina, Via Croce Bianca, to the Piazza delle Caekette 
(PI. II, 20,23); then through the Via del Colosseo and Via di S. Giovanni 
in Laterano, to the Piazza S. Giovanni in Latekano (PI. II, 30, 33). 

5. Through the last-named streets to the Via Croce Bianca; then 
through the Via della Madonna dei Monti, Via Leonina , Via Urbana, 
Piazza S. Maria Maggiore , and Via Cavour to the Railwai Station 
(PI. I, 25). 

112 Prelim. Information. ROME. Post Office. 

From the Piazza del Popolo (PI. I, 18) an omnibus runs through 
the Ripetta and the Piazza Agonale (Navona) to S. Pantaleo (PI. II, 13); 
another through Via del Bahuino, Piazza di Spagna, Piazza Barberini, 
Via Torino to Via Cavouk (Railway Station; PI. I, 25). 

From S. Lorenzo in Lucina (PI. I, 16; p. 146) through the Piazza 
Borghese, Via del Clementino, Piazza Nicosia, etc., and over the Ponte di 
S. Angelo, to the Piazza di S. Pieteo (PI. I, 47). Also through the Via 
Frattina, Via de' Due Macelli, Via del Tritone, Piazza Barberini to the 
Station (PI. I, 25), returning by Piazza Barberini, Piazza di Trevi and 
Via delle Muratte to the Corso (PI. I, 16). 

An omnibus also starts from the Piazza Campitelli (PI. II, IT) half- 
hourly every afternoon for S. Paolo fuori le Mura (p. 256; 6s.). 

Tramway: 1. From the Piazza di Venezia (PI. II, 16) through the Via 
Nazionale to the Piazza delle Terme (Railway Station) and through the 
Via Cernaja and Via Volturno to Via Solferino (PI. I, 26). 

2. From the Piazza delle Terme to $. Lorenzo fuori le Mura. 

3. From the Porta del Popolo to Ponte Molle (5 or 6s.). 
Steam Tramway to Tivoli, see p. 369. 

Saddle Horses (for excursions in the Campagna, 10 fr. per half-day, 
ostler 1 fr.) : Jarret, Piazza del Popolo 3 ; Cairoli, Vicolo degli Incurabili. 

Post Office (comp. Introd., p. xx), Piazza S. Silvestro in Capite, a 
large new edifice, open from 8 a.m. to 9.30 p.m. (PI. I, 16; also entered 
from the Via della Vite). Poste Restante letters are delivered at several 
windows for the different initials under the arcades in the court, on 
the right. Under the arcades, on the left, is a writing-room (letter 15 c). 
Branch Offices: at. the railway-station (open till 10 p. m), Via Babiuno 106, 
Borgo Nuovo 7, Via Savelli 44, Piazza di Pasquino 6, Via Alessandrina 99 
(these last open till 7 p.m. only). 

Telegraph Office, open day and night, in the General Post-office building, 
Piazza S. Silvestro in Capite. Branch Offices : Piazza Aracoeli 33, Piazza 
S. Bernardo alle Terme 14, Piazza Ponte S. Angelo 33. 

English Churches. Anglican, and adjoining it Presbyterian (Scotch), 
both outside the Porta del Popolo (p. 139); Trinity Church (Episcopal), 
in the Piazza di S. Silvestro (p. 146) ; American in the Via Nazionale ; 
Episcopal also Vicolo d'Alibert 14. 

Church-Festivals. Since the annexation of Rome to the kingdom of 
Italy on 20th Sept., 1870, the great ecclesiastical festivals have lost most 
of their splendour. The public ceremonies at which the Pope formerly 
officiated in person, such as those of the Holy Week, the benedictions, 
and the public processions including that of the Fete de Dieu, have been 
discontinued. The Pope still officiates on high festivals in the Sistine 
Chapel, but visitors are not admitted without an introduction from very 
high quarters. (Gentlemen are required to wear uniform or evening 
dress. Ladies must be dressed in black, with black veils or caps.) The 
illumination of St. Peter's and the Girandola, or fireworks, with which 
the festivals of Easter and St. Peter and St. Paul used to be celebrated, 
have also been discontinued. 

The following enumeration of the various festivals, as they were 
celebrated pkior to 20th Sept. 1870 , will still be found useful in many 
respects. Details are contained in the Oerarckia Catlolica , and the Diario 
di Roma, published annually. The best work on the ceremonies of the 
Holy Week and their signification is the Manuale delle cerimonie che hanno 
luogo nella settimana santa e nelV ollava di pasqua al Vaticano (1 fr., also 
a French edition), obtainable at the bookshops mentioned at p. 108. 

The Pope used to officiate in person three times annually, on Christmas- 
day, Easter-day, and the Festival of St. Peter and St. Paul (29th June); and 
four times annually he imparted his benediction, on Holy Thursday and Easter- 
day from the balcony of St. Peter's , on Ascension-day from the Lateran, 
and on 15th Aug., the anniversary of the 'Assumption of the Virgin', from 
S. Maria Maggiore. The most imposing ceremonies were those of the Holy 
Week, from Palm Sunday to Easter-day, the most important of which took 
place in the Sistine Chapel, accompanied by the music ('lamentations', etc.) 

Church Festivals. ROME. Prelim. Information. 113 

of Palestrina and other old masters, on which occasions the papal band 
(cappella papale) performed. 

The following were the principal festivals: — 
January 1. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a.m. 

— 5. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 3 p. m. 

— 6. Epiphany. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a.m.; at 4 p. m. 

procession in Araceli. 

— 17. S. Antonio Abbate (PI. II, 25, near S. Maria Maggiore) , bene- 

diction of domestic animals. 

— 18. Anniversary of foundation of the chair of St. Peter , Cap. Pa- 

pale in St. Peter's, 10 a. m. 
February 1. Illumination of the lower church of S. Clemente (p. 264). 

— 2. Candlemas. Cap. Papale in St. Peter's, 9 a. m. 

On Ash- Wednesday and every Sunday during Lent, Cappella Papale in the 
Sistine at 10 a. m. The Lent sermons in Gesii (PI. II, 16), S. Maria 
sopra Minerva (PI. II, 16), and other churches are celebrated. 

March. Every Friday at 12 the Pope repaired to St. Peter's to pray during 
the confession. 

— 7. St. Thomas Aquinas, in S. Maria sopra Minerva (PI. II, 16). 

— 9. S. Francesca Eomana (in the Forum). 

— 16. Festival in the chapel of the Palazzo Massimi (PI. II, 17) in 

commemoration of a resuscitation by S. Filippo Neri. 

— 25. Annunciation. Cap. Papale in S. Maria sopra Minerva (PI. II, 16). 

Holt Week. 

Palm- Sunday. Cappella Papale in St. Peter's , 9 a. m. Consecration of 
palms and procession ; then mass. At 2 p. m. confession in the 
Lateran (PI. II, 30). 

Wednesday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 3 p. m. Tenebrse, Miserere. 

Holy Thursday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. Towards noon 
the benediction l Urbi' from the loggia of St. Peter's. Then 
washing of feet in St. Peter's, immediately after a dinner to 
twelve pilgrims in the loggia of St. Peter's. Cappella Papale 
in the Sistine, 3 p.m. Tenebrse and Miserere. 

Good Friday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine , 9 a. m. (music by Pales- 
trina). At 3 p. m. Tenebree and Miserere. 

Saturday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 9 a.m. (Missa di Papa Mar- 
cello, by Palestrina). Baptism of converts in the Lateran. 

Easter- Sunday. Cappella Papale in St. Peter's, 9 a.m. The Pope ap- 
peared in the church at 10 o'clock and read mass. The eleva- 
vation of the host (about 11) was accompanied by the blast of 
trumpets from the dome. The Pope was then carried in proces- 
sion from the church, and about noon imparted the great bene- 
diction 'Urbi et Orbi' from the loggia of St. Peter's. After 
sunset, illumination of the dome of St. Peter's ; 1 hr. later 
torches were substituted for the lamps ('il cambiamento'). 

Easter- Monday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 9 a. m. 

Easter- Tuesday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 9 a. m. 

Saturday in Albis. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 9 a. m. 

April 25. Procession of the clergy from S. Marco (PI. II, 16) to St. Peter's 
at 7. 30 a. m. 

May 26. S. Filippo Neri. Cappella Papale in the Chiesa Nuova, 10 a. m. 

Ascension. Cappella Papale in the Lateran. Great benediction from the 

Whitsunday. Cappella Papale in the Sistine , 10 a. m. 

Trinity. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. 

Corpus Domini (Fete de Dieu). Procession of the Pope and clergy round 
the piazza of St. Peter's, 8 a.m. 

June 1. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, in memory of Gregory XVI. 
— 24. John the Baptist. Cappella Papale in the Lateran, 10 a. in. 

28. Eve of SS. Peter and Paul. Cappella Papale, St. Peter's, 6 p.m. 

29. SS. Peter and Paul. — Forenoon, Cappella Papale, St. Peter's. 

Baedeker. Italy II. 7th Edition. Q 

114 Prelim. Information. ROME. Church Festivals. 

July 14. S. Bonaventura, in S. S. Apostoli. 

— 31. S. Ignazio, in Gesii. 

Aug. 1. St. Peter in Vinculis, in S. Pietro in Vincoli (PI. II, 23). 

— 5. S. Maria della Neve, in S. Maria Maggiore (PI. II, 25). 

— 15. Assumption of the Virgin. Cappella Papale in S. Maria Mag- 

giore (PI. II, 25), 9 a. m. ; great benediction from the loggia. 
Sept. 8. Nativity of the Virgin. Cappella Papale in S. Maria del Popolo 
(PL I, 18), 10 a. m. 
— 14. Elevation of the Cross, in S. Marcello (PI. II, 16). 
Oct. 7. S. Marco, in the church of that saint (PI. II, 16). 

— 18. S. Luca, in the church of that saint (PI. II, 20). 

Nov. 1. All Saints' Day, Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. and 
3 p. m. 

— 2. All Souls' Day. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. 

— 3. Requiem for former Popes. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 

10 a. m. 

— 4. S. Carlo Borromeo. Cappella Papale in S. Carlo, 10 a. m. 

— 5. Requiem for deceased cardinals in the Sistine. 

— 7. Requiem for deceased singers of the Cappella Papale in the 

Chiesa Nuova (PI. II, 10). 
On the four Sundays of Advent, Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a.m. 

— 22. St. Cecilia. Cappella Papale in S. Cecilia in Trastevere (p. 336). 

Illumination of the Catacombs of Calliatus (p. 342). 

— 23. Illumination of the lower church of S. Clemente (p. 264). 

Dec. 8. Conception. Cappella Papale in the Sistine , 3 p. m. Proces- 
sion from Araceli (PI. II, 20). 

— 24. Christmas Eve. Cappella Papale in the Sistine , 8 p. m. To 

wards midnight , solemnities in Aracoeli , about 3 a. m. in S. 
Maria Maggiore (PI. II, 25). 
Dec. 25. Christmas Day. Cappella Papale in St. Peter's, 9 a. m.; eleva- 
tion of the host announced by trumpets in the dome. 

— 26. St. Stephen's Day. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. m. 

— 27. St. John the Evangelist. Cappella Papale in the Sistine, 10 a. in. 

— 31. Cappella Papale in the Sistine; after which, about 4 p. m., 

grand Te Deum in Gesii (PI. II, 16). 

Popular Festivals (which have lost much of their former interest) : — 

Epiphany (6th Jan. ), celebrated in the evening in the Piazza Navona, 
since 1873 (formerly near S. Eustachio) ; array of booths and prodigious din 
of toy-trumpets. 

The Carnival, which has of lite regained a little of its former splen- 
dour, lasts from the second Saturday before Ash -Wednesday to Shrove- 
Tuesday, and consists in a daily procession in the Corso , accompanied by 
the throwing of bouquets and comfits (except on Sundays and Fridays, 
when a 'gala corso' generally takes place), and concluding with a horse-race. 
The last evening is the Moccoli (taper) evening, the tapers being lighted 
immediately after sunset. A window in the Corso is the best point of view. 
The liveliest scene is between the Piazza Colonna and S. Carlo. Balconies 
there are in great request (as high as 600 fr.) ; single places are let on stands 
fitted up for the occasion. 

The October Festival, in the vintage-season, once famous, is celebrated 
with singing, dancing, and carousals at the osterie outside the gates. 

The Festa dello Statuto, or Festival of the Constitution, introduced 
since the annexation of Rome , is on the first Sunday in June. Military 
parade in the forenoon in the Campo di Maccao (p. 176). In the evening a 
"Girandola, or illumination and fire-works at the Castello di S. Angelo. — 
On the anniversary of the Foundation of Rome (21st April), it has of late 
been usual to illuminate the Colosseum and the Forum with Bengal fire. 

The opening of Parliament is also inaugurated with festivities. 

Street Scenes. The top of the Scala di Spagna (PI. I, 20) and the 
Via Sistina are the favourite haunts of artists' models, chiefly Neapolitans, 
whose costumes are a well-known subject of photographs and pictures. 

Popular Festivals. ROME. Prelim. Information. 11.5 

The picturesque Campagnoli, or herdsmen of the Campagna, are less 
frequently seen in the streets of Rome than formerly. They pass a great 
part of their lives on horseback, while tending their oxen and horses. Their 
equipment consists of a low felt-hat, wide, grey mantle, leathern leggings, 
and spurs; and they carry a 'pungolo', or iron- pointed goad, for driving 
their cattle. The peasants of remote mountain- districts, wearing sandals 
(whence termed ciocciari), and with swathed feet and ankles, also present a 
grotesque appearance. — The favourite haunts of the country-people are in 
front of the Pantheon (PI. II, 16; especially on Sundays), the Piazza Montanara 
(PI. II, 17) below the Capitol, and the market-place of the Campo di 
Fiori (p. 203). 

The Garrison of Rome consists of 6 regiments of Infantry (wearing 
the 'giubba', or dark blue coat common to the whole army, grey trousers, 
white leather belts , and caps) ; 2 regiments of Granatieri (or Grenadiers ; 
infantry uniform, with a burning grenade on the cap to distinguish them); 
1 regiment of Bersaglieri or riflemen (dark bine uniform with crimson 
facings, large plumed caps worn on one side , forming an elite corps like 
the Austrian Kaiserjager) ; 1 regiment of Cavalry (dark blue uniform, light 
grey trousers, and helmets ; the Lanzieri wear fur caps and trousers faced 
with black); 1 brigade of Field Artillery (dark blue uniform with yellow 
facings) ; and 1 brigade of Engineers. To these we may add the Carabinieri, 
or gensdarmes, who wear black uniforms with red facings and cocked hats. 

Collections, Villas, etc. 

Changes in the arrangements take place so frequently that the follow- 
ing data cannot long remain accurate. Even the lists of sights contained 
in some of the daily newspapers are not always trustworthy. Intending 
visitors should therefore make additional enquiry at the hotels , book- 
sellers, etc. — Galleries and palaces within angular brackets in the follow- 
ing list are temporarily closed. Fees, comp. p. 108. 

Accademia di S. Luca (p. 238), pictures, Mon. to Sat., 9-3. 

*Albani, Villa (p. 164), antiquities and pictures : Tuesdays, except 
in wet weather, in winter from 10, in summer from 11 to 
dusk ; admittance by permesso , obtainable at the office in the 
Palazzo Torlonia, Piazza Venezia 135, to the left on the ground- 
floor, on presenting a visiting card (or at the consulate). Often 
closed for several months in summer and autumn. 

Barberini, Palazzo (p. 167), picture-gallery and antiquities : daily, 
12-5, except Sund. and Thurs., 12-4; Thurs. 2-5; library on 
Thurs., 9-2 (closed from the middle of Sept. to the end of Oct.). 

Bartholdy, Casa (p. 143), a room with frescoes by Cornelius, Over- 
beck, and others : hours vary ; apply to porter. 

*Borghese, Palazzo (p. 186), pictures: Mon., Wed., andFrid., 9-3. 

*Borghese, Villa (p. 160), garden: Tues., Thurs., Sat., and Sun., 
after 1 ; statues in the casino, Sat., in winter 1-4, in summer 
by permesso, 4-7. 

* Capitoline Museum (p. 217), daily, 10-3, except on public holi- 
days ; Sun. 10-1; admission 50 c. (comp. p. 217). 
Castello S. Angelo (p. 278) : daily by permesso, obtainable at the 
Commando di Divisione Territoriale di Roma, Via del Burro 
(a street connecting the Piazza di Pietra and Piazza S. Ignazio; 
PI. 1, II, 16) No. 147, second floor. 


116 Prelim. Information. ROME. Collections, Villas, etc. 

Catacombs of St. Callistus (p. 342), daily, see p. 337. Each visitor 

should be provided with a candle (cerino). 
Colonna, Palazzo (p. 155), picture-gallery: daily, 11-3, except 

Sun. and holidays. 

* Conservatori , Palace of (p. 213), new collection, bronzes and 

pictures : times of admission same as for the Capitoline Museum. 

Corsini, Palazzo (p. 322), picture-gallery: Mon., Thurs., and Sat., 

10-3, except on holidays ; but daily during the Easter fortnight. 

* Doria, Palazzo (p. 151), picture-gallery: Tues. and Frid. 10-2; 

or Wed. or Sat., if one of the usual days is a holiday. 
[Farnese, Palazzo (p. 203): no admission.] 
[Farnesina, Villa (p. 327) : closed at present.] 

* Forum Romanum (p. 222): daily. 

[Kircheriano, Museo (p. 150), antiquities : closed at present.] 

* Lateran, Collections of the (p. 272) : daily, 9-3 o'clock. 
S. Luca, Academy of (p. 238): daily, 9-3. 

*Ludovisi, Villa (p. 163), ancient sculptures: Thurs. from 10 till 

dusk (closed in summer) by permesso (for 6 persons), procurable 

at the traveller's consulate. 
Maltese Villa and S. Maria Aventina (p. 255) : Wed. and Sat., 9 

to dusk. 
[Massimo, Villa (p. 276), frescoes : admission rarely granted.] 
Medici, Villa (p. 142), collection of casts: daily, 8-12, and 

afternoon till dusk, except Sat. 

* Palatine Excavations (p. 243): daily, adm. 1 fr. ; on Sun. and 

holidays gratis, 9 till dusk; closed in summer 12-3. 
* Pamphilj , Villa Doria (p. 332), garden: walkers admitted daily 

after 1 ; admission to the Casino, which contains a few statues, 

by permesso, obtainable at the Palazzo Doria (p. 151); on Mon. 

and Frid. two-horse carriages also admitted. 
Quirinale , Palazzo del (p. 169), the residence of the King, daily, 

but part of it only is shown. 
*Rospiyliosi, Casino (p. 170), pictures: Wed. and Sat., 9-3. 
[Sciarra- Colonna, Palazzo, seep. 148. J 
Spada alia Regola, Palazzo (p. 204), antiquities, pictures : usually 

Mon., Wed., and Sat., 10-3 ; closed in the height of summer. 
Thermae of Caracalla (p. 258): daily, 9 till dusk (1 fr.) ; Sun. 

Thermae of Titus (p. 237) : admission as to the preceding. 
Tiberino, Museo (p. 326) : daily, 9 till dusk ; adm. 1 fr. 
Torlonia, Museo (p. 325), through personal introduction to the 

prince (at the Palazzo Torlonia, 8 1 /2"9 1 /2 a.m.) or by special 

permission obtained through the embassy. 

Torlonia, Villa (p. 173): Thurs., 1-3, by permesso obtainable at 
the Palazzo Torlonia, Piazza di Venezia 135. 

Collections, Villas, etc. ROME. Prelim. Information. 1 1 7 

* Vatican Collections and Library (p. 291) accessible on the days 
mentioned below (but always closed on Sat., Sun., and holi- 
days), gratis, by permessi, to be obtained through a consul, or 
by direct application at the Segretaria of the Maggiordomo (9-1 
o'clock) in the Cortile di S. Damaso (p. 290). Intending visitors 
apply to the Swiss guard (no gratuity) at the Portone di Bronzo, 
opposite the chief entrance to the Vatican (p. 290), and are 
conducted to the office, where they write their names in the per- 
messo. The hotel-keepers also procure permessi for their guests 
at a charge of l 1 ^ fr- each. On leaving the Vatican the visitor 
who intends to return should at once procure another permesso 
in the way above mentioned , or ask the custodian to give him 
back the old one Cife fr.). 

Besides the permessi for artists and scientific men mentioned below, 
there are three kinds of ordinary permessi (each available for 5 persons) : 
1. For EaphaeVs Stanze and Loggie , the Picture Gallery, and the Sistine 
Chapel, 9-3 o'clock on the first five week-days, festivals excepted. 2. For 
the Museum of Statuary , Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 
9-3. 3. For the Etruscan Museum, Egyptian Museum, and Raphael's Tapestry, 
Thursday 9-3, feast-days excepted. — The Permessi Nos. 1 and 2 are 
printed on white paper, No. 3 on yellow. 

The Vatican Library is open on the same days as the Museum of Sta- 
tuary (Mon., Tues., Wed., Frid., 9-3), no permesso being required. 

Wolkonsky, Villa (p. 277) : Wed. and Sat. from morning till 
dusk. Permesso for 6 persons to be obtained at the Russian em- 
bassy, Pal. Feoli, Corso 518 (12-2). 

Those who desire to study, draw , or copy in Roman museums or pri- 
vate collections must procure a Permesso through their ambassador or con- 
sul. For the Papal Museums permission is granted by Monsignor Ricci 
(maggiordomo of the pope) at his office (see above) , the written appli- 
cation having been left there a day or two previously. (Separate permessi 
required for the museums of the Vatican and Lateran, the Vatican picture- 
gallery, and Raphael's Loggie.) In the case of Private Galleries, application 
must be made to the proprietor in Italian or French , stating also which 
picture it is intended to copy, and the size and description of the copy. 
In some collections copies of the original size must not be made. As to 
this and similar regulations, information should be previously obtained from 
the custodian. The following form of application to the Monsgr. Maggior- 
domo, may be also addressed to a principe or marchese, the 'Revma' being 
in this case omitted. 

Eccellenza Revma, 

II sotloscritto che si tratliene a Roma con lo scopo di proseguire in questa 
capitale i suoi sludj arlisiici (storici, etc.), si prende la liberta di rivolgersi 
con questa a Vra Eccellenza Revma pregando La perche voglia accordargli il 
grazioso permesso di far degli studj (dei disegni, delle notizie, etc.) nel Museo 
(nella Galleria) Vaticano. 

Sperando di essere favorito da Vra Eccellenza Revnta e pregando La di 
gradire anticipatamente i piii sinceri suoi ringraziamenli, ha Vonore di pro- 
testarsi col piii profondo rispetto 

di Vra Eccellenza Revma 
Roma U . . . . Ummo Obbmo Servitore 

A Sua Eccellenza Revma N. N. 

Monsignor Ricci- Par acciani 

Maggiordomo di Sua Santita. 

118 Prelim. Information. ROME. Diary. 


(To be compared with the preceding Alphabetical List). 

Daily : Capitoline Museum (p. 217) and Palace of the Conser- 
vatori (p. 213), 10-3, adm. 50 c. ; Sun. gratis. — Forum Romanum 
(p. 223). — Excavations on the Palatine (p. 243), 9 till dusk; 
adm. 1 fr. ; Sun. gratis (closed in summer from 12 to 3). — Therm* 
of Caracalla fp. 258), 9 till dusk ; adm. 1 fr. ; Sun. gratis (closed 
in summer 12-3). — Museo Tiberino (p. 326), 9 till dusk; adm. 
1 fr. — Catacombs of St. Callistus (p. 336), etc. 

Daily, except Sundays and Holidays : Collections of the Lateran 
(p. 272) 9-3. — Academy of S. Luca (p. 238) 9-3. — Galleria 
Colonna (p. 155) 11-3. — Galleria Barberini (p. 167) 12-5, Thurs. 
2-5. — Casino of the Villa Doria Pamphilj (p. 333). 

Sundays: Villa Borghese (p. 160), in the afternoon. 

Mondays: Vatican Collections (Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, 
Picture Gallery, Sistine Chapel, Museum of Statuary, and Library), 
9.3. _ Galleria Borghese (p. 186) 9-3. — Galleria Corsini (p. 328) 
9.3. _ Galleria Spada (p. 204) 10-3. — Villa Pamphilj (p. 332). 

Tuesdays: Vatican Collections (Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, 
Picture Gallery, Sistine Chapel, Museum of Statuary, and Library), 
9.3. _ Galleria Doria (p. 151) 10-2. — Villa Albani (p. 164), and 
Villa Borghese (p. 160), in the afternoon. 

Wednesdays : Vatican Collections (Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, 
Picture Gallery, Sistine Chapel, Museum of Statuary, and Library), 
9-3. — Casino Rospigliosi (p. 170) 9-4. — Galleria Borghese (p. 186) 
9-3. — Galleria Spada (p. 204) 10-3. — Villa Wolkonsky (p. 277). 

Thursdays : Vatican Collections (Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, 
Picture Gallery, Sistine Chapel, Etruscan and Egyptian Museums, 
and Raphael's Tapestry), 9-3. — Dome of St. Peter's (p. 288) 8-10. 

— Galleria Corsini (p. 322) 9-3. — Barberini Library (p. 168) 9-2. 

— Villa Ludovisi (p. 163), 10 till dusk. —Villa Borghese (p. 160), 
in the afternoon. 

Fridays : Vatican Collections (Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, Pic- 
ture Gallery, Sistine Chapel , Museum of Statuary , and Library), 
9-3. — Galleria Borghese (p. 186) 9-3. — Galleria Doria (p. 151) 
10-2. — Villa Doria-Pamphilj (p. 332). 

Saturdays: Casino Rospigliosi (p. 170) 9-4. — Galleria Spada 
(p. 204) 10-3. — Galleria Corsini (p. 328) 9-3. — Villa Borghese, 
and antiquities in the Casino (p. 160), in the afternoon. — Villa 
Wolkonsky (p. 277). 

Duration of Visit. To become thoroughly acquainted with the 
matchless attractions of Rome , the traveller should spend a whole 
winter in the 'Eternal City', and even to obtain a hasty glimpse at 
them he must make a stay of 10-14 days at least. 

Duration of Visit. ROME. Prelim. Information. 119 

Summary of Chief Attractions. 

Churches : St. Peter's (p. 281), S. Giovanni in Laterano (p. 269), S. Maria 
ggiore (p. 177), S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura (p. 180), S. Paolo fuori le 
Mura (p. 256), Sistine Chapel (p. 292), S. Agostino (p. 193), S. Clemente 
(p. 264), S. Croce in Gerusalemme (p. 183), S. Maria degli Angeli (p. 175), 
S. Maria in Aracoeli (p. 211). S. Maria sopra Minerva (p. 196), S. Maria della 
Pace (p. 199), S. Maria del Popolo (p. 139), S. Maria in Trastevere (p. 335), 
S. Onofrio (p. 325), S. Pietro in Vincoli (p. 184), S. Prassede (p. 179). 

Palaces : Palazzo della Cancelleria (p. 203) , Farnese (p. 203), Giraud 
(p. 279), di Venezia (p. 157). 

Ruins : Forum (p. 223), Colosseum (p. 234), Imperial Palaces (p. 241), 
Cloaca Maxima (p. 250), Thermse of Titus and Caracalla (pp. 237, 258), 
Pantheon (p. 194), Theatre of Marcellus (p. 208), Forum of Trajan (p. 240), 
the so-called Temple of Antoninus Pius (p. 147), Pyramid of Cestius 
(p. 253). — Catacombs of St. Callistus (p. 342). 

Collections of Statues in the Vatican (p. 306), Capitol (p. 213), La- 
teran (p. 272), Villa Ludovisi (p. 163), Albani (p. 164), Borghese (p. 160), 
Palazzo Spada (p. 204). 

Pictures : Raphael's Loggie and Stanze (p. 296), galleries of the Vatican 
(p. 303), Palazzi Borghese (p. 186), Barberini (p. 167), Colonna (p. 155), and 
Doria (p. 151). 

Promenades : Monte Pinciv (p. 141), where a military band plays daily 
2 hours before sunset (but in summer in the Piazza Colonna), attracting a 
fashionable crowd both of Romans and foreigners. — Also the Villa Bor- 
ghese , the most popular of the Roman villas (p. 160) ; the Villa Doria- 
Pamphllj (p. 332); and the Via Appia (p. 349). 

Points of View on the left bank: The Pincio (PI. 1,18; p. 141), 
Basilica of Constantine (PI. II, 20), Palatine (PI. II , 21), the space in front 
of the Lateran (PI. II, 30), Monte Testaccio (PI. Ill, 13); on the right 
bank: -S. Pietro in Montorio (PI. IL 12), S. Onofrio (PI. II, 7), the gar- 
den of the Palazzo Corsini (PI. II, 11). 

A Fortnight's Visit. The traveller who desires to see most of 
the above sights within a fortnight must economise time by drawing 
up a careful programme for each day before starting, or by following 
the plan suggested below. With regard to meals, it is hardly ne- 
cessary to say that the heavy 'dejeuner a la fourchette' in the middle 
of the day should be eschewed, as it encroaches on the most valu- 
able part of the day , and that the usual English hours for a sub- 
stantial breakfast, slight lunch, and late dinner should be observ- 
ed. One of the first things to be done is to secure 'permessi' for the 
Vatican, Villa Albani, Villa Doria-Pamphilj, Villa Ludovisi, etc., 
in the way mentioned on p. 117, or through the Consulate (p. 104), 
which is much simpler. 

1st Day. The first part of this had better be devoted to what may 
be called an ''Orientation Drive''. 

Engage a cab for 2-3 hrs. (tariff, p. Ill) and drive down the Corso as 
far as the Piazza di Venezia, through the Via di Marforio to the Forum, 
past the Colosseum, through the Via di S. Giovanni in Laterano to the 
Piazza in front of the church, commanding a fine view of the Alban Mts. ; 
then through the Via Merulana, passing S. Maria Maggiore, through the 
Via di S. Maria Maggiore, Via di S. Lorenzo in Paneperna, Via Magnana- 
poli, across the Forum of Trajan, through the Via di S. Marco, Via delle 
Botteghe Oscure, across the Piazza Mattel, with its handsome fountain, 
through the Via de' Falegnami , Piazza S. Carlo, Via de' Pettinari, by 
Ponte Sisto to Trastevere, through the Longara to the Piazza di S. Pietro; 
then through the Borgo Nuovo, across the Piazza del Plebiscito (Pia), 
past the Castle of S. Angelo, over the Ponte S. Angelo , and through the 

120 Prelim. Information. ROME. Fortnights Visit. 

quarter on the left bank of the Tiber to the Piazza in Aracceli at the foot 
of the Capitol, where the cab may be dismissed. Ascend to the Piazza 
del Campidoglio (p. 212), visit 1he Capitoline Museum (p. 217) and the Forum 
Romanum (p. 223), and lastly spend the evening on the Pincio (p. 141). 

2nd Dat (Mon. or Wed.). Mausoleum of Augustus (p. 186) : Galleria 
Borghese (p. 186; 9-3); S. Agostino (p. 192); Pantheon fp. 194) ;' S. Maria 
sopra Minerva (p. 196); S. Maria delV Anima (p. 198); S. Maria delta 
Pace (p. 199); Cancelleria (p. 203); Ponte Sisto fp. 330); S. Maria in Traste- 
vere (p. 335); S. Pietro in Montorio (p. 330); then, if time permit, walk 
from the Porta S. Pancrazio to the Porta Portese fp. 332). 

3rd Day fMon., Tues., Wed., or Frid.). Palazzo Giraud fp. 279); St. 
Peter's (p. 281); Sistine Chapel (p. 291; 9-3); Antiquities fp. 306; 9-3); walk 
through the Porta Angelica to the Monte Mario, with view from the Tivoli 
(p. 358). 

4th Day (Hon., Thurs., or Sat.). Raphael's Stanze and Loggie, Vatican 
Picture Gallery fp. 296; Mon. to Frid. 9-3); Galleria Corsini and garden 
fp. 328; 10-3); Palatine fp. 241). 

5th Day fany week-day). Galleria Colonna fp. 155; 11-3); Forum of 
Trajan fp. 240); Fora of Augustus fp. 239) and Nerva fColonnacce, p. 238); 
S. Pietro in Vincoli fp. 174); Thermae of Titus fp. 237); Colosseum fp. 234); 
Arch of Constantine fp. 237) ; walk over the Caelius fp. 261), if time permit. 

6th Day (Tues.). S. Maria del Popolo fp. 139); Gesii fp. 159); Galle- 
ria Boria (p. 151; 10-2); Quirinal (p. 169) ; S. Bernardo (p. 172); S. Maria 
degli Angeli (Thermal of Diocletian, p. 174); Villa Albani (p. 164; after 10 
or 11 a.m.); S. Agnese fuori le Mura fp. 173), if time left. 

7th Day (any clay). S. Clemente fp. 264); Lateran, Museum (9-3), 
Church and Baptistery (p. 271). Return to the Forum Romanum: Janus 
Qtiadrifrons fp. 249); Cloaca Maxima (p. 250); Ponte Rotto fp. 251); so- 
called Temple of Fortuna Virilis fp. 250) and that of Hercules Victor 
fp. 251); S. Maria in Cosmedin fp. 250). Then Monte Teslaccio fp. 253); 
Pyramid of Cestius fp. 253) ; S. Paolo fuori le Mura (p. 256). 

8th Day f Thurs.). Ascend Dome of St. Peter's fp. 288; 8-10); Etrus- 
can Museum fp. 319; 9-3); Raphael's Tapestry fp. 321); second visit to 
Sistine Chapel and to Raphael's Stanze and Loggie or to the Picture Gal- 
lery (9-3); S. Onofrio fp. 325); Villa Ludovisi fp. 163). 

9th Day fany day). S. Maria Maggiore (p. 177); S. Prassede (p. 179); 
Arch of Gallienus (p. 179); Temple of Minerva Medica (p. 182,); S. Croce 
in Gerusalemme fp. 183); S. Lorenzo fuori le Mura (p. ISO); return by 
tramway; Galleria Barberini fp. 167; 12-4, Thurs. 2-4). Excursion to Ponte 
Molle and Acqua Cetosa fp. 357). 

10th Day (any day). S. Maria in Aracwli (p. 211); collections in the 
Palace of the Conservatori fp. 213 ; 9-3) ; Thermae of Caracalla fp. 258) ; 
Via Appia, within and without the city fpp. 258, 349), and the Catacombs 
of Callisius (p. 342). Back by the tombs (in the Via Latina (p. 353). 

11th & 12th Days. Another day or two should be devoted to revisit- 
ing the collections of antiquities in the Vatican and the Capitol and the 
Borghese Gallery; a visit may also be paid to the Casino of the Villa Bor- 
ghese (p. 160; Sat., in winter onlv, 1-4), the Galleria Spada (p. 204; 
Mon., Wed., Sat., 10-3), etc. 

13th & 14th Days. Lastly, a day should certainly be devoted to the 
Alban Mts. fp. 359), and another to Tivoli (p. 369). These excursions 
should not be postponed till the end of the visitor's stay at Rome. They 
may perhaps he taken on a Sunday, which is not a good day for sight- 

Origin of Rome. ROME. History. 121 

History of the City of Rome. 

Difficult as it undoubtedly is to trace the career of the Eternal 
City throughout upwards of two thousand years, and to mark and 
appreciate the manifold vicissitudes which it has undergone, the 
traveller will naturally desire to form some acquaintance with 
the history of the ancient centre of Western civilisation, the city of 
the Republic and Empire, on the ruins of which the seat of a vast 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction was afterwards founded , and now the 
capital of an important and steadily progressing modern state. 
Wherever we tread , our thoughts are involuntarily diverted from 
the enjoyment of the present to the contemplation of the past; and 
the most careless of pleasure-seekers will find it difficult to with- 
stand the peculiar influence of the place. The following sketch is 
merely designed to put the traveller in the way of making farther 
researches for himself, and deals exclusively with those leading and 
general facts with which he ought to be acquainted before proceed- 
ing to explore the city in detail. 

As the more remote history of Italy is involved in much ob- 
scurity, so also the origin of the city of Rome is to a great extent a 
matter of mere conjecture. It was not till a comparatively late 
period that the well known legend of Romulus and Remus was 
framed, and the year B. C. 753 fixed as the date of the foundation. 
In all probability, however, Rome may lay claim to far greater an- 
tiquity. We are led to this conclusion, not only by a number of 
ancient traditions , but also by the recent discovery in Latium of 
relics of the flint-period , an epoch far removed from any written 
Tecords. The Palatine was regarded by the ancients as the nucleus 
of the city, around which new quarters grouped themselves by slow 
degrees ; and it was here that Romulus is said to have founded his 
city, the Soma Quadrata, of which Tacitus (Ann. 12, 241 states the 
supposed extent. Modern excavations have brought to light portions 
of the wall , gateways , and streets which belonged to the most an- 
cient settlement (see pp. 241, 242). After the town of Romulus had 
sprung up on the Palatine, a second, inhabited by Sabines, was built 
on the Quirinal, and the two were subsequently united into one 
community. Whilst each retained its peculiar temples and sanctu- 
aries, the Forum , situated between them , and commanded by the 
castle and the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol, formed the com- 
mon focus and place of assembly of the entire state, and the Forum 
and Capitol maintained this importance down to the latest period of 
ancient Rome. The rapid growth of the city is mainly to be attri- 
buted to its situation , the most central in the peninsula , alike 
adapted for a great commercial town , and for the capital of a vast 
empire. The advantages of its position were thoroughly appreciated 
by the ancients themselves , and are thus enumerated by Livy 
(5, 54): 'flumen opportunum , quo ex mediterraneis locis fruges 

122 History. ROME. The Kings. 

devehantur , quo maritimi commeatus aecipiantur, mare vicinum 
ad oommoditates nee expositum nimia propinquitate ad pericula 
olassium externarum , regionum Italiss medium, ad incrementum 
urbis natnm unice locum'. The Tiber was navigable for sea-going 
ships as far as Rome, whilst its tributaries, such as the Anio, Nera, 
Chiana, and Topino, contained sufficient water for the river vessels 
which maintained a busy traffic between Rome and the interior of 
the peninsula. The state of these rivers has, however, in the course 
of ages undergone a complete revolution, chiefly owing to the grad- 
ual levelling of the forests on the mountains , and at the present 
day the lower part only of the Tiber, below Orte, is navigable. 

Whilst the origin of the capital of the world is traditionally re- 
ferred to Romulus, its extension is attributed with something more 
of certainty to Servius Tullius. Around the twin settlements on the 
Palatine and Quirinal, extensive suburbs on the Esquiline and 
Caelius , as well as on the lower ground between the hills, had 
sprung up ; for not only were numerous strangers induced to settle 
permanently at Rome on account of its commercial advantages, but 
the inhabitants of conquered Latin towns were frequently trans- 
planted thither. Out of these heterogeneous elements a new civic 
community was organised towards the close of the period of the 
kings, and its constitution commemorated by the erection of the 
Servian Wall, considerable remains of which are still extant. This 
structure , which was strengthened by a moat externally and a 
rampart within , is of great solidity. It enclosed the Aventine 
(p. 252), the Caelius, Esquiline, Viminal, Quirinal (p. 162), and 
Capitol (p. 209), and is computed to have been about 7 M. in cir- 
cumference. Whilst care was taken thus to protect the city ex- 
ternally, the kings were not less solicitous to embellish the interior 
with handsome buildings. To this period belongs the Circus in the 
valley between the Palatine and the Aventine (p. 252), and above 
all the Cloaca Maxima (p. 250), which was destined to drain the 
swampy site of the Forum, and is still admired for its massive con- 
struction. This energetic and brilliant development of the city 
under the kings of the Tarquinian family in the 6th cent. B. C. 
came to a close with the expulsion of the last king Tarquinius Su- 
perbus (509). 

During the first century of the Rkpuhlic the united efforts of 
the citizens were directed to the task of establishing themselves 
more securely in the enjoyment of their new acquisitions; and in 
this they succeeded , although not without serious difficulty. It 
was a hard and bitter period of probation that the nation had to 
undergo in the first period of its new liberty, and it was not till the 
decline of the Etruscan power that Rome began to breathe freely 
again. After protracted struggles she succeeded in conquering and 
destroying her formidable rival Veii (396 ) , a victory by which the 
Roman supremacy was established over the south of Etruria as far 

The Republic. ROME. History. 123 

as the Cimiiiian Forest. Shortly afterwards (390") the city, with the 
exception of the Capitol, was taken and entirely destroyed by the 
Oauls. Although this catastrophe occasioned only a transient loss 
of the prestige of Rome, it produced a marked effect on the external 
features of the city. The work of re-erection was undertaken with 
great precipitation ; the new streets were narrow and crooked, the 
houses poor and unattractive , and down to the time of Augustus, 
Rome was far from being a handsome city. Her steadily increasing 
power, however, could not fail in some degree to influence her ar- 
chitecture. During the contests for the supremacy over Italy, the 
first aqueduct and the first high road were constructed at Rome by 
Appius Claudius in 312 (Aqua and Via Appia , p. 349) ; in 272 a 
second aqueduct (Anio Vetus) was erected. Down to the period of 
the Punic wars Rome had not extended beyond the walls of Servius 
Tullius ; but, after the overthrow of Carthage had constituted her 
mistress of the world, the city rapidly increased. The wall was al- 
most everywhere demolished to make room for new buildings , so 
that even in the time of Augustus it was no longer an easy matter 
to determine its former position , and new quarters now sprang up 
on all sides. Speculation in houses was extensively carried on, and 
it was by this means that the Triumvir Crassus, among others, 
amassed his fortune ; for rents were high, cind the houses of a slight 
and inexpensive construction. These insulae , or blocks of houses 
erected for hire, contrasted strikingly with the domus, or palaces of 
the wealthy, which were fitted up with the 'utmost magnificence 
and luxury. Thus, for example, the tribune Clodius, the well- 
known opponent of Cicero , purchased his house for the sum of 
14,800,600 sesterces (i. e. about 130,5254.). During the last cen- 
tury B.C. the city began to assume an aspect more worthy of its 
proud dignity as capital of the civilised world. The streets, hitherto 
unpaved , were now converted into the massive lava-causeways 
which are still visible on many of the ancient roads (e. g. Via 
Appia). The highest ambition of the opulent nobles was to per- 
petuate their names by the erection of imposing public buildings. 
Thus in 184 M. Porcius Cato erected the first court of judicature 
(Basilica Porcia) in the Forum , and others followed his example. 
Pompey was the founder of the first theatre in stone (p. 206). Gen- 
erally, however, the structures of the republic were far inferior to 
those of the imperial epoch, and owing to this circumstance but few 
of the former have been preserved (Tabularium of B. C. 78, p. 222; 
tombs of Bibulus, p. 159, and Caecilia Metella, p. 344). 

The transformation of the republic into a Military Despotism 
involved the introduction of a new architectural period also. Usur- 
pers are generally wont to direct their energies to the construction 
of new buildings, with a view to obscure the lustre of the older 
edifices, and to obliterate the associations connected with them. 
Caesar himself had formed the most extensive plans of this nature, 

124 History. ROME. The Emperors. 

but their execution was reserved for his more fortunate nephew. Of 
all the ruins of ancient Rome those of the buildings of Augustus 
occupy by far the highest rank , both in number and importance. 
The points especially worthy of note are the Campus Martius with 
the Pantheon (p. 194) and the Thermae of Agrippa (p. 196), the 
Theatre of Marcellus (p. 208) and the Mausoleum of Augustus (p. 
186), the Basilica Julia (p. 229), and the Forum of Augustus with 
the Temple of Mars (p. 239). No fewer than 82 temples were re- 
stored by Augustus ( 'templorum omnium conditorem ac restitutorem' 
as he is termed by Livy), who might well boast of having trans- 
formed Rome from a town of brick into a city of marble. During the 
republican period the ordinary volcanic stone of the neighbourhood 
was the usual building material , but the marble from the quarries 
of Carrara (discovered about 100 B. C, but not extensively worked 
till the time of Augustus) and the beautiful travertine from the vi- 
cinity of Tivoli were now employed. The administration and po- 
lice-system of the city were also re-organised by Augustus , who 
divided Rome into 14 quarters (regiones) , adapted to its increased 
extent) p. 125). A corps of watchmen (vigiles), who also served as fire- 
men, was appointed to guard the city by night. These and other wise 
institutions, as well as the magnificence attained by the city under 
Augustus, are depicted in glowing terms by his contemporaries. 
His successors followed his example in the erection of public edi- 
fices, each striving to surpass his predecessors. In this respect 
Nero (54-68) displayed the most unbridled ambition. The con- 
flagration of the year 54 , which reduced the greater part of Rome 
to ashes, having been ignited, it is said, at the emperor's in- 
stigation, afforded him an opportunity of rebuilding the whole city 
in the most modern style and according to a regular plan. For his 
own use he erected the 'golden house'' , a sumptuous palace with 
gardens, lakes, and pleasure-grounds of every description, covering 
an enormous area, extending from the Palatine across the valley of 
the Colosseum, and far up the Esquiline (p. 176). These and other 
works were destroyed by his successors , and well merited their 
fate ; the fragments which still bear the name of Nero at Rome are 

The Flavian Dynasty, which followed the Julian , has on the 
other hand perpetuated its memory by a number of most imposing 
works, above all the Colosseum (p. 234), which has ever been re- 
garded as the symbol of the power and greatness of Rome, the Baths 
of Titus on the Esquiline (p. 237), and the Triumphal Arch 
(p. 234) erected after the destruction of Jerusalem. Under Trajan, 
architecture received a new impetus , and indeed attained the 
highest development of which the art was capable at Rome. To 
this the Forum of Trajan (p. 240) , with the column , and the 
reliefs afterwards employed to decorate Constantine's arch, bear the 
most eloquent testimony. Under Trajan, indeed, the culminating 

The Emperors. ROME. History. 125 

point both of art and of political greatness was attained. Thence- 
forward the greatness of the empire began gradually, but steadily to 
decline. Although under the next emperor Hadrian this down- 
ward tendency was apparently arrested, yet the monuments of his 
reign, such as the Temple of Venus and Roma (p. 234) and his 
Mausoleum (p. 278), begin to exhibit traces of degeneracy. The same 
remark applies also to the time of the Antonines. These monarchs 
were remarkable for their excellent qualities as sovereigns , and 
their peaceful sway has frequently been regarded as the period 
during which mankind in general enjoyed the greatest prosperity. 
There is even a tradition that 'the good old times' will return when 
the equestrian statue of the worthy Marcus Aurelius, the gilding of 
which has almost entirely disappeared, shall resume its costly cover- 
ing. This, however, was but the lull preceding a storm. The great 
plague under the latter emperor was the first of a series of fearful 
calamities which devastated the empire. Throughout an entire cen- 
tury civil wars , incursions of barbarians , famine , and pestilence 
succeeded each other without intermission. Although Rome was 
less affected by these horrors than the provinces , it is computed 
that the population of the city , which at the beginning of the 2nd 
cent, was about l'/2 million, had dwindled to one-half by the time 
of Diocletian. A constant decline in architectural taste is still trace- 
able; but, as building always constituted an important feature in 
the policy of the emperors, the number and extent of the ruins of 
this period is considerable. To this epoch belong the Column of 
Marcus Aurelius (p. 147), the Triumphal Arch of Septimius Severus 
(p. 227), the magnificent Baths of Caracalla (p. 258), the Temple 
of the Sun of Aurelian (p. 157) , and the extensive Thermae of 
Diocletian (p. 174). 

After the Punic War the walls of the city had been suffered to 
fall to decay, and during nearly five centuries Rome was destitute 
of fortification. Under the emperor Aurelian, however, danger 
became so imminent that it was deemed necessary again to protect 
Che city by a wall against the attacks of the barbarians. This 
structure is to a great extent identical with that which is still 
standing. The latest important ruins of antiquity bear the name of 
Constantinb the Great , viz. the Basilica (p. 233) , Baths (pp. 
157, 169), and Triumphal Arch (p. 237). The two former were, 
however, erected by his rival Maxentius. Constantine manifested 
little partiality for Rome and ancient traditions, and the transference 
of the seat of empire to Byzantium (in 330) marks a decided turn- 
ing-point in the history of the city, as well as in that of the whole 
empire. Rome indeed was still great on account of its glorious past 
and its magnificent monuments , but in many respects it had sunk 
to the level of a mere provincial town. No new works were thence- 
forth undertaken, and the old gradually fell to decay. 

The city was still divided, in accordance with the Augustean System, 
into fourteen regions, in enumerating which we shall name the principal 

126 History. ROME. Rise of Christianity. 

ruins belonging to each: — 1. Porta Capena, Via Appia , within the city 
(p. 258j ; 2. Gaelimontium , Cselius (p. 201); 3. Isis et Serapis , Colosseum 
(p. 234J, Baths of Titus (p. 237) ; 4. Templum Pacts, Venus et Koma (p. 234), 
Basilica of Constantine (p. 233), Temple of Faustina (p. 231); 5. Exquiliae, 
ruins near S. Croce (p. 1S3) ; 6. Alia Semita, Baths of Constantine (p. 169) and 
Diocletian (p. 174), gardens of Sallust (p. 164) ; 7. Via Lata, the modern 
Corso (p. 145) ; 8. Forum Romanum , the republican and imperial Fora 
(pp. 223, 238) and the Capitol (p. 209) ; 9. Circus Flaminius, Theatres of Mar- 
cellus (p. 208) and Pompey (p. 206) , portico of Octavia (p. 208), Pan- 
theon (p. 194), column of Marcus Aurelius (p. 147); 10. Palatium , Pala- 
tine (p. 241) ; 11. Circus Maximus, temple in the Forum Boarium (p. 250) ; 
12. Piscina Publica, Baths of Caracal la (p. 258); 13. Aventinus, Pyramid 
of Cestius (p. 253) ; 14. Transtiberim, Trastevere and the Borgo. Accord- 
ing to the statistics of this period, Rome possessed 37 gates, from which 
28 high roads diverged, and 19 aqueducts; and although four only of these 
last are now in use , there is probably no city in the world which can 
boast of such an excellent supply of water as Rome. The banks of the 
Tiber were connected by 8 bridges. There were 423 streets, 1790 palaces, 
and 46,602 dwelling-houses. Among the public structures are mentioned 
11 Thermse , 856 bath-rooms , 1352 fountains in the streets , 423 temples, 
36 triumphal arches, 10 basilicas, etc. When the grandeur and magnificence 
suggested by these numbers is considered, it may appear a matter of sur- 
prise that comparatively so few relics now remain ; but it must be borne 
in mind that the work of destruction progressed steadily during nearly a 
thousand years , and was not arrested till the era of the Renaissance , but 
for which even the monuments still existing would ere now have been con- 
signed to oblivion. 

The Catacombs, the earliest burial-places of the Christians, 
illustrate the gradual progress of this interesting community, in 
spite of every persecution , from the 1st century downwards. At 
the beginning of the year 313 Constantine issued his celebrated 
decree from Milan, according to Christianity equal rights with all 
other religions. This was the decisive step which led to the union 
of the church with the state. In 324 the first oecumenical council 
was held at Nicsea , and in 337 the emperor caused himself to be 
baptised when on his deathbed. Tradition attributes the earliest 
ecclesiastical division of Rome into seven diaconates to St. Clement, 
the fourth bishop , and St. Peter is said to have founded the first 
place of worship in the house of the senator Pudens, now the 
church of S. Pudenziana (p. 176J. To Callistus J. (217-22) is 
ascribed the foundation of the church of S. Maria in Trastevere 
(p. 335), and to Urban, his successor, that of S. Cecilia (p. 336). 
About the beginning of the fourth century S. Alessio and $. Prisca 
on the Aventine are supposed to have been founded. Of these 
churches, however, and also of the edifices erected by Constantine, 
no trustworthy record has been handed down to us. To that 
monarch tradition attributes the foundation of the following 
churches — the Lateran, St. Peter's, S. Paolo Fuori, S. Croce in 
Gerusalemme , S. Agnese Fuori, S. Lorenzo Fuori and S. Pietro e 
Marcellino at Torre Pignattara (p. 354), — but probably errone- 
ously , with the exception of the first , which was styled 'omnium 
urbis et orbis ecclesiarum mater et caput'. It is, however, note- 
worthy that the oldest and most important churches were generally 
outside the gates, or at least in their immediate vicinity ; and this 

Early Middle Ages. ROME. History. 127 

is accounted for by the fact that the Roman aristocracy at first clung 
tenaciously to the old traditions, and for a long period the city pre- 
served its heathen character. The state at length overcame this 
antagonism. In 382 the altar of Victoria was removed from the 
senate-hall, and in 408 the ancient religion was at length deprived 
by a law of Honorius of all its temporal possessions , and thus in- 
directly of its spiritual authority also. The destruction of the an- 
cient temples, or their transformation into Christian places of wor- 
ship now began, and the churches rapidly increased in number. At 
this early period Rome possessed 28 parish churches (tituli) , be- 
sides numerous chapels, and among them arose the five Patriarchal 
Churches, presided over by the pope, and forming a community to 
which the whole body of believers throughout the world was con- 
sidered to belong. These five were S. Giovanni in Laterano, S. 
Pietro, S. Paolo, S. Lorenzo, and the church of S. Maria Magyiore 
founded by Liberius. Besides these, S. Croce in Qerusalemme and 
8. Sebastiano, erected over the catacombs of the Via Appia, enjoyed 
special veneration. These formed the 'Seven Churches of Rome' to 
which pilgrims flocked from every part of western Christendom. 
The number of monasteries now steadily increased, and at the same 
time the inroads of poverty made rapid strides. 

In the 4th Century the cultivation of the Roman Campagna 
began to be seriously neglected, and in an official document of the 
year 395 it is stated that upwards of 500 square miles of arable land 
had been abandoned and converted into morass. The malaria at the 
same time extended its baneful sway from the coast into the in- 
terior of the country. The storms of the barbarian irruptions greatly 
aggravated the misery. Although the Vandals and Goths are often 
erroneously held responsible for the destruction of all the great 
monuments of antiquity , which , on the contrary, Theodoric the 
Great did his utmost to protect , Rome doubtless suffered terribly 
from having been the scene of their battles and pillagings. In 410 
the city was plundered by Alaric, and in 445 by the Vandals , and 
in 537 it sustained its first siege from the Goths under Vitiges. 
They laid waste the Campagna and cut off all the supplies of water 
brought to the city by the aqueducts , but the skill of Belisarius, 
and the strength of the walls , particularly those of the Castle of 
S. Angelo, effectually repelled their attacks on the city. In March 
538 they were at length compelled to abandon their designs, after 
having beleaguered the city for upwards of a year. In December 
546, Totilas, the king of the Goths, entered Rome, and is said to 
have found not more than 500 persons within the walls of the 
devastated city. Belisarius then repaired the walls which had been 
partially destroyed, and in 547 he sustained a second siege. In 549 
the city again fell into the hands of Totilas, but in 552 it was re- 
captured by Narses and again united with the Byzantine empire. 
About this period the city was reduced by war, pestilence, and 

128 History. ROME. The Middle Ages. 

poverty to a depth of misery which was never again paralleled, ex- 
cept during the absence of the papal court at Avignon. No thorough 
restoration was possible, for the Byzantine emperors cared nothing 
for Rome, and in the Lombards arose new enemies to their dynasty 
in Italy. In 663 Constans II. visited Rome , an interval of 306 
years having elapsed since it had been entered by a Byzantine em- 
peror, and availed himself of the opportunity to carry off the last 
remains of the bronze with which the ancient monuments were de- 
corated. In 755 the Lombards under their duke Aistolf besieged 
Rome for two months and ruthlessly devastated the Campagna, 
which during the preceding interval of peace had begun to wear a 
more smiling aspect. A lamentation of that period begins thus : — 

'Nobilibus quondam fueras constructa patronis, 
Subdita nunc servis, lieu male Roma ruis; 

Deseruere tui tanto te tempore reges, 

Cessit et ad Grsecos nomen honosque tuns', 
and terminates with the words : — 

'Nam nisi te Petri meritum Panlique foveret, 
Tempore jam longo Roma misella fores 1 . 

It was in fact the tradition , indelibly attaching to Rome, of the 
great struggles and victories of Christianity which preserved the 
city from total destruction. The transformation of heathen into 
Christian Rome was accompanied by the gradual development of 
Papacy as the supreme ecclesiastical power in the West. Leo the 
Great (440-461) and Gregory the Great (590-604) may be regarded 
as the chief originators of this scheme of aggrandisement. These 
prelates and their successors were indefatigable in their efforts to 
realise their project, and under their auspices, notwithstanding the 
poverty and misery into which Rome had sunk , new churches and 
monasteries were constantly springing up among the ruins of the 
monuments of antiquity , and the last feeble spark of artistic taste 
which still survived was devoted to the decoration of these build- 
ings. The objects at which they chiefly aimed were independence 
of Byzantium, the subjection of the Eastern church to the court of 
Rome, and the conversion of the heathen Germans, the accomplish- 
ment of which would materially pave the way for their ulterior am- 
bitious schemes. In 727 the Lombard king Luitprand presented 
Sutri, which had been captured by him, to the pope, this being the 
first instance of a town being presented to the church, and this gift 
constituted a basis for the subsequent formation of the States of the 
Church. In 755, on the invitation of the pope, the Frankish king 
Pepin proceeded to Italy and practically put an end to the Byzan- 
tine supremacy. It is not known whtther that monarch absolutely 
made over the Exarchate of Ravenna and the other towns to the re- 
presentative of St. Peter , or whether he granted them to him as a 
nef ; but it is certain that the temporal power of the popes and their 
supremacy over Rome dates from the grants made by Pepin to the 
church. On Christmas Day , in the year 800, Charlemagne was 

The Middle Ages. ROME. History. 129 

crowned by Leo III., and from that period dates the career of the 
'Holy Roman Empire' and the Medieval History of the Roman 
Catholic Church. 

A characteristic of this period is to be found in the numerous, 
many-storied towers of red brick which contrast so strongly with 
the monuments of ancient Rome. This style of architecture was 
developed in the Carlovingian epoch, although most of these towers 
now extant were not erected before the 12th or 13th century. In 
still greater numbers sprang up towers of a defensive character, a 
few only of which, such as the so-called Torre di Nerone (p. 171), 
are still preserved. The forest of towers , belonging to numerous 
different owners , which reared themselves over the ruins of the 
mistress of the world , affords at the same time a clue to the 
character of the whole epoch ; for , in spite of the nominal sway 
exercised over the greater part of Europe by the pope and the em- 
peror, continual feuds raged both at Rome and elsewhere between 
the temporal and spiritual powers , and between the nobility and 
the populace. The great monuments of antiquity were now doomed 
to utter destruction, and their fate is thus described by the historian 
Gregovorius (iii , 565) : ■ — 'Charlemagne had already set the ex- 
ample of carrying off ancient columns and sculptures to adorn his 
cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle , and the popes , who regarded the 
greatest monuments of Rome as the property of the state, possessed 
neither taste, nor time , nor ability to take measures for their pre- 
servation. The plundering of ancient buildings became the order 
of the day. The priests were indefatigable in transferring antique 
columns and marbles to their churches ; the nobles, and even the 
abbots , took possession of magnificent ancient edifices which they 
disfigured by the addition of modern towers ; and the citizens estab- 
lished their workshops, rope -walks, and smithies in the towers 
and circuses of imperial Rome. The fisherman selling his fish near 
the bridges over the Tiber, the butcher displaying his meat at the 
theatre of Marcellus, and the baker exposing his bread for sale, de- 
posited their wares on the magnificent slabs of marble which had 
once been used as seats by the senators in the theatre or circus and 
perhaps by Caesar, Mark Antony, Augustus , and other masters of 
the world. The elaborately sculptured sarcophagi of Roman heroes 
were scattered in every direction and converted into cisterns, wash- 
ing-vats, and troughs for swine; and the table of the tailor and the 
shoemaker was perhaps formed of the cippus of some illustrious 
Roman, or of a slab of alabaster once used by some noble Roman 
matron for the display of her jewellery. For several centuries Rome 
may be said to have resembled a vast lime-kiln , into which the 
costliest marbles were recklessly cast for the purpose of burning 
lime ; and thus did the Romans incessantly pillage, burn, dismantle, 
and utterly destroy their glorious old city'. 

Leo IV. encircled the 'Leonine City' with a wall , and erected 
Baedet— "-" ""*■ ">■'■- 9 

130 History. ROME. The Middle Ages. 

other useful structures , which indicate a renewed period of pros- 
perity ; but the ravages of the Saracens in the city and its en- 
virons soon prevented farther progress. When at length these bar- 
barians were finally subdued by John X., the city was repeatedly 
besieged and captured by German armies during the contest for the 
imperial supremacy ; and subsequently, in consequence of incessant 
civic feuds , the whole city was converted into a number of distinct 
fortified quarters, with castellated houses, in the construction of 
which numerous monuments of antiquity were ruthlessly destroyed 
for the sake of the building materials they afforded. Every tem- 
porary re-establishment of peace was invariably followed by new 
scenes of devastation, as when the senator Brancaleone dismantled 
no fewer than 150 of the strongholds of the warlike nobles. 

The constantly increasing civic and national dissensions at 
length compelled Clement V. in 1309 to transfer the seat of the 
pontifical government to Avignon , where it remained till 1377, 
whilst Rome was successively governed by Guelphs and Ghibellines, 
Neapolitans and Germans , Orsini's and Colonna's, and for a brief 
period (1347) Cola di Rienzi even succeeded in restoring the an- 
cient republican form of government. This was an epoch of the ut- 
most misery, when poverty, war, and disease had reduced the popu- 
lation to less than 20,000 souls. 

A happier era was inaugurated by the return of Gregory XI. to the 
city (1377). After the termination of the papal schism(1378-1417), 
the new development of the city progressed rapidly, aided by the 
vast sums of money which flowed into the papal coffers, and by the 
revival of taste for art and science promoted by Nicholas V., Ju- 
lius II., Leo X., and others. In 1527 the city was fearfully devas- 
tated by the troops of Charles of Bourbon ; but it gradually re- 
covered from the blow , its population again increased, and many 
churches and palaces were restored or re-erected by the popes, their 
cardinals , and favourites, especially during the pontificate of Six- 
tus V. (1585-90), to whom modern Rome is chiefly indebted for its 
characteristic features. In 1798 a republic was established for a 
short period at Rome , and from 1809 to 1814 the city was under 
the supremacy of France. A republican form of government was 
again declared in 1849, in consequence of the events of the previous 
year, but on 12th April, 1850, Pius IX. was restored by the 
French. The city was then garrisoned by 15,000 French troops, 
who were withdrawn in December 1866 , in accordance with the 
convention of 15th Sept., 1864; but they were recalled after the 
Garibaldian hostilities of 1867, and were quartered in the environs 
until the breaking out of the Franco-Prussian war of 1870. On 
20th Sept. of that year the Italian troops marched into the city 
after a bombardment of five hours. The States of the Church are 
now ncorporated with the kingdom of Italy, of which Rome is once 
more the capital. 

Chronolog. Table of ROME. Emperors and Popes. 131 



Rom. Emp. 

Popes i. 


Rom. Emp. 



Julius Csesar 




Gordian III. 


Csesar Octa- 
vianus Au- 


Philip the 








Gallus and 

Cornelius, 251. 






St. Peter, 42. 


Lucius I., 252. 





Stephen I., 254. 


Martyrdom of 


St. Peter. 


Sixtus II., 257. 



Linus, 67. 










Claudius II. 

Felix I., 269-274. 






Cletus, 78. 





Clement, 90. 














Carinus and 










Alexander I. 








Sixtus 1. 





Chlorus and 








Pius I. 




Marcus Au- 


the Great 
(sole Emp. 







Maximin II. 

Marcellus I. 






Victor I., 189-198. 





Eusebius, 309. 

Didius Ju- 





Sylvester I. 







Constantine II. 

Julius I. 


(Geta d. 212.) 













Callistus I., 






<4-l EU 


Urbanus I., 




,.s a 



nian I. 








s » 


Anterus, 235-236. 


Gordian I. 



Damasus I. 

and 11. 







in II. 

(i) The dates of the popes down to Constantine are uncertain, having 
been handed down by vague tradition only. 


132 Chronolog. Table of ROME. Emperors and Popes. 


Rom. Emp. 



Rom. Emp. 








John IV. 



Theodoras I. 





St. Martin I. 


Anastasius I. 


St. Eugene I. 


Innocent I. 


St. Vitalianus. 






Boniface I. 


Donus I. 


Coelestinus I. 


St. Agathus. 




St. Leo II. 


Sixtus III. 


St. Benedict II. 


Leo I., the Great. 


John V. 

' 455 






St. Sergius I. 




John VI. 


Leo and Majo- 


John VII. 




Lib. Severus. 




St. Gregory II. 




St. Gregory III. 




St. Zacharias. 

Julius Nepos. 


Stephen II. 


Romulus Au- 


St. Paul I. 



Stephen III. 


End of the W. 


Hadrian I. 



St. Leo III. 


Felix II. 

Rom. Emp. of 



Germ, origin <= 


Anastasius II. 






Louis the 





John I. 


Stephen IV. 


Felix III. 


St. Paschalis I. 


Boniface II. b 


Eugene II. 


John II. 




St. Agapitus I. 

Gregory IV. 


St. Silverius. 






Sergius II. 


Pelagius I. 


St. Leo IV. 


John III. 


Louis II. 

Benedict III. 


Benedict I. 


St. Nicholas I. 


Pelagius II. 


Hadrian II. 


St. Gregory I. the 


John VIII. 



Charles the 





Boniface III. 


Martin II. 


S. Boniface IV. 


Charles the 

Hadrian III. 





Boniface V. 


Stephen V. 


Honorius I. 



(a) From 395, the year of the death of Theodosius, the division of the 
Empire became permanent ; in the above table the Emperors of the W. 
Roman Empire only are enumerated. 

(b) Thus far all the popes have been canonised. 

(<=) The names of a few English sovereigns, especially those who appear 
most prominently in papal history, have been added to this column to 
facilitate realisation of contemDorarv historv. 

Chronolog. Table of ROME. Emperors and Popes. 133 


Rom. Bmp. 



Rom. Emp. 





Honorius II. 


[Alfred the 

Boniface VI. 


Lothaire of 

Great ofEng- 

Stephen VI. 




Romanus I. 


Innocent 11. 


Theodoras II. 

John IX. 


Conrad III. 


Louis the 

Benedict IV. 

of Hohen- 


Leo V. 


Coslestine II. 



Lucius II. 


Sergius III. 


Eugene III. 


Anastasius III. 


Frederick I. 


Conrad I. 





Anastasius IV. 


John X. 


[Henry II. of 

Hadrian IV. 


Henry I. 


England, 1154 

Alexander III. 


Leo VI. 



Lucius III. 


Stephen VII. 


Urban III. 


John XI. 


Gregory VIII. 


Otho I. 

Leo VII. 


Clement III. 


Stephen VIII. 


Henry VI. 


Martin III. 


Ccelestine III. 


Agapetus II. 


Otho IV. 

Innocent HI. 


John XII. 

[Richard Cceur 


Leo VIII. 
Benedict V. 

de Lion, 1189 


John XIII. 


Frederick II. 


Benedict VI. 


Honorius HI. 


Otho II. 

Donus II. 


Gregory IX. 


Benedict VII. 


Coelestine IV. 


Otho III. 

John XIV. 


Innocent IV. 


John XV. 


Conrad IV. 


Gregory V. 



Alexander IV. 


Sylvester II. 


Urban IV. 


Henry II. 


Clement IV. 


John XVII. 


Gregory X. 

John XVIII. 


Rudolph of 


Sergius IV. 



Benedict VIII. 


Innocent V. 


Conrad II. 

John XIX. 

[Edward I. of 

Hadrian V. 


Benedict IX. 

England, 1272 

John XX. 


Henry III. 


or XXI. 


Gregory VI. 


Nicholas III. 

Clement II. 


Martin IV. 


Damasus II. 


Honorius IV. 


St. Leo IX. 


Nicholas IV. 


Victor II. 


Albert I. and 


Henry IV. 

Adolph of 


Stephen IX. 



[William the 

Nicholas II. 


St. Coilestine V 



Alexander II. 


Boniface VIII. 



Gregory VII. 


Benedict XI. 



Clement V. 


Victor III. 


Henry VII. of 


Urban II. 



Paschalis II. 


Louis of Ba- 


Henry V. 

varia and 


Gelasius II. 

Frederick of 


r.alintiia IT 

a ..otjja. 

134 Chronolog. Table of ROME. Emperors and Popes. 


Rom. Emp. 



Rom. Emp. 



Edward III. of 

John XXII. 


Maximilian II. 


England, 1327 

Benedict XII. 


St. Pius V. 



Clement VI. 

(Ghislieri of 


Charles IV. of 




Gregory XIII. 


Innocent VI. 

(Ugo Buon- 


Urban V. 

compagni of 


Gregory XI. 




Urban VI. 


Rudolph II. 


Boniface IX. 


Sixtus V. (Felix 


Rupert of the 




Urban VII. 


Innocent VII. 



Gregory XII. 

Castagna of 


Alexander V. 




John XXIII. 


Gregory XIV. 


[Henry V. of 
England, 1413 

Martin V. 

(Nic. Sfondrati 
of Milan). 



Eugene IV. 


Innocent IX. 


Albert II. 



Frederick III. 

Facchinetti of 


Nicholas V. 



[Henry VI. of 

Calixtus III. 


Clement VIII. 


England, 1422 

Pius II. (^Eneas 

(Hippolyt. Aldo- 


Sylvius, Siena). 

brandini of 


Paul II. 

[James I. of 



Sixtus IV. 


England, 1603 

Leo XL (Alexan- 

(Francis della 


der Medici). 

Rovere of 

Paul V. (Camillo 




[Henry VII. of 

Innocent VIII. 



England, 1485 

(Joann. B. Cibo 


Ferdinand II. 


of Genoa). 


[Charles I. of 

Gregory XV. 


Alexander VI. 

England, 1625 

(Alexander Lu- 

(Roder. Borgia). 




Maximilian I. 


UrbanVIII. (Maf- 


[Henry VIII. of 

Pius III. (Fran- 

feo Barberini). 


cis Piccolomini 


Ferdinand III. 


of Siena). 



Innocent X. 


Julius II. (Julian 

wealth and 


della Rovere). 




Leo X. (John de' 




Alexander VII. 


Charles V. 

(Fabio Chigi of 


Hadrian VI. 


(of Utrecht). 


Leopold I. 


Clement VII. 


[Charles II. of 

Clement IX. 

(Julius Medici). 

England, 16G0 

(Giul. Rospig- 


Paul III. (Alex- 



[Mary I. of 

ander Farnese). 


Clement X. 


England, 1553 

Julius III. (Joan. 



Maria de Monte). 


Innocent XI. 


Marcellus II. 
Paul IV. (Gian 


Pietro Caraffa 


Alexander XIII. 


Ferdinand I. 

of Naples). 

[William III. 

(Pietro Otto- 


[Elizabeth of 

Pius IV. (Joan. 

and Mary II. 


England, 1558 

Angelus Medici 

of England, 

4 oao A irrnn i 



Topography. 1 35 


Rom. Emp. 



Rom. Emp. 



Innocent XII. 
(Ant. Pigna- 


Pius VI. (Giov. 
Ang. Braschi). 



Leopold II. 


Clement XI. 


Francis II. 

(Giov. Franc. 


Pius VII. (Gre- 


Joseph I. 


gorio Barnaba 


Charles VI. 

Chiaramonti of 


Innocent XIII. 

[George IV. of 

Leo XII. (Annib. 

[George II. of 

(Mich. Ang. de 


England, 1820 


England, 1727 

Benedict XIII. 

della Genga of 


(Vine. Maria 




Pius VIII. 


Clement XII. 
(Lorenzo Cor- 

(Franc. Xav. 
Castiglione of 


Benedict XIV. 
(Prosp. Lam- 


Gregory XVI. 
(Mauro Capellari 
of Belluno). 


Charles VII. 
of Bavaria. 


Pius IX. (Gio- 
vanni Maria 


Francis I. 

Mastai - Feretti 


[George III. of 

Clement XIII. 

of Sinigaglia). 

England, 1760 

(Carlo Rezzo- 


Leo XIII. 


nico of Venice). 

(Joachim Pecci 


Joseph II. 

of Carpineto, b, 


Clement XIV. 
(Giov. Ant. Gan- 
ganelli of Ri- 

2. March 1810, 
Cardinal 1853. 
Pope 20. Feb. 


Rome is situated (41° 53' 54" N. lat., 12° 29" B. longit., meri- 
dian of Greenwich) in an undulating volcanic plain, which extends 
from Capo Linaro, S. of Civita Vecchia, to the Promontorio Circeo, 
a distance of about 85 M., and between the Apennines and the sea, 
a width of 25 M. The city is built on both banks of the Tiber, the 
largest river in the Italian peninsula, 14 M. from its influx into the 
Mediterranean. The prospect from one of the hills of Rome — and 
no city is more replete with ever-varying and delightful views — 
is bounded towards the E. by the unbroken chain of the Apennines, 
which rise at a distance of 10 to 20 M. In the extreme N. towers 
the indented ridge of Soracte (2260 ft.), occupying an isolated po- 
sition in the plain, and separated by the Tiber from the principal 
range of the Apennines. Farther E., and still more distant , is the 
Leonessa group (7257 ft.), which approaches the Central Apennines. 
Considerably nearer lies the range of the Sabine Mts. The summit 
at the angle which they form by their abutment on the Campagna 
is M. Gennaro (4163 ft.), the Lucretilis of Horace; the village at 
the base is Monticelli (1295 ft.). Farther off, on the slope of the 
hill, lies Tivoli, recognisable by its villas and olive-gardens. More 
towards the S., on the last visible spur of the Sabine Mts. (2513 ft.), 

136 Topography. ROME. The Tiber. 

is situated Palestrina, the Praeneste of antiquity. A depression 
4 M. in width only, separates the Apennines from the volcanic Al- 
ban Mts., above which a few peaks of the distant Volscian Mts. 
appear. On the E. spur of the Alban Mts. lies the village of Co- 
lonna (1180 ft.). The following villages are Rocca Priora (2352 ft.) 
and Monte Porzio (1529 ft.) ; then the town of Frascati (2218 ft.), 
below the ancient Tusculum. The highest peak of the Alban Mts. is 
M. Cavo (3130 ft.), once surmounted by a temple of the Alban Ju- 
piter, now by a Passionist monastery. On its slope lies the village 
of Rocca di Papa (2647 ft.), loftily and picturesquely situated, be- 
low which, towards the plain, is the town of Marino (1322 ft.). 
The village , with the castle farther to the W. on the hill, is Castel 
Gandolfo ; the mountain then gradually sinks to the level of the 
plain. Towards the W. the sea is visible from a few of the highest 
points only. On the N. the eye rests on the Janiculus (282 ft.), a 
volcanic chain of hills approaching close to the river, beyond which 
the horizon is bounded by mountains also of volcanic formation : 
towards the sea, to the left, the mountains of Tolfa (2040 ft.), then 
the heights around the lake of Bracciano with the peak of Rocca 
Romana (2018 ft.), the Ciminian Forest (now generally called the 
mountains of Viterbo, 3464 ft.); the nearest point to the right is 
the crater of Baccano, with the wooded hill of M. Musino (1319 ft.). 
The plain enclosed by this spacious amphitheatre of mountains, and 
intersected by the Tiber and the Anio, which descends from Tivoli 
and falls into the former l J /2 M. above Rome, contains a sprinkling 
of farms and villages, but is far more replete with witnesses of its 
former greatness and present desolation in the innumerable and ex- 
tensive ruins which cover it in every direction. 

The Wall by which modern Rome is surrounded is 14 M. in 
length, constructed of brick, and on the outside about 55 ft. high. 
The greater part of it dates from 271 to 276. It was begun by the 
Emp. Aurelian, completed by Probus, and restored by Honorius, 
Theodoric, Belisarius , and several popes. The city is entered by 
Twelve Gates (several of earlier date being now walled up). Of 
these the most important is the Porta del Popolo, whence the grand 
route to N. and E. Italy issues, afterwards crossing the Tiber by the 
Ponte Molle, l l / 2 M. from the city. Receding from the river, follow: 
Porta Salara , Porta Pia , Porta 8. Lorenzo (road to Tivoli), Porta 
Maggiore (to Palestrina), Porta S. Giovanni (to Frascati and Albano), 
Porta S. Sebastiano (Via Appia), Porta S. Paolo (to Ostia). Then, 
on the right bank of the Tiber: Porta Portese (to Porto), Porta 
S. Pancrazio, Porta Cavaleggieri, and Porta Angelica. 

The Tiber reaches Romes after a course of about 216 M., and 
intersects the city from N. to S. The water is turbid (the 'flavus 
Tiberis' of Horace) , and rises to a considerable height after con- 
tinued rain. The average width of the river is about 65 yds. and 
its depth 20 ft. , but it sometimes rises as much as 30-35 ft. , as 

The Hills of Rome. ROME. Topography. 137 

was the case during the great inundation of 1871. The con- 
struction of an artificial channel for the river is projected. The 
navigation of the river, by means of which the commerce of im- 
perial Rome was carried on in both directions , with transmarine 
nations as well as with the Italian provinces, is now comparatively 
insignificant. The Tiber enters the city not far from the base of 
M. Pincio, and describes three curves within its precincts : the first 
towards the S.W. , skirting the quarter of the Vatican, the second 
to the S.E., bounding the Campus Martius and terminating at the 
island and the Capitol, and the third to the S.W., quitting the 
city by the Aventine. 

On the Right Bank of the Tiber lies the more modern and 
smaller part of the city, divided into two halves : on the N. the Borgo 
around the Vatican and St. Peter's, encircled with a wall by Leo IV. 
in 851 and erected into a separate town; and to the S., on the river 
and the slopes of the Janiculus, Trastevere, which from ancient times 
has formed a tete-de-pont of Rome against Etruria, and was a densely 
peopled suburb in the reign of Augustus. These two portions are 
connected by the long Via delta Longara, constructed by Sixtus V. 
— The banks of the Tiber are connected by means of Six Bridges: 
the new Ripetta Bridge , the highest ; the Ponte S. Angelo near the 
castle of that name , below which the Ponte Leonino , a suspension 
bridge , crosses from the Longara ; then from Trastevere the Ponte 
Sisto ; another traverses the island , the portion from Trastevere to 
the island being called Ponte S. Bartolommeo, and thence to the left 
bank the Ponte de J Quattro Capi; finally, below the island, is the 
Ponte Rotto. 

The more ancient portion of the city, properly so called , lies on 
the Left Bank, partly in the ancient Campus Martius, a plain ad- 
joining the river, and partly on the surrounding hills. Modern Rome 
is principally confined to the plain, while the Heights on which the 
ancient city stood are now to a great extent uninhabited, but have 
recently again begun to be occupied by houses. These are the far- 
famed Seven Hills of Rome. The least extensive , but historically 
most important, is the Capitoline (161 ft. J, which rises near the 
Tiber and the island, and now forms to some extent the barrier bet- 
ween ancient and modern Rome. It consists of a narrow ridge ex- 
tending from S.W. to N.E., culminating in two summits, separated 
by a depression: on the S.W. point, towards the river, stands the 
Palazzo Caffarelli, and on that to the N.E., towards the Quirinal, the 
church of S. Maria in Aracceli. Contiguous to the Capitoline, in a 
N.E. direction, and separated from it by a depression which the 
structures of Trajan considerably widened, extends the long Quiri- 
nal (170 ft.). On the N. a valley, in which the Piazza Barberini is 
situated, separates the Quirinal from the Pincio (164 ft.), which, as 
its ancient name 'collis hortorum' indicates, was occupied by gardens, 
and not regarded as part of the city. To the E. of the Quirinal, but 

138 Topography. ROME. Population. 

considerably less extensive, rises the Viminal (177 ft.). Both of 
these may be regarded as spurs of the third and more important 
height, the Esquiline (246 ft.), which, forming the common basis 
of these two, extends from the Pincio on the N. to the Caelius. Its 
present distinguishing feature is the conspicuous church of S. Maria 
Maggiore ; while S. Pietro in Vincoli and the ruins of the Thermae 
of Titus mark the ancient quarters which stood on the hill where it 
approaches the Quirinal, Palatine, and Caslius. To the S. E. of the 
Capitoline, in the form of an irregular quadrangle, rises the isolated 
Palatine (165 ft.), with the ruins of the palaces of the emperors, 
and on the low ground between these hills lies the ancient Forum. 
Farther S., close to the river, separated from the Palatine by the de- 
pression in which the Circus Maximus lay, is the Aventine (151 ft.), 
with the churches of S. Sabina, S. Balbina, etc. Lastly, to the E. 
of the latter, the long Caelius (161 ft.), with S. Gregorio and S. 
Stefano Rotondo; in the low ground between the Caslius, Palatine, 
and Esquiline is situated the Colosseum; and farther E., by the 
city-wall, between the Caelius and Esquiline, is the Lateran. 

By far the greater portion of the walled area, which was inhabit- 
ed during the imperial epoch by i^j^-l million souls, is now unten- 
anted. On the Palatine, Aventine, Caelius, Esquiline, and the whole 
region immediately within the walls , streets once densely peopled 
are now replaced by the bleak walls of vineyards. The Modern 
City is divided into two halves by the Corso , or principal street, 
which runs from N. to S., from the Porta del Popolo to the Piazza 
di "Venezia near the Capitoline. The E. half, at the base and on the 
ridge of the Pincio and Quirinal, presents a modern aspect, and is 
the chief resort of strangers. The W. half, on the bank of the 
Tiber, consists of narrow and dirty streets, occupied by the poorer 

Population. According to the last census, 31st Dec. 1875, 
Rome contained 237,321 inhabitants, of whom about 4000 are Prot- 
estants, 5000 Jews, and 3500 members of other sects. At the close 
of the papal regime the population was about 216,000 only, but it 
is now estimated at 285,000. Considerably more than 100,000 of 
the inhabitants can neither read nor write; but there are now about 
160 parish-schools with 531 teachers and 23,000 pupils. The monas- 
teries formerly possessed about one- seventh of the buildings in 
Rome and one-eighth of the uncultivated area. 

The following description of Rome is arranged in accordance 
with a division of the city into five districts, the extent of which is 
marked on the clue-map at the end of the Handbook. Each of these 
districts possesses monuments which in many respects impart to it 
a distinctive character, though of course numerous monuments of 
all periods are scattered throughout the city. 

I. Strangers' Quarter and Corso, which constitute modern Rome, 
and are the chief centre of business. 

Piazza del Popolo. ROME. /. Strangers' Quarter. 139 

II. The Quirinal, Viminal, and Esquiline Hills, to the E., 
anciently covered with, houses, but now almost deserted. 

III. Rome on the Tiber, the closely packed and tortuous city of 
the middle ages, the abode of the poorer classes. 

IV. Ancient Rome, to the S., mostly uninhabited, but containing 
the chief monuments of antiquity. 

V. The Right Bank of the Tiber, including the Vatican, St. Pe- 
ter' s, the Longara, and Trastevere. 

Lastly, we add a description of the Catacombs. 

I. Str angers' Quarter and Cor so. 

The N. entrance to Rome is formed by the Porta del Popolo 
(PI. I, 8), not far from the Tiber , through which, before the con- 
struction of the railroad, most visitors approached the Eternal 
City. The gate was constructed in 1561 by Vignola, and the side 
towards the town by Bernini in 1655, on the occasion of the entry 
of Queen Christina of Sweden. In 1878 it was enlarged by the addi- 
tion of two side-portals. The gate is named after the adjoining 
church of S. Maria del Popolo, opposite which are the Barracks of 
the Carabinieri. Adjoining the barracks is a permanent Exhibition 
of Art, a collection of little value. — Outside the gate, on the right, 
is the Villa Borghese, see p. 160. 

Within the gate lies the handsome *Piazza del Popolo (PI. I, 
18), adorned with an Obelisk between four water-spouting lionesses, 
which was brought by order of Augustus from Heliopolis after the 
defeat of Antony, placed in the Circus Maximus, and, according to 
the inscription , dedicated to the Sun. It was removed to its pre- 
sent position by order of Sixtus V. in 1589. The shaft is 78 ft. in 
height, and the whole monument with the pedestal and cross 118 ft. 
— Towards the W. the Piazza is bounded by an arched wall with 
figures of Neptune and Tritons, opposite which is a similar structure 
adorned with Roma between the Tiber and the Anio. On each side 
of the latter is an approach to the Pincio (p. 141). 

Three streets diverge from the piazza on the S.: to the right 
the Via di Ripetta (p. 185), parallel with the river ; in the centre 
the Corso (p. 145); and to the left the Via del Babuino, leading to 
the Piazza di Spagna [p. 143). — Between the two latter streets 
stands the church of 8. Maria in Monte Santo , adjacent to which, 
on the right, is that of S. Maria de' Miracoli, both dating from the 
latter half of the 17th cent., with domes and vestibules, designed 
by Rinaldi, and completed by Bernini and Fontana. 

*S. Maria del Popolo (PI. I, 18), said to have been founded by 
Paschalis II. in 1099 on the site of the tombs of the Domitii, the 
burial-place of Nero , which was haunted by evil spirits, was en- 
tirely re-erected by Baccio Pontelli (? or Meo del Caprina) under 
Sixtus IV. in 1477. The interior was afterwards decorated by Ber- 

140 I. Strang W Quarter. ROME. S. Maria del Popolo. 

nini in the rococo style. It consists of nave, aisles, transept, and 
octagonal dome, and contains handsome monuments of the 15th cent, 
(comp. p. xx) and other works of art. (The sacristan shows the 
choir and chapels ; fee l /% fr.) 

Right Aisle. The 1st Chapel , formerly delta Rovere, now Venuti, was 
painted by Pinturicchio : "altar-piece, Adoration of the Infant Christ ; in the 
lunettes, life of St. Jerome. On the left, the tomb of Cardinal della Rovere, 
right, that of Cardinal di Castro ; on the pillar to the left, a bust of F. Catel, 
the painter (d. 1857) by Troschel. — In the 2nd Chapel: Assumption of Mary, 
altar-piece by C. Maratla. 3rd Chapel, painted by Pinturicchio : above the altar, 
Madonna with four angels; on the left, Assumption of the Virgin; in the 
lunettes, scenes from the life of Mary; in the predelle representations of 
martyrs in grisaille ; on the right, tomb of Giov. della Rovere (d. 1483) ; on 
the left, recumbent bronze figure of a bishop. — In the 4th Chapel marble- 
sculptures of the end of the 15th cent, above the altar : St. Catharine be- 
tween St. Antony of Padua and St. Vincent; right, tomb of Marcantonio 
Albertoni (d. 1485) ; left, that of the Cardinal of Lisbon (d. 1508). 

Right Transept. On the right, tomb of Cardinal Podocatharus of Cyprus. 
Near it is a door leading into a passage, at the end of which is the sacristy, 
containing the former * Canopy of the high-altar of Alexander VI. of the 
year 1492, with an ancient Madonna of the Sienese school and the beautiful 
monuments of (left) Archbishop Rocca (d. 1482), and (right) Bishop Gomiel. 

Left Aisle. 1st Chapel, on the left and right of the altar, two ciboria 
of the 15th cent. ; left, tomb of Card. Ant. Pallavicino (erected 1507). By an 
adjacent pillar the rococo monument of a Princess Chigi, by Posi (1771). — 
The "2nd Chapel was constructed under the direction of Raphael by Agostino 
Chigi in honour of St. Mary of Loreto ; on the vaulting of the dome eight 
"Mosaics by Aloisio della Pace (1516) , from Raphael's cartoons : — 'Around 
the central circular scene , which represents the Creator surrounded 
by angels, are grouped seven planet symbols and a genius leaning on a 
globe, separated by ornamental divisions. Each planet is represented 
by an ancient deity: Diana, Luna, Mercury, Venus, Apollo, Mars, Jupiter, 
and Saturn. They are pourtrayed in half-figure with appropriate action, 
and each is enclosed within a segment of the zodiac, on which [rests an 
angel , either pointing to the Creator above or in the act of adoration. 
This association of gods and angels recalls the prophets and sibyls of 
Michael Angelo, each of whom is also accompanied by a genius. But 
Raphael's composition-is entirely independent, with a distinct significance 
of its own , and one of a kind which shows the master's power in its 
highest manifestation'. — The altar-piece, a Nativity of the Virgin, is by 
Sebasliano del Piornbo, the other pictures by Salviali. Bronze relief over 
the altar, Christ and the Samaritan woman, by Lorenzetto; in the niches 
four statues of prophets : over the altars (left) "Jonah , by Raphael , and 
(right) Habakkuk , by Bernini; at the entrance, (left) Daniel, by Bernini, 
and (right! Elijah by Lorenzetto, designed by Raphael. 

Left Transept : Tomb of Cardinal Bernardino Lonati (15th cent.). 

In the Choik "Ceiling-frescoes by Pinturicchio (1479) : Madonna, the Four 
Evangelists, and the Four Fathers of the church, Gregory, Ambrose, Je- 
rome, and Augustine, in excellent preservation, and long deservedly ad- 
mired for the skilful distribution of space. Beneath are the * Tombs of 
the cardinals Girolamo Basso and Ascanio Sforza by Andrea Sansovino, 
erected by order of Julius II. (1505), 'the perfection of sculpture combined 
with decoration'. The same pope is said to have caused the two fine stained 
glass windows to be executed by Claudius and William of Marseilles. 

The church gives atitle to acardinal. In the adjacentAugustinian 
monastery Luther resided during his visit to Rome (1510). 

If we ascend the Pincio by the approaches above named (gates 
closed one hour after Ave Maria) , we observe in the first circular 
space two columns (columnae rostratae) , adorned with the prows of 

Pincio. ROME. J. Strangers' Quarter. 141 

ships, from the temple of Venus and Roma (p. 234); in the niches 
three marble statues, and above them captive Dacians, imitations of 
antiques. Beyond these, a large relief. Halfway up are an antique 
granite basin , with a fountain , and under a loggia an Equestrian 
Statue of Victor Emmanuel II., erected in 1878. 

The *Pincio (PI. I, 18), the collis hortorum, or 'hill of gardens', 
of the ancients, was probably called Mons Pincius from a palace of 
the Pincii situated here in the later period of the empire. Here 
were once the famous gardens of Lucullus , in which Messalina, 
the wife of Claudius, afterwards celebrated her orgies. A vineyard 
belonging to the monastery of S. Maria at the foot of the hill was 
converted by Valadier, during the Napoleonic regime' into beau- 
tiful pleasure-grounds, the Passeggiata of Rome. This is a fashion- 
able drive in the evening, when the Italians frequently pay and 
receive visits in their carriages, presenting a gay and characteristic 
scene. A military band generally plays here two hours before sunset, 
attracting a large audience of all classes. The walks are shaded by 
plantations and groups of trees , and (as suggested by Mazzini in 
1849) adorned with busts of celebrated Italians, to which recently 
many additions have been made. — The projecting terrace at the 
summit (151 ft.) commands a magnificent *View of modern Rome. 

Beyond the Piazza del Popolo with the buildings above described , on 
the opposite bank of the Tiber, rises the huge pile of St. Peter's, adjoining 
which is the Vatican to the right, and near it the city-wall. Among the 
hills which here bound the horizon, the point planted with cypresses to the 
right, where the yellow Villa Mellini is situated, is Monte Mario; more to 
the left , the white building of the new Tivoli. To the left of St. Peter's, 
close to the Tiber, which is not visible, is the round castle of S. Angelo, so 
called from the bronze angel which crowns it. The pine-grove on the height 
to the left of the castle belongs to the Villa Doria-Pamphilj . Farther to the 
left , on the height , the facade of the Acqua Paola , adorned with a cross. 
Between the spectator and the river is a labyrinth of houses and churches. 
The following points serve as landmarks. Of the two nearest churches 
that with the two towers to the right is S. Giacomo in the Corso, that 
with the dome to the left, S. Carlo in the Corso; between the two appears 
the flat dome of the Pantheon, beyond which a part of the Campagna is 
visible. To the left of this, on the height in the distance , rises the long, 
undecorated side of the church of S. Maria in Aracceli, and behind it ap- 
pears the tower of the senatorial palace on the Capitol. On the right side 
of the Capitol lies the Palazzo Caffarelli (German embassy) , in front of 
which the upper part of the column of M. Aurelius in the Piazza Colonna 
is visible. Adjacent to the Capitol, on the left, is the bright-looking Villa 
Mills (now a nunnery), shaded by cypresses, on the Palatine. Farther tn 
the left a low brick-built tower on the Quirinal, the so-called Torre di 
Nerone. To the extreme left, and less distant, is the extensive royal palace 
on the Quirinal. 

The N. side of the Pincio is supported by lofty walls, opposite 
which are the well-planted grounds of the Villa Borghese. On the 
E. side we obtain a view of a large fragment of the city wall. In a 
small round space near the middle of the hill, near a Cafe, rises an 
Obelisk, which Hadrian once erected in Egypt to the memory of An- 
tinous. It was afterwards brought to Rome, and erected here in 1822. 

Leaving the Pincio by the >S. gate , we observe to the left the 

142 /. Strangers' 1 Quarter. ROME. Villa Medici. 

white Villa Medici with its two corner-turrets (see below). In front 
of it is an avenue of evergreen-oaks and a fountain, whence a cele- 
brated view of St. Peter's, most striking towards evening or by 
moonlight, is obtained. 

The Villa Medici (PI. I, 18), erected in 1540 by Annibale Lippi 
for Cardinal Ricci da Montepulciano, came into possession of Car- 
dinal Alessandro de' Medici about 1600, and afterwards belonged to 
the grand-dukes of Tuscany. In 1801 the French academy of art, 
founded by Louis XIV., was transferred hither. The garden is 
open to the public, and is entered by the gate to the left , or by the 
staircase to the right in the house (5-6 soldi). 

Among the ancient reliefs built into the walla of the tastefully deco- 
rated facade of the villa next to the garden is one of the 'Judgment of 
Paris', the suhject of a famous engraving by Marc Antonio. The wing 
contains a Collection of Casts (open daily, except Sat., 8-12, and for three 
hours in the afternoon before dusk) , comprising many from statues not 
preserved at Rome, e.g. from the Parthenon of Athens, and the museum 
of the Louvre , which are valuable in the history of art. Adjoining the 
wing is a terrace, the front-wall of which is adorned with casts. — We 
then enter by a side-door, opposite the end of the museum of casts, ascend, 
and traverse the oak-grove to the right. We next ascend 60 steps to the 
'Belvedere, whence a charming panorama is enjoyed. 

On the N. the shady grounds of the Villa Medici are bounded by the 
Pincio. Most of the statues with which they are adorned are modern. 

The street passing the front of the Academy ends in the Piazza 
della Trinita , where to the left rises the church of SS. Trinita 
de' Monti. The Obelisk in front of it, a conspicuous object from 
many points, is an ancient imitation of that in the Piazza del 
Popolo. and once adorned the gardens of Sallust. 

SS. Trinita de' Monti (PL I, 20), erected by Charles VIII. of 
France in 1495, and plundered during the French Revolution, was 
restored by Magri in 1816 by order of Louis XVIII. It is open on 
Sundays only, before 9 a.m., and in the evening at Vespers (1 hr. 
before Ave Maria) , when the nuns , for whom Mendelssohn once 
composed several pieces, perform choral service with organ-accom- 
paniment. When the door is closed, visitors ascend a side-staircase 
on the left, and ring at a door under a roof. 

Left, 1st Chapel : Cast of the Descent from the Cross, by Achlermann. 
2nd Chapel : altar-piece al fresco, * Descent from the Cross, by Daniel da 
Volterra, his master-piece (much injured and freely restored) ; the excel- 
lence of the drawing and composition is attributed to the aid of Michael 
Angelo. 3rd Chapel: -Madonna, altar-piece by Veil. 4th Chapel: "St. Jo- 
seph, by Langlois. 6th Chapel : Christ, the Wise and Foolish Virgins , and 
Return of the Prodigal, an altar-piece by Seitz. — Right, 3rd Chapel: 
Assumption of the Virgin , Dan. da Volterra. 5th Chapel : Presentation 
in the Temple, Adoration of the Magi, Adoration of the Shepherds, of 
the school of Raphael. 6th Chapel: Resurrection, Ascension, Descent of 
the Holy Ghost, school of Perugino. — In the Transept, which is supported 
by Gothic arches, paintings by Perino del Vaga and F. Zuccaro. 

The convent connected with the church has been occupied by 
the Dames du Sacre Cceur (teachers of girls) since 1827. 

We quit the piazza to the left by the Via Sistina, which leads in 
5 min. to the Piazza Rarherini (x>. 162"). and in 20 min. more to S. 

Piazza di Spagna. ROME. I. Strangers' Quarter. 143 

Maria Maggiore (p. 177). To the right is the small Via Oregoriana, 
which alter 3 min. is intersected by the Via Capo le Case (p. 162). 
Here, on the right, Via Sistina No. 64, is the Casa Zuccari, 
once the house of the family of the artists of that name (marked by 
a memorial-tablet in 1872; paintings by Federigo Zuccaro on the 
ground-floor). At the beginning of this century it was occupied by 
the Prussian consul Bartholdy (whence it is also named Casa Bar- 
tkoldy), who caused one of the rooms to be adorned with *Frescoks 
from the history of Joseph by German artists then at Rome. (The 
hours for seeing the frescoes are frequently changed. Enquiry should 
be made of the porter; fee 1 fr.) 

On the long window-wall : left, Overbeck. Selling of Joseph ; right, Veil, 
Joseph and Potiphar's wife. Short window-wall : Cornelius , Recognition of 
the brethren ; in the lunette above : -Overbeck, The Seven lean Years. Second 
long wall: left, Joseph's interpretation of the dreams in prison; right, the 
Brethren bringing Jacob the bloody coat, both by W. Schadoit). Second 
short wall : Cornelius , Joseph's interpretation of Pharaoh's dream ; in the 
lunette above, * Veit, The Seven Years of Plenty. The two allegorical scenes 
are among the finest creations of modern German art. 

The long Scala di Spagna (PI. 1, 20; 'Gradinata di S. Trinita 
de' Monti'), which descends from S. Trinita. to the Piazza di Spagna 
by 125 steps, was constructed by Al. Specchi and de Sanctis in 
1721-25. Models for artists with their picturesque costumes frequent 
its vicinity, especially towards evening. 

The Piazza di Spagna (PI. 1, 17; 82 ft.), the centre of the 
strangers' quarter, is enclosed by hotels and attractive shops. At 
the foot of the steps is La Barcaccia (barque) , a tasteless fountain 
by Bernini. Towards the N. the Via del Babuino , in which there 
are also many hotels , leads to the Piazza del Popolo (see p. 139). 
In the S. prolongation of the long Piazza di Spagna rises the Co- 
lumn of the Immacolata (PI. I, 20, 7), erected by Pius IX. in 
honour of the 'Immaculate Conception of the Virgin' , a doctrine 
promulgated in 1854; on the summit of the cipolline column stands 
the bronze statue of Mary; beneath are Moses, David, Isaiah, and 

At the S. end of the piazza is the Collegio di Propaganda Fide 
(PI. I, 19, 76), founded in 1662 by Gregory XV., and extended 
by his successor Urban VIII. (whence '■Collegium Vrbanum!'), an 
establishment for the propagation of the Roman Catholic faith, where 
pupils of many different nationalities are educated as missionaries. 
The printing-office of the college was formerly celebrated as the 
richest in type for foreign languages. — On the right is the Palazzo 
di Spagna, or palace of the Spanish ambassador, whence the piazza 
derives its name. Opposite lies the small Piazza Mignanelli. 

Opposite the Scala di Spagna is the Via de' Condotti, with its 
numerous shops of jewellery, mosaics, antiquities, and photographs. 
It terminates in the Corso (see p. 145). 

144 J. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. Fontana di Trevi. 

To the S.E. from the Piazza di Spagna runs the Via de' Due 
Macelli, to the left of the Propaganda, and to the right the Via di 
Propaganda. The latter leads to S. Andrea delle Fratte (PI. I, 19) 
at the corner of the Via di Capo le Case , the next cross - street 
(p. 162). This church was erected under Leo XI. by La Guerra; 
the tasteless dome and campanile are by Borromini ; the facade was 
added in 1826 by Valadier in accordance with a bequest by Cardinal 

The pictures in the Interior are poor works of the 17th cent. : the 
two angels by the tribune , by Bernini , were originally destined for the 
bridge of S. Angelo. In the 2nd Chapel on the right is (on the right side) 
the monument of Lady Falconnet by Miss Hossmer ; on the last pillar to 
the right, in front of the aisle, the monument of the artist R. Schadow 
(d. 1822), by E. Wolff. In the 3rd Chapel to the left, <by the right wall, is 
the tomb of Angelica Kauffmann (d. 1807). The Danish archaeologist Zoega 
and a converted prince of Morocco are also interred in this church. 

At the end of the Via di S. Andrea delle Fratte we enter the 
narrow Via del Nazzareno to the left. On the left is the Collegio 
Nazzareno (PI. I, 19; several ancient statues in the court), founded 
by Card. Tonti in 1622 for the education of poor boys. Opposite 
is the Pal. del Bufalo (PI. I, 19, 6). Then, to the left, the Via 
dell' Angelo Custode (containing on the right, the small church of 
SS. Angeli Custodi) and the Via del Tritone lead direct to the Piazza 
Barberini (p. 162). 

We turn to the right into the Via della Stamperia, so called 
from the ex-papal Printing Office situated in it (right). Adjacent 
to the latter are the extensive Engraving Institute (Regia Calcografia, 
p. 109) and the office of the Minister of Commerce. No. 4 is the 
.entrance to the German Artists' Association. 

We now reach the *Fontana di Trevi (PI. I, 19), which vies in 
magnificence with the Acqua Paola. It is erected against the Palazzo 
Poli, and was completed from a design by Nice. Salvi in 1762; 
in the central niche Neptune, by Pietro Bracci, at the sides Health 
(left) and Fertility (right) ; in front, a large stone basin. 

The ancient Aqua Virgo, now Acqua Vergine, which issues here, was 
conducted by M. Agrippa from the Campagna , chiefly by a subterranean 
channel 14 M. in length, to supply his baths at the Pantheon (p. 196), in 
B.C. 27. It enters the city by the Pincio, not far from the Porta del Po- 
polo. The name originated in the tradition a girl once pointed out the 
spring to thirsty soldiers. The fountain was restored by Hadrian I., 
Nicholas V., and others. In 1453 the latter pope conducted hither the 
main stream of the aqueduct, and the fountain then exchanged its ancient 
name for its present name of Trevi (a corruption of 'Trivio'), which it 
derives from its three outlets. This aqueduct yields daily upwards of 
13 million cubic feet of water, perhaps the best in Rome. The fountains 
in the Piazza di Spagna, the Piazza Kavoria, and the Piazza Farnese are 
supplied from the same source. At ancient arch of Ihis aqueduct with 
an inscription by its restorer the Emp. Claudius, is to be seen at No. 12 
Via del Nazzareno, in the court. ' 

On quitting Rome, the superstitious partake of the water of this 
fountain, and throw a coin into the basin, in the pious belief that, their 
return is thus ensured. 

Opposite the fountain is SS. Vincenzo eil Anastasio (PI. 119 # ) 

The Corso. ROME. I. Strangers' Quarter. 145 

erected in its present form, with a degraded facade, from designs 
by M. Lunghi, Junr., by the well-known Card. Mazzarini. 

The Via di S. Vincenzo terminates in the Via dellaDataria (left), 
which leads to the Quirinal (p. 168). The busy Via delle Muratte 
leads to the right from the Fontana Trevi to the Corso. 

The Corso. 

The *Corso , which corresponds with the ancient Via Flaminia 
leading from the Capitol , extends from the Piazza del Popolo 
(p. 139), between the Via di Ripetta and Via del Babuino, to the 
Piazza di Venezia, and is now the principal street of Rome, with 
numerous shops, and enlivened, especially towards evening, by 
crowds of carriages and foot-passengers. The Carnival is celebrated 
here, and the street is then thickly strewn with puzzolana earth 
for the races, the horses starting from the Piazza del Popolo. From 
the Piazza del Popolo to the Via Condotti is a distance of 750 yds., 
thence to the Piazza Colonna (p. 147) 520, and to the Piazza di 
Venezia 610 yds. more: in all 1880 yds., or upwards of a mile. 
From each side diverge numerous streets and lanes, which to the 
right lead to the crowded purlieus on the Tiber, and to the left 
to the tops of the hills. 

The first part of the street as far as the Piazza S. Carlo is less 
frequented than the other portions. No. 518, to the right between 
the first and second transverse streets, is the Pal. Bondinini (PI. I, 
17, 18), the court of which contains an unfinished Pieta by Michael 
Angelo. No. 18, the house opposite the palace, was once inhabited 
by Goethe ; inscription : 'In questa casa immagino e scrisse cose 
immortali Wolfgango Goethe. II Comune di Roma a memoria del 
grande ospite pose 1872'. 

On the right, beyond the third cross street, is the church of 
S. Oiacomo in Augusta, or degli Incurdbili (PI. I, 17, 2), with a 
facade by C. Maderna. It belongs to the adjoining surgical hospital, 
which extends to the Via Ripetta and accommodates 340 patients 
(founded 1338, enlarged 1600). Nearly opposite, on the left, is 
the small Augustinian church of Oesit e Maria (PI. I, 17, 4), with 
facade by Rinaldi. — [In the Via de' Ponteflci, the third transverse 
street from this point to the right, is the Mausoleum of Augustus 
(p. 186).] 

The Corso next leads to the Piazza S. Carlo, in which, on the 
right, is S. Carlo al Corso (PI. I, 17), the national church of the 
Lombards, and the resort of the fashionable world, with a tasteless 
facade. It was erected in the 17th cent, by Onorio Lunghi and 
completed by Pietro da Cortano. 

Ceiling-paintings in the Interior by Giacinto Brandi. Over the high- 
aJtar is one of the finest works of Carlo Maratta : the Virgin recommending 
S. Carlo Borromeo to Christ. (The heart of S. Carlo is deposited under 
this altar.) Chief festival of the church, 4th Nov. 

To the left the Via de 1 Condotti diverges to the Piazza di Spagiut 

Baede— ■• "-'-- " ""- *"-•"- iq 

146 /. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. The Cor so and its 

(p. 143); its prolongation to the right, Via delta Fontanella di 
Borghese, leads to the Palazzo Borghese (p. 186) and the Ponte 
S. Angelo (p. 278). 

Farther on in the Corso, on the right, No. 418 A, is the spacious 
Palazzo Ruspoli, built by Arnnianati in 1586, and now containing 
the Banca Nazionale. 

To the left the Via Borgognona and Via Frattina diverge to the 
Piazza di Spagna. In a small piazza on the right side of the Corso, 
opposite the entrance of the Via Frattina, rises on the left S. Lorenzo 
in Lucina (PI. I, 16), a church of ancient origin, but frequently 
restored. The only old part is the campanile, the top of which is 
modern. The church and adjoining monastery have belonged to the 
Minorites since 1606. 

The Portico is supported by four columns ; at the door are two half- 
immured medieval lions. — In the Interior , by the 2nd pillar to the 
right, is the tomb of Nic. Poussin (d. 1665), erected by Chateaubriand; 
above the high-altar a Crucifixion by Guido Reni. 

A new Protestant Church is also situated in this piazza. ■ — Om- 
nibuses to the Piazza of St. Peter and the railway-station, p. 112. 

Farther on, to the right, a little back from the street and partly 
concealed by other houses , is the unfinished Pal. Fiano (PI. I, 
16, <S). In front of it, in the Corso (see inscription opposite, No. 167, 
recording that Alexander VII. levelled and widened the Corso for 
the horse-races) a triumphal arch of M. Aurelius stood until 1662 
(reliefs in the palace of the Conservatori, p. 214). 

On the right is the Pal. Teodoli (No. 385). Opposite to it the 
Via delle Convertite leads to the Piazza di S. Silvestro, in which 
rises the venerable church of S. Silvestro in Capite (PL I, 16), 
erected, together with a monastery, by Paul I. (757-67) on the site 
of his own house. The entrance-court has been preserved, but the 
church has been frequently rebuilt. The 'head of John the Baptist' 
has been preserved here since the 13th cent, (festival, 31st Dec). 
Part of the monastery has been converted into the handsome Post 
and Telegraph Office, which has entrances from the piazza and the 
Via della Vite. Another part of the old monastery contains the 
ministerial Offices of Public Works. — Opposite S. Silvestro is the 
English Church (p. 112), erected in 1874, with a handsome facade 
in the early Renaissance style. 

On the right is the Pal. Verospi (No. 374), now Torlonia, erected 
by Onorio Lunghi, and restored by Alessandro Specchi. A loggia 
on the first floor is adorned with pleasing mythological frescoes by 
Fr. Aibani, distantly recalling the famous Farnesina works (p. 327). 

To the right, farther on, at the corner of the Piazza Colonna, is 
the extensive Pal. Chigi, begun in 1526 by Oiac. della Porta, and 
completed by C. Maderna. It contains a few antiques and a small 
collection of pictures , but is not open to the public. Admission 
to the 'Bibliotheca Chisiana', with its valuable MSS. , must be 
Obtained through the traveller's ambassador. 

Side-Streets. ROME. I. Strangers' 1 Quarter. 147 

The handsome *Piazza Colonna (PL I, 16) is bounded on the 
N. by the Pal. Chigi, and on the S. by the Pal. Ferrajuoli (PI. 20). 
In the Corso, to the E., is the Pal. Piombino (PL 22), and opposite 
the Corso the former Post- Office , with a portico of ancient Ionic 
columns from Veii (p. 384). 

The *Column of Marcus Aurelius, rising in the centre of the 
piazza named after it, is embellished like that of Trajan with reliefs 
from the emperor's wars against the Marcomanni and other German 
tribes on the Danube. It consists of 28 blocks, besides the basement 
and capital, in all 95 ft. in height, and is approached by steps. In 
1589 Sixtus V. caused it to be restored and crowned with a statue 
of St. Paul. At that period it was ascribed to Antoninus Pius, 
after whom it is still frequently named. 

The four large Candelabra are of recent date. The piazza is 
much frequented in the evening. Military music here in the height 
of summer (p. 141). — From the Piazza Colonna to the Ponte S. 
Angelo, see p. 193. 

Adjoining the Piazza Colonna (beyond the old post-office) is 
the Piazza di Monte Citoeio, on the right side of which is the 
spacious Camera de' Deputati (PL I, 16, 24), formerly the po- 
lice-office. The design of the building by Bernini was afterwards 
modified by C. Fontana. The court in the interior was roofed over 
in 1871, and fitted up for the use of the Italian parliament. The 
sittings usually take place in the afternoon. Entrance to the public 
seats at the back, No. 10. The doorkeeper will sometimes provide 
visitors with better places (fee 1 fr.). 

The rising of the piazza towards the N. is due to the buried 
ruins of the vast amphitheatre of Statilius Taurus, erected B.C. 31, 
and the only one at Rome before the construction of the Colosseum. 
Rows of seats have been discovered here at a depth of 88 ft. below 
the present level of the piazza. 

The Obelisk in the centre of the piazza, like that in the Piazza 
del Popolo (p. 139), was brought to Rome by Augustus, and used 
as the indicator of a sun-dial. It stood till the 9th cent., was after- 
wards damaged, but was restored and erected here in 1789 under 
Pius VI. It was originally erected in the 7th cent. B.C. by Psam- 
metichus I. Height, including the globe and pedestal, 84 ft. 

The Pantheon (see p. 194) may be reached hence by turning to 
the right at the foot of Monte Citorio (S.W.), and crossing the small 
Piazza Capranica (p. 196). We turn to the left and proceed to the 
Piazza di Pietka, in which is the *Dogana di Terra (PL I, 16, 18), 
formerly a custom-house. Imbedded in the facade are eleven Corin- 
thian columns, 41 ft. in height, of a temple , which once possessed 
fifteen in its length and eight in its breadth. The style is mediocre, 
and not earlier than the 2nd cent. The edifice is generally, but 
without authority, called the Temple of Antoninus Pius. 


148 /. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. The Corso and its 

The Via de 1 Pastini leads hence to the Pantheon (p. 194), while 
the Corso is regained by the Via di Pietra to the left. 

In the church of S. Maria in Campo Marzo (PL I, 16, 2), to the 
W. of the Piazza di Monte Citorio, are established the new State 
Archives, containing charters and deeds of the ex-papal authorities, 
suppressed monasteries, etc. — Pat. di Fireme, Pal. Borghese, see 
p. 186. 

Continuing to follow the Corso from the Piazza Colonna, we ob- 
serve, to the left, opposite the above-named Via di Pietra, the Via 
delle Muratte (p. 145), leading to the Fontana Trevi. 

Farther on, also on the left, where the Corso expands into the 
'Piazza Sciarra', we reach the *Palazzo Sciarra-Colonna (No. 239; 
PL I, 16), the handsomest palace in the whole street, erected in the 
17th cent, by Flaminio Ponzio, with a portal of later date. 

The Pictukb Gallery in this palace has long been supposed to have 
been partly sold, while the rest was expected to share the same fate. 
Visitors are not admitted without a recommendation from high quarters, 
and then usually to part of the gallery only. Principal works : Raphael, 
Violin-player, dated 1518 (differing from Raphael's other portraits in the 
treatment of the fur and in other particulars ; name of the person represented 
unknown); Palma Vecchio, Female portrait, signed 'Tambend', usually 
known as the 'Bella di Tiziano'; Bern. Luini, 'Vanity and Modesty', half- 
figures , the heads resembling those of Leonardo in type ; Caravaggio, 
Players; Perugino, St. Sebastian; Ouido Reni, Magdalene, a work which 
it is difficult to appreciate after 'Titian's Bella', but a good specimen of 
the master's female heads. 

The Via del Caravita, the first side-street on the right, leads 
to the Piazza di S. Ignazio (PL II, 16), in which is the Jesuit 
church of S. Ignazio, designed by the Padre Orassi, with a facade 
by Algardi. The building was begun by Card. Ludovisi in 1626, 
after the canonisation of the saint, but not completed till 1675. 

Interior. The impression is marred by the bad taste of the decora- 
tions, which, however, are less obtrusive than in most Jesuit churches. 
The paintings on the vaulting, dome, and tribune, and the picture over 
the high-altar are by the Padre Pozzi, an able master of perspective , by 
whom the chapel of St. Lod. Gonzaga, in the aisle to the right, was also 
designed. The perspective of the paintings on the ceiling and dome is 
correctly seen from a circular stone in the centre of the nave. 

On the S. the choir of the church adjoins the Jesuit Collegio 
Romano (PL II, 16), formerly well attended, where the higher 
branches of classics, mathematics, philosophy, etc. were taught, and 
degrees conferred. The extensive building was erected at the end 
of the 1 6th cent. , under Gregory XIII. and Sixtus V. , by B. Ammanati. 
The massive principal facade looks towards the Piazza del Collegio 
Romano. A number of the rooms contain the new Biblioteca Vittorio 
Emanuele, consisting of the old Library of the Jesuits (63,000 vols, 
and 2000 MSS.) , augmented by the libraries of many suppressed 
monasteries (in all about 450,000 vols, and several thousand MSS.). 
Special attention is devoted to modern literature. The library (adm., 
see p. 108) has a well-arranged reading room, and is connected by 

Side-Streeta. ROME. J. Strangers 1 Quarter. 149 

a bridge with the Biblioteca Casanatensis (p. 197). — The building 
also contains the Liceo Ennio Quirino Visconti and several collections, 
the chief of which is the — 

Museo Kircheriano, founded by the learned Athanasius Kircher, 
born in 1601, a Jesuit and teacher at "Wurzburg in 1618, afterwards 
professor of mathematics at the Coll. Romano, and celebrated for his 
mathematical and scientific researches (d. 1680). The museum is 
closed at present (entrance in the Via del Collegio Romano 27). The 
former arrangements were as follows. 

Ante-Chamber: two triangular candelabrum pedestals and a few busts 
and heads. In the centre a handsome marble "Cinerary Urn with a lid, 
found in the columbaria at the Porta Maggiore; the relief relates to the 
Eleusinian mysteries and the initiation of a youth. 

Room I. Models of columbaria, cinerary urns, inscriptions, etc. Near 
the entrance, on the right and left (Nos. 64, 65), two sitting female figures in 
tufa, with children in swaddling-clothes in their laps, found near S. Maria 
di Capua. In the Cabinets in the middle of the room : Leaden water-pipes 
from aqueducts ; bronze seals ; silver goblets found in the mineral spring 
at Vicarello (p. 386), among which Nos. 402-405 are in the form of mile- 
stones and inscribed with the names of the chief stations on the route from 
Cadiz in Spain to Rome. At the wall, to the right, is a lengthy inscription 
on bronze (No. 133), found in the territory of the Babianic Ligurians (near 
Benevento), referring to the alimentary laws of the Emperor Trajan (p. 124). 

Room II. Central Cabinet : silver and glass vessels , including two 
"Cinerary Urns of glass from the columbaria at the Porta Maggiore ; on the 
top-shelf, real and artificial gems. Wall - Cabinets : pieces of lead with 
stamps, articles of bone, including two dolls with movable limbs (Nos. 48 a, 
48b), and various objects in glass. 

Room III. Mosaics. In the centre of the pavement is is a mosaic 
representing a Hippopotamus-hunt, found on the Aventine; on the walls 
are genre and mythological scenes, four circus-horses with attendants in 
interesting costumes (Nos 25-28), etc. 

Room IV. Modern mosaic pavement designed in ancient style. Built 
into the walls are numerous fragments of ancient terracottas. Wall- 
Cabinets 1. and 8. (left and right): Small terracotta figures (chiefly votive) 
from Lower Italy, Palestrina, etc., and lamps. Ranged along the wall, 
to the left and right: Votive heads, two Etruscan cinerary urns, and reliefs 
in terracotta (Satyrs treading the wine-press) ; on the floor two sarcophagi 
of terracotta, which were covered with large bricks. Wall-Cabinets 2. and 
7. (left and right): Terracotta votive offerings and other objects, such as 
heads, feet, and ears; Roman lamps. Along the wall, on the left and right: 
Six Etruscan cinerary urns, reliefs in terracotta (including a Mourning 
Penelope, and Ulysses recognised by the old nurse). A large Cabinet in 
the centre contains ancient vases and utensils of various forms in black 
clay (bucckero), chiefly from Etruria ; also several painted vases and dishes. 
Wall-Cabinets 3. and 6. (left and right): Votive objects in terracotta (feet 
and legs); savings-boxes, animals, Roman lamps. Along the wall, to the 
left and right, Etruscan cinerary urns, and to the right cinerary vases from 
Roman columbaria ; several of the terracotta reliefs to the right are particul- 
arly interesting. Wall- Cabinets 4. and 5. (left and right) : Roman earthenware 
lamps ; at the end of the room, several statuettes and busts of inferior value. 
In the centre a freely restored Basin in marmo bigio, with curious reliefs : 
Christ sitting , with six Apostles on each side ; enthroned Madonna and 
Child, with three men in Asiatic garb approaching to worship on each side. 

Room V. Early Christian tombs and tomb-reliefs. In the Cabinet! 
are relics from the Catacombs and medifeval curiosities. To the right is 
a piece of ancient wall, in a black frame, with a caricature of the Christians 
scratched upon it: a man with the head of an ass, affixed to a cross, with 
a man at the side, and the words 'AXt£oru.tMoc aip«Ti fttov (Alexamenos 
worships God), found on the Palatine (comp. p. 248). 

150 1. Strangers' Quarter. HOME. The Corso and its 

VI. Long Coieridok of the Bkonzes, of Egyptian, Oriental, Etruscan 
and Roman origin. The most interesting are, in Cabinets 13-26, a "Head of 
Apollo, nearly life-size, and, opposite the window, the so-called "Ficoronian 
Cista, named' after its first owner, dating from the 3rd cent. B.C., and 
found near Palestrina in 1774. It is a toilet-casket of cylindrical form, 
adorned with admirably engraved designs, representing the arrival of the 
Argonauts in Bithynia, and the victory of Polydeuces over king Amycus. 
The feet and the iignres on the lid are of inferior workmanship; on the 
latter the inscriptions: 'Novios Plautios med Romai (me Koinse) fecid', 
and 'Dindia Macolnia filea dedit' (comp. Introd.). On the wall hang the 
"Mural Paintings found in a columbarium at the Porta Maggiore (p. 182} in 
1875, representing scenes from the mythical period of Roman history. They 
are unfortunately seriously damaged, and are rapidly fading. Above them 
are the copies made immediately after their discovery. The following are 
in the best preservation: Romulus and Remus as shepherds; Exposure of 
the twins ; Rhea Silvia surprised by Mars; Amulius pronouncing judgment 
upon the guilty Rhea Silvia: Scene with sitting female figures, of unknown 
import; Building of Alba Longa; Battle on the Nunricius between the Latins 
and the Rutuli; iEneas crowned by Victory after his defeat of Turnus, 
who lies dead on the ground ; Battle, and Building of Lavinium. At the 
window opposite Cab. 23-24 is an ancient "Bronze Chair, inlaid with silver. 

The extensive Pre -Historic and Ethnographical Collections are ar- 
ranged in three parallel rows of rooms. (Information given on the labels 
attached.) The most important object is the *"* Treasure of Praeneste 
(found at Palestrina about the year 1877 and purchased by Government), 
the chief objects belonging to which are exhibited here: Cabinet in the 
centre, No. 1. Breast (or head) decoration, with 131 lions, horses, and 
various fantastic animals attached to it in rows , the details of which 
are most elaborately executed in granulated work ; at the ends are two 
cylinders terminating in heads of animals, and enriched with the Grecian 
pattern in a similar style. Of the three adjacent golden cylinders, the 
finest is No. 4, embellished with two rows of figures of animals and 
exquisite arabesques. The small rod found in the cylinder lies alongside 
of it. No. 2. Golden fibula; 27. Silver dagger, with an electrum handle 
inlaid with amber fastened with electrum wire; adjacent are the frag- 
ments of the silver sheath ; 28. Large iron dagger, with a silver sheath 
richly ornamented with figures of animals; the point of the sheath, 
now broken off, consists of an open lotus-flower in silver, adorned with 
gold globules; 45-49. Fragments of an ivory relief with delicately executed 
figures; 51. Two ivory wings with lacunars, bearing traces of colouring. 
On an elevation: 20. Golden vessel of graceful form, with two sphinxes 
on each handle. 24. Silver-gilt bowl, the interior of which is enriched 
with two rows of horses, oxen, birds, and trees ; it was found adhering 
to an oxydised iron axe (No. 89, in the next room), which has taken 
the impression of part of it. 23. Large round silver-gilt goblet, with six 
snakes forming the handles; the bowl is decorated with rows of figures 
of armed men, wild beasts, and birds. 25. Elegant silver bowl, the interior 
adorned with a central figure and two rows of gilded reliefs (royal hunting- 
scenes, horses, and birds), and terminating in a snake; 26. Fragments of 
a silver vessel, with representations of four boats, Egyptian symbols and 
figures, and a battle-scene (in the centre), and inscribed with a Phoenician 
name in small characters (above the wing of a hawk). In the second de- 
tached Cabinet is a large and much patched ancient vase of bronze with 
fantastic figures of animals. Cabinet II., by the window: several silver 
vessels, most of them sadly damaged. In Cabinet III., opposite: Frag- 
ments of silver vessels; two bronze handles (54.), on each of which are 
six ivory lions , belonging to a situla , or pitcher-shaped vase, the frag- 
ments of which are adjacent (55.). — In the Following Room are' the more 
fragmentary portions of the Prameste treasure , chiefly bronze articles. 
Central-Cabinet: No. 75. Fragments of a large caldron with griffins' heads 
as handles; several bowls and flat dishes; 72. Iron tripod, with bronze 
bowl, the margin of which is embellished with three human figures and 
three animals, in a very primitive style. The two other Cabinets contain 

Side-Streets. ROME. /. Strangers' 1 Quarter. 151 

fragments of bronze and iron vessels, weapons, etc., and portions of the 
bronze covering of a shield. 

The next rooms are at present occupied with the very valuable col- 
lection of ancient Roman and Italian money (aes grave). 

Those who are interested in Epigraphy may now inspect the following 
rooms, devoted to the Museo Lapidario, where a number of inscriptions 
are now being built into the walls. The most important of these are the 
records of the Arvales, enumerating the festivals of the brotherhood and 
other details (comp. pp. 346, 347). The adjacent rooms contain a col 
lection of brick-stamps. 

On the floor above is the recently founded Museo Medioevale (or 
Artistico Industriale), a collection of products of the Italian handicrafts 
(terracottas, majolicas, and rich stuffs of various periods) and casts of 
mediaeval works (shown daily, 9-3; admission 50 c). 

The Observatory, once presided over by the famous Padre Secchi 
(d. 1878), has a European reputation. It is shown in the forenoon to 
visitors with an introduction. A signal is given here daily when the sun 
attains the meridian, which is announced by the firing of a cannon from 
the castle of S. Angelo. 

In the Corso, beyond the Piazza Sciarra, on the right, is the 
Palazzo Simonetti (308). Opposite is S. Marcello (PI. II, 16), in 
the small piazza of that name, a church mentioned as early as 499, 
re-erected by Oiacomo Sansovino in 1519, and recently entirely 
modernised. The poor facade is by Carlo Fontana. 

The 4th Chapel on the right contains paintings by Perino del Vaga, 
completed after his death by Dan. da Volterra and Pellegrino da Modena, 
and the monument of the celebrated Card. Consalvi (d. 1824), minister of 
Pius VII., by Rinaldi. Paintings in the Tribune by Giov. Batiisla da Novara; 
those of the 2nd Chapel to the left by Fed. Zuccaro. 

On the right is the small church of S. Maria in Via Lata, men- 
tioned as early as the 7th cent., but in its present form dating from 
the 17th; facade by Pietro da Cortona; from the vestibule a stair- 
case ascends to an oratory in which St. Paul and St. Luke are said 
to have taught. The Via Lata (called Via Flaminia outside the 
town; p. 145) was the ancient main street of the city, nearly cor- 
responding with the present Corso. Below this church and the Pa- 
lazzo Doria lie extensive ancient walls, which once belonged to the 
Septa Julia, an edifice begun by Caesar and completed by Agrippa, 
used for taking the votes of the national assembly, but, in the reign 
of Tiberius, when this practice had fallen into disuse, converted 
into a market-place. 

Adjoining S. Maria in Via Lata is the *Palazzo Doria, formerly 
Pamphilj (PI. II, 16), an extensive pile of buildings, and one of the 
most magnificent palaces in Rome ; facade towards the Corso by Val- 
vasori, that towards the Coll. Romano by P. da Cortona, and another 
towards the Piazza di Venezia by P. Amati. The handsome court, 
surrounded by arcades, is entered from the Corso (No. 305). To 
the left is the approach to the staircase ascending to the *Galleria 
Doria on the 1st floor (Tues. and Frid., 10-2; during the Easter 
fortnight, daily; catalogues in each room; fee '/ 2 fr.). — The Doria 
Gallery resembles the other Roman collections in being devoted to 
no particular school, and in possessing examples of every different 

152 I. Strangers'" Quarter. ROME. The Cor no and its 

style, but the founders have perhaps shown a preference for works 
of the 17th century. The ante-chambers are badly lighted, so that 
the pictures are not seen to advantage, but most of the works here 
are hardly above mediocrity. The visitor should, however, note the 
predella of a nov lost altar-piece by Peselli (II. Room, 23, 29), a 
good specimen of early Florentine painting, and the Madonnas of 
Niccolh Rondinello (II. Room, 12, 43), a little known master, who 
has happily imitated the golden colouring of the old Venetians, and 
is one of Giov. Bellini's ablest followers. 

The gems of the collection are in the three galleries and in the 
corner-cabinet. Raphael, the prince of cinquecentists, is represented 
by the portraits of two Venetian scholars , Andrea Navagero and 
Agostino Beazzano (in the corner-cabinet) ; but their authenticity 
has been questioned, and the touch is certainly somewhat different 
from Raphael's usual style, although the vigorous tone and breadth 
of colouring may be accounted for by his habit of fresco painting. 
Johanna of Arragon is a copy only (II. Gallery, 53), and so too 
is Titian's Periods of Life (II. Gall. 20). Pordenone's Herodias 
(II. Gall. 40), and Lor. Lotto's portrait of himself (II. Gall. 34), 
on the other hand, are admirable Venetian works. The portrait of 
Andrea Doria by Sebastian del Piombo is not Venetian in character, 
but is interesting from the faculty displayed by the master of im- 
parting an air of grandeur to a repulsive subject (corner-cabinet). 
With this work the visitor should compare the portrait of Pope In- 
nocent X., by Velazquez, in the same room. The colouring of the 
latter is strikingly rich, completely eclipsing Piombo's massiveness 
of style. The skilful manner in which the three shades of red are 
blended should be particularly noticed. 

Oarofalo, though not a master of the highest rank, has produced 
an admirable work in his Nativity of Christ (II. Gall. 61). The 
landscape-painters of the 16th cent, are also well represented. In 
the landscapes of Annibale Carracci (III. Gallery) we observe a con- 
flict between historic and scenic imagination, and the obtrusion of 
the former at the expense of harmony of effect. The pictures by 
Salvator Rosa (VI. Room) are not among his best works, but Claude 
Lorrain's landscapes (III. Gall. 5, 12, 23) are justly admired. 
His 'mill' , and the landscape with the temple of Apollo, may be 
regarded as models of ideal landscape; the effect is produced by 
the skilful gradations of distance: the foreground is inclosed by 
trees on both sides, the middle distance gently softened off , and 
the background formed by serrated mountain outlines. — The 
Netherlands School is scantily represented, but some of the pictures, 
as Memling's Descent from the Cross (corner-cabinet), and Lievens' 
Sacrifice of Isaac (II. Gall. 26) , are worthy rivals of their Italian 

I. Room : also copying-room, to which the finest pictures in the 
collection are frequently brought. Antiquities: four Sarcophagi with 

Side-Streets. ROME. I. Strangers' Quarter. 153 

the hunt of Meleager, history of Marsyas, Diana and Endymion, and 
procession of Bacchus. Two fine circular altars, duplicate of the 
so-called Diana of Gabii in the Louvre, archaic statue of the bearded 
Dionysus, and a number of statuettes (Athena, wrongly restored). 
Pictures: *7, 8, 24, 25, 29, 30. Landscapes by Poussin ; 38. Land- 
scape by Salv. Rosa ; on the wall of the entrance, Perino del Vaga, 
Madonna. To the left we enter the ■ — 

II. Room. Antique portrait-busts, a Centaur in pietra dura and 
rosso antico (freely restored) ; Sacrifice of Mithras. — *12. Ron- 
dinello, Madonna ; 13. Holbein (?), Portrait of a woman ; 15. School 
of Mantegna, St. Anthony ; 14. Outdo Reni, Judith with the head 
of Holophernes ; 19. Ouercino, St. John the Baptist; 21. Pisanello, 
Sposalizio ; 23. Peselli, St. Silvester in presence of Maximin II.; 
24. Franc. Francia, Madonna; *27. Bartolo di Siena, Altar-piece 
(in the middle the Virgin and Child); *28. Fil. Lippi, Annunciation ; 
29. Peselli, Leo IV. appeasing a dragon; 33. Quercino, St. Agnes 
at the stake ; adjacent to the right, Madonna after Murillo ; 35. Pi- 
sanello, Nativity of Mary ; 37. After Titian, Mary Magdalene, early 
copy of the work in the Pitti Gallery at Florence; 42. Holbein{f), 
Portrait of himself in his 40th year; *43. Rondinello, Madonna and 
Child; Murillo, Magdalene; 5. Oiov. Bellini(i), Presentation in 
the Temple (by Bissolo, according to C. & C.) ; 69. Manglard, Storm ; 
*75, 77. Landscapes by Lucatelli. 

III. Room (very dark). To the right on entering : 34. Cara- 
vaggio, St. John; *18, 32. B. Bril, Landscapes. Over the door: 
1 . Paris Bordone , Mars , Venus , and Cupid. In the centre a 
recumbent river-god in pietra dura. On the left wall in two frames, 
antique bronzes and other objects. By the window a bronze vessel 
with graffiti in a peculiar style, of late origin. 

IV. Room: 15, 19, 23, 49. Landscapes by unknown masters; 
1. Vasari, Holy Family; 22. Holy Family and St. Catherine (not 
by Titian); 25. Guercino, St. Joseph; 27. Domenichino, Land- 
scape; 31. Poussin, Landscape. In the centre: Jacob wrestling 
with the angel, a group in marble, of the School of Bernini. 

V. Room. In the centre of the room a large bronze basin. Over 
the door: 5. Sandro Botticelli (?), Holy Family. *20. Poussin, 
41. Bril, Landscapes; *30. Spanish School, Portrait of a boy; 
13. Maratta, Madonna; 39. School of Oiov. Bellini, Marriage of 
St. Catherine. — The raised passage-room contains several small 
Netherlandish works, and a female portrait-bust by Algardi. 

VI. Room : 3, 8. Salv. Rosa , Landscapes ; 5. Fiammingo, 
Tempest; *19. Orizzonte, the Cascades of Tivoli ; Mazzolini, Mas- 
sacre of the Innocents. 

VII. Room : 6. Orizzonte, Tempest in the Roman Campagna ; 
Landscape, by the same; Maratta, Battle-scene; *22. Lod. Carracci, 
St. Sebastian ; opposite, 17. Lod. Carracci, Holy Family. In the 
corner a *Head of Serapis in marble. 

154 J. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. The Corso and its 

VIII. Room: *34. Orizzonte, Landscape. Several interesting 
ancient portrait heads (medallion head of Amnion). 

IX. Room : Subjects from still life. 

We now enter the galleries. To the left is the — 

I. Gallery: 2. Oarofalo, Holy Family; 3. Ann. Carracci, 
Magdalene; 5. School of Mantegna, Christ bearing the Cross (by 
the last window); 7, 45. Fiammingo, Landscapes. 8. Quintin 
Matsys, Two male heads; 9. Sassoferrato, Holy Family; 14. Titian, 
Portrait; 15. A. del Sarto(i), Holy Family; 16. Brueghel, Creation 
of the animals ; 20. Titian, The three Periods of Life, a copy of 
the original in London ; *25. CI. Lorrain , Landscape with the 
flight to Egypt; *26. Oarofalo, Mary visiting Elizabeth; 32. Sara- 
ceni, Repose during the flight into Egypt; 37. Madonna and Child 
(not by Andrea del Sarto) ; 38. Poussin, Copy of the Aldobrandine 
Nuptials (p. 324); 45. Reni, Madonna; 49. P. Veronese^), Angel; 
50. O. Romano, Holy Family, after Raphael. 

II. Gallery (chiefly remarkable for its admirable portraits) : 
*6. Fr. Francia (Oarofalo?), Madonna; 13. Mazzolini, Christ in 
the Temple; 15. Lor. Lotto, St. Jerome; 17. (not Titian), 18. 
Pordenone, 19. Rubens, 21. Van Dyck(J), Portraits; 24. After 
Giorgione, Concert (in the Pitti Gallery) ; 25. Brueghel, Creation 
of the air; 26. Jan Lievens, Sacrifice of Isaac; between Nos. 3 and 
30, without a number, *AngeloBronzino, Gianettino Doria; 34. Lor. 
Lotto, Portrait of a bearded man; *40. Qiov. Ant. Licinio da 
Pordenone, Herodias with the head of the Baptist, a model of 
female vigour and dignity; 50. Rubens, Portrait of a monk (an 
early work); 52. Titian, Portrait; 53. After Raphael, Johanna of 
Arragon, Netherlandish copy; *61. Oarofalo, Nativity; *69. Cor- 
reggio , Allegorical representation of Virtue, unfinished dead- 
colouring in tempera; 72. Morone, Portrait; 80. Titian and his 
wife (according to C. & C, by Sofonisba Anguissold). In the centre 
of the room : Marble bust of Andrea Doria. — The adjacent room 
(generally closed) contains works of the 17th cent. 

III. Gallery: 1, 6, 28, 34. An. Carracci, Landscapes with 
historical accessories ; 5. Claude Lorrain, Landscape with Mercury's 
theft of the cattle; *11. Bronzino, Portrait of Macchiavelli ; *12. 
CI. Lorrain, Mill; *23. CI. Lorrain, Landscape with temple of 
Apollo (two most admirable landscapes of this master); adjoining 
No. 18 are two small pictures of the old Dutch school; 24. Bassano, 
Landscape with the temptation of Christ; 26. Mazzolini, Portrait; 
27. Oiorgione, Portrait; 31. Fra Bartolommeo(J>~), Holy Family 
33. CI. Lorrain, Landscape with Diana hunting. 

Adjacent is a small Corner-Cabinet whi<',h contains the gems 
of the collection (well lighted) : ^Raphael, the two Venetian scholars 
Navagero and Beazzano, probably only a copy; *Seb. del Piombo 
Portrait of Andrea Doria, unquestionably the grandest existing 
portrait of this master ; Quintin Matsys, Money-changers disputing- 

Side-Streets. ROME. /. Strangers' Quarter. 155 

*Memling, Entombment; *Velazquez, Tnnocent X., perhaps the most 
striking of the 17th cent, portraits of popes. 

IV- Gallery : Statues, some of them freely restored, etc. 

On the left side of the Corso, opposite the Pal. Doria, is the 
Pal. Salviati. 

The side-street adjoining the Pal. Salviati, and also the preced- 
ing and the following, lead to the Piazza di SS. Apostoli (PI. II, 
19). This piazza is bounded on the E. by the church of that name 
and the Pal. Colonna. At one end is the Pal. Valentini, containing 
a few antiquities. On the other side are the Pal. Buffo (No. 308) 
and the Pal. Odescalchi (No. 314), which has a facade by Bernini. 

*SS. Apostoli, founded by Pelagius I. in honour of SS. Philip 
and James, and re-erected under Clement XI. in 1702, has been 
restored since a Are in 1871 . The vestibule by Baccio Pontelli (?), 
the only part of the building earlier than 1702, contains (on the 
left) the monument of the engraver Giov. Volpato by Canova (1807), 
and (on the right) an ancient *Eagle with chaplet of oak-leaves, from 
the Trajan's Forum. Chief festival on 1st May. 

Interior. Right Aisle, 3rd Chapel: St. Antony by Luti. In the Left 
Aisle, 2nd Chapel: Descent from the Cross by Franc. Manno. At the end, 
to the left, over the entrance into the sacristy: ''Monument of Clement XIV. 
by Canova, on the pedestal Charity and Temperance. In the tribune, with 
altar-piece by Muralori (said to be the largest in Rome), are the monu- 
ments erected by Sixtus IV. to his two nephews , the Cardinals Riario, 
that of Pietro (d. 1474) on the left, and that of Alexander behind the 
altar , and partly concealed by the organ. On the vaulted ceiling of the 
tribune, Fall of the Angels, a fresco by Giov. Odassi, in the rococo style, 
but of striking effect. The older church was decorated by Melozzo da Forli, 
a fine fragment of whose frescoes is now in the Quirinal [(p. 170) , and 
others are in the sacristy of St. Peter's (p. 288). 

The adjoining monastery is now the War Office. The passage 
adjacent to the church contains a monument to Mich. Angelo, who 
lived and died in the parish of SS. Apostoli, r and the tomb of Card. 
Bessarion (d. 1472). 

The Palazzo Colonna (PI. II, 19), begun by Martin V., and 
afterwards much extended and altered, is now in great part occupied 
by the French ambassador, and a number of rooms on the ground- 
floor, with interesting frescoes, are therefore closed. The *Galleria 
Colonna on the first floor (daily 11-3, except Sun. and holidays), is 
entered from the Piazza SS. Apostoli by the gate No. 53. We turn 
to the left in the court, and ascend the broad staircase. At the top, 
opposite the entrance to the saloons, is the painted cast of a colossal 
Medusa head. Traversing a large hall with family-portraits, we 
turn to the right into three ante-rooms adorned with Gobelins, in 
the second of which are four ancient draped statues ; in the third a 
small ancient statue, belonging to a* group of playing girls. We 
then ring at the entrance to the Gallery (fee of 1/2 fr- on leaving). 
— All the pictures bear the names of the masters. 

156 I. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. Pal. Colonna. 

I. Room. Wall of the entrance : Fra Fil. Lippi (?), Madonna ; 
same by Luca Longhi and S. Botticelli. On the left wall : Luini, 
Madonna (much damaged) ; Giov. Santi (father of Raphael), Por- 
trait; Jacopo d'Avanzo, Crucifixion; Fr. Albano, Two Landscapes; 
*Giulio Romano, Madonna; Gentile da Fabriano (or, according to 
C. &C, Stefano da Zevio~), Madonna. Wall of the egress : Par- 
meggianino, Holy Family; Innoc. da Imola, same subject; *two 
Madonnas surrounded by smaller circular pictures, erroneously at- 
tributed to Van Eyck , but by a later Dutch master , interesting on 
account of their elaborate miniature-like execution. 

II. Room. Throne-room, with handsome old carpet. 

III. Room. Ceiling-painting by Battoni and Luti (in honour of 
Martin V.). Entrance-wall: Giov. Bellini, St. Bernhard; *Titian, 
Onuphrius Panvinius, an admirable study of the master's best pe- 
riod, the name being arbitrary ; Bronzino, Holy Family ; *Girolamo 
Trevisani, Poggio Bracciolini. Left wall: Albano, Rape of Europa; 
*Spagna, St. Jerome; Domenico Puligo, Madonna; Ann. Carracci, 
Bean-eater; Paris Bordone, Madonna with saints. Wall of the 
outlet : Holbein (?), Lor. Colonna ; P. Veronese, Portrait of a man ; 
Bordone (not Bonifazio'), Holy Family. Window-wall : F. Mola, 
Cain and Abel ; Sassoferrato, Madonna ; Guido Reni, St. Agnes. 

IV. Room. The great attraction here consists of *Eleven water- 
colour landscapes by Gaspard Poussin, which are among his finest 
works and the most valuable in this gallery. Some of them are un- 
favourably hung, but every one of them will repay careful inspection. 
They represent a mountain-road close to a profound ravine, a bleak 
plain lashed by a storm, a calm lake enclosed by majestic trees, 
a riven rocky landscape with waterfall, and various other subjects. 
Notwithstanding the simplicity and uniformity of the materials 
used , these works will not fail to interest the spectator owing to 
the excellence of the composition and drawing. — Entrance-wall : 
Canaletto , Architectural piece ; Crescenzo d'Onofrio, Landscape. 
Opposite (on the window- wall) : Berchem, Huntsman ; Claude Lor- 
rain(?), Landscape; Wouverman (?), Chase and cavalry-skirmish; 
N. Poussin, metamorphosis of Daphne ; a large cabinet with ivory 
carving by Franc, and Dom. Steinhard (in the centre , the Last 
Judgment, after Michael Angelo). 

V. Gallery, with ceiling -paintings by Coli and Gherardi 
(Battle of Lepanto, 8th Oct. 1571, which Marcantonio Colonna at 
the head of the papal fleet assisted in gaining). On the walls 
mirrors painted with flowers (by Mario de' Fiori) and genii (by C. 
Marattd). Statues here of no great value, most of them modernised. 
Reliefs built into the wall under the windows (right) : Head of 
Pallas ; Wounded man , borne away by his friends ; Selene in the 
chariot (archaic style). Left wall : *Rubens , Assumption of the 
Virgin; *Sustermans, Fed. Colonna; Crist. Allori, Christ in hell • 
Salviati, Adam and Eve; *Van Dyck, Don Carlo Colonna eques- 

Pal. di Venezia. ROME. J. Strangers' Quarter. 157 

trian portrait ; Ouercino, Martyrdom of Emnierentia ; 8. Oaetano, 
Family-portrait of the Colonnas. Right wall : Tintoretto, Double 
portrait ; N. Poussin , Pastoral scene ; Niccolb Alunno , Madonna 
rescuing a child from a demon. 

A staircase , on which is placed a cannon-hall fired into the 
city during the bombardment of 1849, leads to Room VI. From 
left to right : Lor. Lotto , Card. Pompeo Colonna (?) , a genuine, 
but much damaged work ; Muziano (an imitator of Michael Angelo, 
of Brescia), Vittoria Colonna, the friend of Michael Angelo ; *Pietro 
Novelli (a Sicilian master of the 17th cent.), Marcantonio Colonna; 
Moroni, Portrait; Tintoretto, Narcissus; *Palma Vecchio, Madonna 
with St. Peter and the donor, the effect of the group being taste- 
fully enhanced by a background of bushes ; Dom. Ghirlandajo (or, 
according to C. & C. , Cosimo Rosselli), Rape of the Sabine women, 
and opposite to it the Reconciliation; *Pietro Novelli, Isabella Co- 
lonna and her infant son Lorenzo Onofrio, a good work, deserving 
notice apart from the rarity of the master ; Bonifazio (not Titian), 
Madonna with saints ; Van Dyck, Lucrezia Colonna ; Hieron. Bosch 
(not Cranach), Temptation of St. Antony; Tintoretto, Angels in 
glory, with four busts; Moretto da Brescia (?), Portrait; Ag. Car- 
racci, Pompeo Colonna; Qiorgione (?), Giac. Sciarra Colonna; 
Pourbus, Franc. Colonna. In the centre a Renaissance column of 
red marble with scenes from a campaign in relief. 

The beautiful Garden (entered through the palace , or by Via 
del Quirinale 12) contains several antiquities, fragments of a colossal 
architrave, said to have belonged to Aurelian's temple of the sun, 
and considerable portions of the brick-walls of the Thermae of Con- 
stantine (p. 169) which once extended over the entire Piazza di 
Monte Cavallo. The terrace commands a good survey of the city. 

Towards the S. the Corso is terminated by the Piazza di Ve- 
nezia (PI. II, 16, 19; 48 ft. above the sea-level), to the right in 
which , at the corner, rises the Pal. Bonaparte, formerly Rinuccini, 
erected by De Rossi, where Madame Laetitia, mother of Napoleon I., 
died on 2nd Feb. 1836. The piazza is named the imposing *Palazzo 
di Venezia, which consists of the large palace, and a smaller one of 
later date, built in the Florentine style. The building was formerly 
attributed to Oiuliano da Majano , but existing documents record 
that it was erected by Francesco del Borgo di 8. Sepolcro for Pope 
Paul II. (1455). To what extent Bernardo di Lorenzo participated 
in the work is uncertain. The palace was presented in 1560 by 
Pius IV. to the Republic of Venice, with which it subsequently came 
into the possession of Austria, and it is still the residence of the 
Austrian ambassador, as it was before the cession of Venetia. The 
extensive court with arcades is little more than begun ; and so also 
is a second and smaller court to the left of the other. Many of the 

158 I. Strangers'' Quarter. ROME. 8. Marco. 

stones of this building are said to have been obtained from the 

Opposite the side-entrance of the Pal. di Venezia is the Palazzo 
Torlonia (PI. II, 19, ;), formerly Bolognetti, erected about 1650 by 
C. Fontana , occupying the block as far as the Piazza SS. Apostoli, 
and the property of the banker Prince Torlonia, Duke of Bracciano. 
It is lavishly decorated, and contains among other works of art Ca- 
nova's Raving Hercules, but is not shown to the public. Permessi 
for the Villa Albani are procured on the ground-floor, to the left. — 
The N. corner of the palace has been removed to make way for the 
new Via Nazionale, which begins here and connects the centre ot 
the old town with the railway (see p. 175). 

From the Piazza Venezia we proceed straight through the narrow 
Ripresa bei Bakbeei, so named because the 'Barbary' horses form- 
erly used in the races of the Carnival were stopped here. On the 
left (No. 174) is the Pal. Nipoti. The first cross-street to the left 
leads to the Trajan's Forurn (p. 240). To the right the Via S. Marco, 
passing under an arch of the passage which leads from the Pal. di 
Venezia to S. Maria in Aracceli , brings us to the Piazza di San 
Maeco (PL II, 16), laid out in promenades. Here, on the right, 
lies — 

S. Marco, incorporated with the Pal. di Venezia. This church is 
very ancient, being supposed to date from the time of Constantine. 
It was re-erected in 833 by Gregory IV., and adorned in 1455 by 
Criuliano da Maiano (? Domenico di Francesco^) with a fine vestibule 
and probably with the coffered ceiling of the nave. The interior, 
dating from the 17th cent., was modernised by Card. Quirini in 
1744. Festival on 25th April. 

Vestibule. Iioman and ancient. Christian inscriptions, built into the 
walls. St. Mark in relief, above the handsome inner principal portal. The 
Interior is approached by a descent of several steps. With the exception 
of the tribune and the beautiful ceiling , all the older parts have been 
disfigured by restorations. The Tribune, with its handsome pavement 
(opus Alexandrinum), lies a few steps higher than the rest of the church. 
The mosaics (in the centre Christ ; left, the saints Mark, Agapetus, and Agnes; 
ri;;lit, Fclieiainis and Mark escorting Gregory IV.) date from the most de- 
graded period of this art (about 833} and have been justly described as 
'utter caricatures'. In the Eight Aisle, 1st Chapel : altar-piece by Palma 
(lioriue , the Insurrection. 3rd Chapel: Adoration of the Magi, Maratla. 
At the end, adjoining the tribune: -Pope Mark, an admirable old picture, 
perhaps by Carlo Crioelli. In the Left Aisle, 2nd Chapel: altar - relief, 
Dreg, llarbadigo distributing alms, by Ant. dTEste. 4th Chapel : St. Michael, 

In the Piazza, in front of the church, is the so-called Madonna 
Lucre~,ia , the mutilated marble bust of a colossal female statue 
(priestess of Isis) which carried on conversations with the Abbate 
Luigi near the Pal. Vidoni (p. 200), similar to those of Pasquin 
with the Marforio ( comp. p. 20l). 

The Via di S. Marco terminates in the Via Aracali, which to 

Oesii. ROME. J. Strangers' Quarter. 159 

the left leads to the Piazza Aracosli (p. 210) and the Capitol, and 
to the right to the Piazza del Gesii (see below). 

From the Piazza Venezia the Ripresa de' Barberi and its con- 
tinuation the Via Macel de , Corvi (in which No. 88, on the right, 
bears a tablet recording that Giulio Romano was born here), and 
beyond it the Via di Marforio, lead by the N.E. slope of the Capi- 
toline to the Forum and the Arch of Severus (p. 227). The name 
is derived from Forum Martis (or Forum of Augustus). The famous 
statue of Marforio which once stood in this street, opposite the Car- 
eer Mamertinus, is now in the Capitoline Museum (p. 217). 

Beyond the second cross-street (the Via delta Pedacchia, now 
Giulio Romano, which connects the Piazza Aracoeli with the Forum 
of Trajan), on the left, is the Tombstone of C. Publicius Bibulus 
(now entirely built over), to whom the ground was granted by the 
senate as a burial-place for himself and his family in recognition of 
his merits ('honoris virtutisque causa', as the inscription records) 
towards the end of the republic. This point must therefore have 
lain outside the walls of Servius , which ran immediately below the 
Capitol, interments within their precincts having been prohibited. 

From the Piazza Venezia the broad Via del Plebiscito, form- 
erly del Oesit (PI. II, 16), leads to the right, past the Pal. di Vene- 
zia. On the right rise the palazzi Bonaparte (p. 157), Doria (p. 152), 
and Orazioli. We next reach the Pal. Altieri , with its extensive 
facade, erected in 1670, bounding the N. side of the small Piazza 
del Gesu (PI. II, 16) which is called after the church of that name. 

*Gesu , the principal church of the Jesuits, is one of the most 
gorgeous in Rome. It was built by Vignola and Oiac. della Porta 
by order of Card. AlessandTO Farnese, in 1568-77. Comp. p. lix. 

In the Nave is a "'Ceiling-painting by Baciccio, by whom the dome and 
tribune were also painted, one of the best and most life-like of the rococo 
works of that period. The walls were covered with valuable marble at 
the cost of the Principe Aless. Torlonia in 1860. On the high - altar, with 
its four columns of giallo antico: Christ in the Temple, by Capalti; on the 
left the monument of Card. Bellarmino with figures of Religion and Faith, 
in relief; on the right the monument of P. Pignatelli, with Love and Hope. 
— In the Transept, to the left: 'Altar of St. Ignatius with a picture by 
Pozzi , under which a silver-plated relief, representing St. Ignatius sur- 
rounded by angels, is said to be concealed. The original silver statue of the 
saint, by Le Gros, which was formerly here, is said to have been removed 
on the suppression of the order in the previous century. The columns are 
of lapis lazuli and gilded bronze ; on the architrave above are two statues : 
God the Father, by B. Ludovisi, and Christ, by L. Ottoni, behind which, 
encircled by a halo of rays, is the emblematic Dove. Between these the 
globe of the earth , consisting of a single block of lapis lazuli (said to be 
the largest in existence). Beneath the altar, in a sarcophagus of gilded 
bronze, repose the remains of the saint. On the right and left are groups 
in marble; on the right the Christian Religion, at the sight of which 
heretics shrink, by Le Gros; on the left Faith with the Cup and Host, which 
a heathen king is in the act of adoring, by Thiodon. Opposite, in the tran- 
sept, on the right, the altar of St. Francis Xavier. 

The church presents a most imposing sight on 31st Dec, on the 
festival of St. Ignatius, on 31st July, and during the Quarant'ore (two last 

160 1. Strangers' Quarter. ROME. Villa Borghese. 

days of the Carnival) , on which occasions it is brilliantly illuminated in 
the evening. During Advent and Lent, and generally at other seasons also, 
sermons are preached here at 11 a. m., often by priests of great ability. 

Adjoining the church is the former Casa Professa of the Jesuits, 
now a barrack, adjacent to which, Via di Aracceli 1 A, is the en- 
trance to the rooms of St. Ignatius (Mon., Wed., Frid., 9-11). On 
the opposite side of the street is the Palazzo Bolognetti(P\. I, 16, 3). 
— Passing the monastery, and following the Via di Aracmli, we 
come in 5 min. to the Piazza di Aracoeli , at the foot of the Capitol 
(see p. 210). 

From the opposite angle of the Piazza del Gesil, the Via del 
Oesii leads to the right in 5 min. to the Piazza della Minerva (p. 
196); while the busy Via de' Cesarini (p. 200) to the left leads to 
S. Andrea della Valle (p. 200), and the Via del Govemo Vecchio 
(p. 202) thence to the bridge of S. Angelo, forming the shortest 
and most frequented route to the Vatican , and sometimes called 
'Via Papale'. From Gesil to the Ponte S. Angelo (p. 278) 18 min. ; 
omnibus from the Piazza di Venezia, see p. 111. 

On the right, just outside the Porta del Popolo, lies the — 

*Villa Borghese (PI. I, 18, 21), founded by Card. Scipio Bor- 
ghese, nephew of Pius V., and afterwards enlarged by the addition 
of the Giustiniani gardens and the so-called villa of Raphael, which, 
with a great part of the plantations, was destroyed during the siege 
of 1849. The beautiful and extensive grounds (open four times 
weekly; carriages admitted; comp. p. 115) from a favourite pro- 
menade. The gardens contain several ancient statues and inscriptions. 

On entering, we follow a footpath which skirts the carriage-road 
on the right, andleads through an Egyptian Gateway (8 min.). Farther 
on we pass a grotto with antique fragments (left). After 4 min. the 
road divides. Following the left branch (as to the other, see below), 
which leads through an artificial ruin with two Doric columns, we 
observe on the left the private gardens of the prince, and farther on 
reach an imitation of a Ruined Temple. Turning to the right here, 
we come in 10 min. to a circular space with a Fountain. (Or this 
spot may be reached by the first broad path to the right beyond the 
Doric columns , leading through an avenue of evergreen oaks to a 
small temple, and thence to the left, through another similar 
avenue.) From this point the carriage-road leads to the Casino in 
5 min., to which also beautiful, shady footpaths lead from the left 
of the fountain. 

If we proceed straight from the above-mentioned bifurcation of 
the path, we observe on the left, after 3 min., the remains of Ra- 
phael's Villa, and in 3 min. more an arch with a Statue of Apollo, 
whence the road turns to the left and leads to the Casino. 

The Casino, which was handsomely restored by M. Ant. Bor- 
ghese in 1872, formerly contained one of the most valuable private 

Villa Borghese. HOME. I. Strangers' Quarter. 161 

collections in existence, which was purchased by Napoleon I. and 
sent to the Louvre. Inconsequence, however, of recent excavations, 
chiefly near Monte Calvi in the Sabina, Prince Borghese has found- 
ed a new Museum here, which contains several objects of great in- 
terest. The custodians provide visitors with catalogues (t/ 2 fr.). 

Ground-Floor. I. Vestibule: Two candelabra; on the narrow walls 
two reliefs , probably from the triumphal arch of Claudius which once 
stood in the Corso near the Pal. Sciarra. Several sarcophagi; one of them, 
to the left by the wall of the egress, with a harbour, lighthouse, and ships. 

II. Saloon ('Salone'), with ceiling-painting by Mario Rossi. On the floor, 
mosaics, discovered in 1835 near the Tenuta di Torre Nuova, with gladiator 
and wild beast combats. Left, wall : 3. Colossal head of Isis ; 4. Dancing 
Faun, under it a Bacchic relief; 5. Colossal head of a Muse (V). Long wall : 

7. Tiberius; 8. Meleager; 9. Augustus; above, a raised relief of a galloping 
rider (M. Curtius?); * 10. Priestess ; 11. Bacchus and Ampelus. Right wall: 
14. Hadrian ; 16. Antoninus Phis (colossal busts) ; under So. 15 a Bacchic 
relief. Entrance-wall : 18. Diana. 

III. Room (1st to the right). In the centre : " Juno Pronuba, found near 
Monte Calvi. Left wall : 4. Ceres ; 5. Venus Genetrix. Opposite the entrance : 

8. Relief, Sacrificial prayer (of Hesiod?) to Cupid; '11. Relief, Rape of Cas- 
sandra. Right wall : 16. Draped statue. Entrance-wall : 20. Greek tomb- 

IV. Room. In the centre : Amazon on horseback contending with two 
warriors. Entrance-wall: 2. Pan; 4. (and 17, opp.) Sarcophagus with the 
achievements of Hercules ; on the cover , Reception of the Amazons by 
Priam; 6. Head of Hercules; 7. Pygmsea. On the left wall: 9. Statue of 
Hercules. Wall of the egress : 15. Hercules in female attire. Window-wall : 
21. Venus ; 23. Three-sided ara with Mercury, Venus, and Bacchus. 

V. Room . In the centre : Apollo. Left wall : 3. Scipio Africanus ; 4. 
Daphne metamorphosed into a laurel. Following wall : 7. Head of a 
Msenas or Bacchante; 8. Melpomene; 9. Genre-group; 10. Clio. Right wall: 
"13. Statue of Anacreon in a sitting posture , perhaps a copy from a ce- 
lebrated work of Cresilas at Athens; 14. Lucilla, wife of L. Verus. En- 
trance-wall : 16. Terpsichore ; 18. Polyhymnia. 

VI. Room: 'Gallery' with modern busts of emperors in porphyry. In 
the centre a porphyry bath , said to have been found in the mausoleum of 
Hadrian; 3. Diana, restored as a Muse; 8. Diana; 22. Bacchus; *29. Statue 
of a Satyr in basalt; 32. Bronze statue of a boy. (The second door of the 
entrance-wall leads to the upper story.) 

VII. Room, with columns of giallo antico and porphyry, on the floor 
ancient mosaics. Left wall : "2. Boy with bird ; 3. Bacchus ; *&. Captive boy. 
Wall of the egress : 7. Recumbent Hermaphrodite ; 9. Sappho (doubtful) ; 
10. Tiberius. Entrance-wall : * 13. Roman portrait-bust (said to be Do- 
mitius Corbulo); "14. Head of a youth, perhaps Meleager; 15. Boy with a 
pitcher, a fountain-figure; 16. Female bust. 

VIII. Room. In the centre: "Portrait-statue of a Greek poet, perhaps Al- 
ceeus. Left wall: 2. Athene; 4. Apollo (archaic style). Following wall: 
6. Figure from a tomb ; 7. Candelabrum with Hecate. Right wall : 8. Nymph ; 
10. Leda. Entrance-wall : 15. iEsculapius and Telesphorus. 

IX. Room. In the centre : ''Satyr on a dolphin, a fountain-figure, the mo- 
del of the Jonas in S. Maria del Popolo attributed to Rsphael (p. 140); 
3. Isis; 4. Paris; 8. Female statue, inaccurately restored as Ceres ; 10. Gipsy- 
woman (17th cent.) ; 13. Venus ; 14. Female figure (archaic) ; * 16. Bac- 
chante; 18. Satyr; 19. Hadrian; 20. Satyr. 

X. Room. *1. Dancing Satyr, wrongly restored (he originally played on 
a flute); 2. Ceres; 3. Mercury with a lyre; 4. Dancing Satyr; 8. Satyr, after 
Praxiteles; 9. Pluto with Cerberus; 14. Periander; 19. Bacchus enthroned. 
Fine ceiling-paintings by Conca. 

Upper Floor. A large saloon (fee 1/2 fr.) contains three early works 
of Bernini: ..Eneas carrying Anchises ; Apollo and Daphne ; David with the 
Sling. The ceiling-paintings are by Lanfranco, the five 'Landscapes on the 

Baedet"- t '-'" tt ""*• " j: ' : — 11 

162 11. Hills of Rome. ROME. Piazza Barberini. 

left wall by Phil. Hackert. In one of the following rooms the recumbent 
"Statue of Pauline Borghese, sister of Napoleon I., as Venus, by Canova. 
Other apartments contain modern sculptures and numerous pictures, which 
with a few exceptions (e.g. Portrait of Paul V. by Caravaggio in the 1st 
room) are of little value. The balcony commands a fine View of the gardens. 

II. The Hills of Rome. 
Quirinal. Viminal. Esquiline. 

The following description embraces theE. part of Rome, extend- 
ing over the three long, parallel hills of the Quirinal, Viminal, and 
Esquiline, and adjoining the Corso and Strangers' Quarter. The 
greater part of this quarter is still occupied by vineyards and gar- 
dens, especially towards the walls. Since the Italian occupation, 
however, buildings are springing up here in every direction. 

On the Quirinal at a very early period lay a Sabine town, the union 
of which with that on the Palatine formed the city of Rome. The Ser- 
vian wall ran from the Capitol along the N.W. side of the Quirinal, and 
then to the E. behind the Baths of Diocletian and the church of S. Maria 
Maggiore, enclosing the Quirinal, Viminal, and part of the Esquiline. Ac- 
cording to the new division of the city by Augustus , this quarter com- 
prised two districts, the Alia Semita (Quirinal) and the Exquiliae (Esqui- 
line). The building of Aurelian's wall shows that this quarter was after- 
wards extended. According to the mediaeval division these districts formed 
a single region only, named the Rione Monti, the most spacious of the 
fourteen quarters of the city, as it extended from the Porta Pia to the 
now closed Porta Metronia, below the Lateran , and to the Forum Eo- 
manum. Its inhabitants, called Montigiani , differ, like those of Traste- 
vere, in some of their characteristics from the other Romans. Sixtus V. 
provided the hill with water, and constructed the long main street from 
the Pincio to S. Maria JIaggiore. Intersecting this street, and next in im- 
portance to it, is one leading from the Piazza del Quirinale to the Porta 
Pia (Via del Quirinale and Via Venti Settembre), constructed by Pius IV. 

From the Piazza della Trinita on the Pincio (p. 142), crossing 
the Quirinal and Viminal, a street 1 M. in length intersects this 
quarter of the town in a S.E. direction as far as the church of 
S. Maria Maggiore on the Esquiline. The first part of it is called 
Via Sistina, and the remainder the Via delle Quattro Fontane. This 
street with its offshoots is at first well peopled, both with citizens 
and visitors, but beyond the Quirinal it becomes comparatively 

The Via Sistina (PI. I, 20) descends from the Pincio to the 
Piazza Barberini (5 min. ). The first cross-street descending to the 
right is called Via di Capo le Case (p. 143); its prolongation to the 
left is the Via di Porta Pinciana, ascending to the gate of that name 
(closed in 1808), and containing (left) the Villa Malta, once the 
property of King Lewis I. of Bavaria, but now occupied by German 

Passing S. Francesca on the left, and S. lldefonso on the right, 
we reach the Piazza Barberini (PI. I, 19, 22). In the centre the 
*FonUm<i del Tritone, by Bernini, a Triton blowing on a conch. On 
the upper ("N.E.") side is the Hotel Bristol. On the right, one side of 

Villa Ludovisi. ROME. II. The Hills. 163 

the Palazzo Barberini (p. 167) is visible. Ascending the Piazza, we 
come to the Via di S. Nicola di Tolentino, with several new hotels, 
which leads to the church of that name, and then, under the name of 
Via di S. Susanna, turns to the right to the Fontanone dell' Acqua 
Felice and the Piazza delle Terme (p. 174). — The second street to 
the left, on the N. side of the Piazza Barberini, is the Via di S. 
Basilio, which leads to the Villa Ludovisi (see below), and through 
the Porta Salara to the Villa Alhani (p. 164 ; 1 M.). 

To the left of the Piazza Barberini rises the Piazza de' Cappuc- 
cini, in which is situated the church of S. Maria della Coneezione 
(PI. I, 23), or dei Cappuccini, founded in 1624 by Card. Barberini. 

In the Interior, over the door, a copy of Giotto's Navicella (in the ves- 
tibule of St. Peter's, p. 284), by Beretta. 1st Chapel on the right : "St. Michael, 
a famous work by Quido Reni; in the 3rd, remains of frescoes by Domen- 
ichino. Over the high - altar a copy of an Ascension by Lanfranco , now 
destroyed. Beneath a stone in front of the steps to the choir lies the 
founder of the church, Card. Barberini ('hicjacet pulvis cinis et nihil'); on 
the left the tomb of Alex. Sobiesky (d. 1714), son of John III. of Poland. 
Last chapel on the left: Altar-piece by Sacchi; in the first, one by Pietro 
da Cortona. 

Beneath the church are four Burial Vaults (shown by one of the 
monks), decorated in a ghastly manner with the bones of about 4000 
departed Capuchins. Each vault contains a tomb with earth from Jeru- 
salem. In the case of a new interment, the bones which have been long- 
est undisturbed are used in the manner indicated. The vaults are illu- 
minated on 2nd Nov., after Ave Maria. 

A little to the N.W. is »S. Isidoro (PI. I, 20), founded in 1622. 

Leaving the Piazza Barberini, and following the Via di S. Ba- 
silio, the first part of which only is inhabited, we reach (5 min.) 
a corner from which the street to the right leads to the gate, and 
that to the left to the entrance of the Villa Ludovisi. 

The **Villa Ludovisi (PI. I, 23) was erected in the first half 
of the 17th cent, by Card. Ludovisi, nephew of Gregory XV., and 
afterwards inherited by the princes of Piombino. (Admission, see 
p. 116.) The grounds were laid out by Le Notre. From the gateway 
('/ 2 fr. on leaving) we proceed to the right to the — 

I. Casino, containing a Collection of valuable ancient sculp- 
tures. Catalogues sold by the custodian ( J / 2 ft-)- Vestibule: 1, 3, 
7, 42, 46, 48. Statues ; by the entrance-wall, to the right, 20. Head 
of Juno, very ancient; 18. Candelabrum in the form of a twisted 
tree; 15. Sitting statue of a Roman , by Zenon. To the left of the 
entrance: 25. Female draped figure; 31. Tragic mask, mouth of a 
fountain in rosso antico. — Saloon : *28. Group of a barbarian, 
who, having killed his wife, plunges the sword into his own breast 
(right arm improperly restored), a work of the Pergamenian school 
(the 'Dying Gaul' in the Capitol also belongs to this group ; see 
Introd. p. xxxiv). To the right of the entrance : *55. Warrior repos- 
ing (Mars?), probably destined originally to adorn the approach to 
a door; 51. Statue of Athene from Antiooh ; 47. Cast of the statue 


164 II. The Hills. ROME. Villa Ludovisi. 

of jEschines atNaples; 46. Bust, name unknown; above it, *45. Head 
of a Medusa, of the noblest type ; 43. Rape of Proserpine, by Ber- 
nini; above it, 42. Judgment of Paris, a relief, the right side 
restored according to Raphael's design; **41. The so-called 'Juno 
Ludovisi', the most celebrated, and one of the most beautiful heads 
of Juno ; 30. Mercury , in the same position as the so-called Ger- 
manicus in Paris. Left of the entrance : *1. Mars reposing, of the 
school of Lysippus ; *7. Theseus and iEthra (or Telemachus and 
Penelope , commonly called Orestes and ElectraJ , by Menelaos, 
pupil of Stephanos ; *9. Youthful Satyr; 14. Dionysus with a satyr; 
15. Head of Juno ; 21. Bronze head of Marcus Aurelius. 

To the left of the gateway a path leads by a wall with hedges, 
and then past a pavilion, in 4 min. to the — 

II. Casino (dell' Aurora; fee !/ 2 fr.), which on the ground-floor 
contains a vigorous ceiling-fresco of * Aurora by Ouercino, and on 
the first floor a *Fama by the same. We next ascend (passing on 
the staircase a pleasing ancient relief of two Cupids dragging a 
quiver) to the upper balconies , which afford a magnificent *View 
of Rome and the mountains. 

The garden with its beautiful avenues of cypresses and other 
evergreens extends to the city-wall. Ancient sculptures are scat- 
tered throughout the grounds ; e. g. by the city-wall a large sarco- 
phagus with representation of a battle, possibly that of Alex. Severus 
against Artaxerxes, A. D. 232. 

The prolongation of the Via S. Basilio mentioned at p. 163 is 
the Via di Porta Salara, which leads in 8 min. from the Villa 
Ludovisi to the Porta Salara. Here in ancient times, on the site 
of the present Villa Massimi (closed to the public), lay the magnifi- 
cent Gardens of Sallust , the historian , which afterwards became 
the property of the emperors. They included a circus, occupying the 
hollow between the Pincio and Quirinal, which are united farther 
up near the gate. Where the view is unintercepted to the right, 
considerable remains of the enclosing walls are observed on the 
Quirinal opposite. 

The Porta Salara (PI. I, 27), which was seriously injured by 
the bombardment of 20th Sept., 1870, is now restored. The remo- 
val of its two towers brought to light a well-preserved ancient 
monument in 'peperino', resembling that of Bibulus (p. 159). 

On the Via Salara, 8 min. from the gate (see map, p. 346), is 
the — 

*Villa Albani (shown on Tues., in winter from 10, and in spring 
and autumn from 11, till dusk, except in wet weather and in June, 
July, and August; by permesso, see p. 117), founded in 1760 by 
Card. Aless. Albani, built by C. Marchionne, and embellished with 
admirable works of art. Napoleon I. sent 294 of the finest statues to 
Paris, which on their restitution in 1815 were sold there by Card. 
Giuseppe Albani, with the exception of the relief of Antinous in 

Villa Albani. ROME. II. The Hills. 165 

order to avoid the cost of transport. In 1834 the Counts of Castel- 
barco became proprietors of the villa , and altered the arrangement 
of the statues. The villa was purchased in 1866 by Prince Torlonia, 
who has removed several of the best antiques to his museum in the 
Longara (p. 325). Some of them have been replaced by casts. 

Three paths bordered with hedges diverge from the entrance ; 
that in the centre leads to a circular space with a column in the 
middle, and then to a Terrace with a fountain whence a compre- 
hensive survey is obtained : to the left is the Casino with the galle- 
ries on each side ; opposite is the so-called Bigliardo, a small build- 
ing flanked with cypresses ; on the right in the crescent is the 
' Caffe'. The finest *View from the terrace is obtained near the side- 
steps, farther to the right: to the right of the cypresses appear S. 
Agnese and S. Costanza, above which rises Monte Gennaro , with 
Monticelli at its base. (Best light towards evening.) 

I. Casino. Ground Floor. Vestibule. In the six niches : 54. Tiberius 
(?); 59. L. Verus; 64. Trajan. Further on, on the other side of the stair- 
case in the vestibule mentioned below: 72. M. Aurelius, 77. Antoninus 
Pius, 82. Hadrian. In the centre, 61. Female portrait-figure sitting (Faustina) ; 
66. Circular Ara with Bacchus, Ceres, Proserpine, and three Horse ; 74. An- 
other with female torch-bearer and the Seasons ; 79. Sitting female figure 
(perhaps the elder Agrippina). By the pillars on the left and right are 
statues: by the first on the right, 52. Hermes; by the 5th on the left, 68. 
Female, and on the right, 67. Male double statue ; by the 7th on the right, 
80. Euripides. — We now return to the beginning of the Vestibule and 
enter the Atrio della Cariatide, to the left : 16. 24. Two canephorse, found 
between Frascati and Monte Porzio (baskets new). In the centre, 19. Carya- 
tide , by the Athenians Crilon and Mcolaus (the names engraved on the 
back of the vessel), found in 1766 near the Csecilia Metella; on the pedestal, 20. 
so-called -Capaneus struck by lightning. In the Gallery adjacent, on the left: 
statues; the third to the right, 45. Scipio African us; to the left, 29. Epicurus. 

From the vestibule we pass through a small ante-room on the left to 
the Staircase. In front of the staircase (left), 9. Roma sitting on trophies 
(relief). Adjacent, 11. Relief of a butcher's shop. On the staircase, reliefs : 
on the first landing, (r.) 885. Death of Niobe's Children ; (1.) 889. Philoctetes 
in Lemnos (?) ; third landing, above, 898, 899. Dancing Bacchantes. 

Upper Floor (when closed, visitors ring; 1/2 fr.). 

I. Sala Ovale. In the centre, 905. Apollo on the tripod , with his feet 
on the omphalos. To the left of the door, 906. Statue of a youth by Ste- 
phanos, a pupil of Pasiteles. Opposite: *915. Cupid bending his bow, prob- 
ably a copy from Lysippus. — On the right — 

II. Galleria Grande, the principal saloon (on the ceiling Apollo, 
Mnemosyne, and the Muses, painted by Raph. Mengs). In the niches of 
the entrance wall : *1012. Pallas, and 1010. Zeus. Reliefs (over the door) : 

1004. Apollo, Diana, Leto in front of the temple of Delphi (archaic victory 
relief). Then to the right, 1013. A youth with his horse, from a tomb near 
Tivoli; left, 1018. Antoninus Pius with Pax and Roma. The eight fragments 
of mosaic at the sides of this door and that of the balcony, and in the four 
corners, are for the most part antique. — By the left wall : 1020. Two women 
sacrificing; to the right, 1007. Dancing Bacchantes. By the window-wall: 

1005. Hercules and the Hesperides; 1009. Dsedalus and Icarus. From the 
balcony a beautiful view of the Alban and Sabine Mts. 

To the Right of the principal saloon: III. First Room. Over the 
chimney-piece: "1031. Mercury bringing Eurydice back from the infernal 
regions, an Attic relief of a period soon after that of Phidias, an exquisite 
example of the noble simplicity for which ancient art is so justly cele- 
brated. By the entrance -wall, (r.) '1034. Theophrastus ; window-wall, (1.) 

1 66 //. The Hills. ROME. Villa Albani. 

1036. Hippocrates ; wall of the egress , (r.) 1040. Socrates. — IV. Second 
Room. Wall of the entrance, on the right: 35. Pinturicchio (?) , Madonna 
with SS. Laurence and Sebastian on the left, St. James and the donor on 
the right; to the left of the entrance, 45. Lunette by Cotignola: Dead 
Christ With mourning angels. Right wall: 36. Mccold Alunno, Altar-piece: 
Madonna and Saints (1475). Wall of the egress: '37. Pietro Perugino, a 
picture in six sections : Joseph and Mary adoring the Infant Christ, Cruci- 
fixion, Annunciation, Saints (1491). — V. Third Room. Wall of the en- 
trance, (r.) 49. Van der Werff, Descent from the Cross. Right wall : 55. Van 
Dyck, Christ on the Cross. Opposite the entrance , 59. Saldino, Madonna. 
To the Left of the principal saloon: VI. First Room. Over the chim- 
ney-piece, 894. the celebrated 'Relief of Antinous, from the Villa of Hadrian, 
the only sculpture brought back from Paris. Entrance-wall : ,! 997. Shepherd- 
ess playing the flute. — VII. Second Room. To the left of the entrance : 
980. Archaic Greek relief from a tomb. Left wall : "'985. Greek relief in the 
best style, a group of combatants, found in 1764 near S. Vito. Below it: 
988. Procession of Hermes, Athene, Apollo, and Artemis (archaic style). By 
the window to the left, 970. Archaic statue of Pallas, found near Orta; on 
the right, 975. Archaic Venus. Wall of egress, on the left: Greek tomb-relief 
(greatly modernised). — VIII. Third (corner) Room: 21. Holbein, Portrait, 
1527 ; 20. Raphael , Fornarina , a copy ; ::, 18, HI. Giulio Romano , coloured 
designs (in oils, on paper) for the frescoes from the myth of Psyche in the 
Pal. del Te at Mantua. The cartoons of Domenichino , and several other 
pictures formerly here , have been removed to a room on the lower floor, 
which is at present closed. — IX. Fourth Room. In front of the window: 
: 965. .SDsop, perhaps after Lysippus, the head beautifully executed. In the 
niche in the entrance- wall , 952. Apollo Sauroctonus, after Praxiteles. 
Opposite, 933. Farnese Hercules, a small copy in bronze. Window-wall on 
the right, (r.) 942. Small statue of Diogenes. Wall of the egress, (1.) <: 957. 
Small relief representing the Apotheosis of Hercules; on the pillars at the 
sides a record of his exploits is inscribed (resembling the Tabula Iliaca in 
the Capitol, see p. 222). — X. A room with pictures of inferior value. — 
XI. Room with tapestry. 

Returning to the oval saloon, we again descend to the — 
Ground-Floor, and inspect the other wing of the vestibule. Here, at 
the extremity to the left, corresponding to the Atrio della Cariatide, is the : 

I. Atrio della Giunone. 91. 97. two Canephora ; 93. So-called Juno. — 

II. Gallery. In the first niche, ,:, 103. Bacchante with Nebris ; "106. Satyr 
with the young Bacchus. Some of the statues by the pillars are fine, but 
arbitrarily named. — In a straight direction : III. Stanza della Colonna 
(generally closed, fee 25 c). Antique columns of variegated alabaster, 
found in the Marmorata. On the left, "131. Sarcophagus with the Nuptials 
of Peleus and Thetis; above, four sarcophagus-reliefs; on the left, 135. Hip- 
polytus and Pheedra; over the egress, 139. Rape of Proserpine ; on the right, 
141. Bacchanalian procession; over the entrance, 140. Death of Alcestis. — 
IV. Passage : Bearded Bacchus (archaic). — V. Stanza delle Terracotte. 
By the left wall, close to the entrance: 146. Greek tomb-relief; 147. Greek 
votive relief. Beyond the door : 157. Love-sick Polyphemus and Cupid ; 161. 
Diogenes and Alexander. Opposite the entrance, 164. Daedalus and Icarus, 
in rosso antico. Below, 165. Ancient landscape-picture. On the right wall, 
171. Mask of a river-god ; to the left of it, 169. Bacchus pardoning captive 
Indians; to the right of the mask, and on the entrance- wall , several 
tine reliefs in terracotta. — VI. Room. In the centre, Leda with the swan. 
— VII. Room. Above the entrance-door, Bacchanalian procession of children 
from Hadrian's Villa, in pavonazzetto , or speckled marble- left statue 
of a recumbent river-god; right, Theseus with the Minotaur', found near 
(.ii-nzano in 1740. — VIII. Room. Relief in the first window to the left 
tin' God of Sleep. — The exit here is generally closed. ' 

An avenue of oaks, flanked with cippi (tomb-stones), leads from 
the last-named apartments of the Casino to the — 

II. Bioliabdo, containing a few unimportant antiques (25"c.).C In a 

Pal. Barberini. ROME. //. The Hills. 1 H7 

niche in the vestibule, a cast of a Greek relief: probably Hercules, Theseus 
and Peirithou? in the lower regions. ' ' 

III. GAFFE. In the semicircular Hall, to the left : 1. Alcibiades (a cast); 
(1.) 604. Statue of Mars; 610. Chrysippus; 612. Apollo reposing; 628. Cary- 
atide. Farther on, beyond the entrance to the saloon mentioned below: 
(1.) on a detached column, 721. Homer. Adjacent, 725. Cnryatide; (r.) by 
the 3rd pillar, 737. Mask of Poseidon. Obliquely opposite, (1.) 744. Ar- 
chaic Greek portrait-head, Pericles (?) , or perhaps Pisistratus ; (1.) 749. 
Statue, called Sappho, perhaps Ceres. — We now return to the middle 
of the hall and enter the Ante-Room. Here, in the section to the right, 
711. Iris; (1.) 706. Theseus with iEthra , perhaps a sarcophagus-relief. In 
the section to the left, 641. Marsyas bound to the tree; (1.) 639. Relief of 
Venus and Cupid. Also several statues of comic actors. — In the Saloon 
1 25-50 c), in the niche to the left of the door, 639. Libera with a fawn. 
Below, 663. Mosaic with meeting of seven physicians. Corresponding to 
the latter, to the right of the door, 696. Mosaic, liberation of Hesione by 
Hercules. To the right of the balcony-door, 688. Ibis , in rosso antico ; 
684. Atlas , bearer of the universe ; (1.) 678. Boy with comic mask ; 676. 
Colossal head of Serapis, in green basalt. Fine view from the balcony. 

Before the hall of the Cafe is entered , a flight of steps to the left de- 
scends to a lower part of the garden. Fragments of sculpture are built 
into the walls of the ground-floor of the building, and a few Egyptian sta- 
tues are placed in a hall. In the centre : Ptolemy Philadelphus , in gray 
granite ; (r.) the lion-headed goddess Pasht ; (1.) statue of a king, in black gra- 
nite ; several sphynxes. On a fountain in front of the hall: reclining Am- 
phitrite ; on the left and right two colossal *Tritons. 

The Garden also contains many antique statues, among which 
the colossal busts of Titus on the left, and Trajan on the right, 
below the terrace in front of the Casino, deserve mention. 

We may now return by the avenue of evergreen oaks, which is 
entered by an arch at the end of the left gallery of the Casino. In 
the centre of the avenue is a colossal bust of the German anti- 
quarian Winckelmann , a friend of Card. Albani, the founder of the 
villa, by E. Wolff, erected by order of Lewis I. of Bavaria. 

Ascending the Via delle Quattho Fontane from the Piazza 
Barberini, we observe on the left the handsome — 

* Palazzo Barberini (PI. I, 22), begun by Maderna under Ur- 
ban VIII., and completed by Bernini. The court, laid out as a gar- 
den, is embellished with a statue of Thorvaldsen, by E.Wolff, after 
a work by the master himself, erected here, near his studio, by his 
pupils and friends. — The principal staircase is to the left under 
the arcades; built into it is a Greek *Tomb-relief ; on the landing 
of the first floor, a *Lion in high-relief, from Tivoli. A number 
of mediocre ancient sculptures are distributed throughout the courts 
and other parts of the building. — At the right end of the arcades 
a winding staircase (18 steps , then to the right) ascends to the 
Galleria Barberini (admission, see p. 115; catalogues for the use 
of visitors). This is the gallery of disappointment. In Baphael's 
Fornarina we expect to find a beauty radiant with the charms of 
youth, whereas her features present an almost haggard appearance, 
to which the ill-preserved condition of the picture further con- 
tributes. In Quido Rents Beatrice Cenci we hope to see a 

1 68 //. The Hills. ROME. Piazza del Quirinale. 

countenance Judith-like, and characterised by stern resolve, in- 
stead of which we encounter a pale, delicate face. Lastly, when 
we inspect Diirer's Christ among the Scribes, we are almost tempted 
to doubt its authenticity ; the numerous heads are ungrouped, some 
of them resemble caricatures, and it is in the execution of the 
hands alone that the workmanship of the great master is apparent. 

I. Room: 9. Caravaggio , Pietii; 15. Pomaraticio , Magdalene; 19. Par- 
meggianino, Betrothal of St. Catharine. — II. Room: 30. After Raphael, 
Madonna; 35. Titian (V), A Cardinal; 48. Francia (V), Madonna with St. 
Jerome ; 54. Sodomu , Madonna ; 49. Jnnoc. da Imola , Madonna ; 58 Oiov. 
Bellini (?), Madonna; 63. Mengs , Portrait of his daughter; 64. Pontormo 
(after Morelli), Pygmalion; 66. Francia, Madonna; 67. Masaccio ('!), Por- 
trait of himself. — III. Room : 72. Titian (?), 'La Schiava', female portrait; 
76. CI. Lorrain, Castel Gandolfo ; 78. Bronzino, Portrait; *79. Diirer, Christ 
among the doctors, painted at Venice in five days in 1506 ; ! '82. Raphael, 
Portrait of the so-called Fornarina , so frequently copied, unfortunately 
marred by restoration ; 83. Gaetani, Lucrezia Cenci, stepmother of Beatrice ; 
84. Spanish School , Anna Colonna ; * 85. Guido Seni , Beatrice Cenci ; 
86. iY. Poussin, Death of Germanicus ; 88. Claude Lorrain , Wharf; 90. And. 
del Sarto , Holy Family ; 93 S. Botticelli , Anminciation. 

Ascending the spiral staircase 60 steps farther, we turn to the 
right into the Principal Saloon, with frescoes by Pietro da Cortona. 
A small door to the right leads hence into the Sculpture Saloon, 
containing, among a number of ancient and modern works, an ad- 
mirable *Statue by a Greek master, near the wall opposite the en- 
trance, representing a woman with one arm raised. It was formerly 
supposed to be a nymph, a Dido, or a Laodamia; but it more pro- 
bably represents a supplicant for protection at an altar. A twig 
formerly grasped by the right hand has been broken off. 

On the highest floor is the Biblioteca Barberina (Thurs. 9-2) 
which contains 7000 MSS., including those of numerous Greek and 
Latin authors, of Dante, etc., a number of ancient bronze cistas 
from Palestrina , miniatures by Giulio Clovio (a pupil of Raphael), 
etc. Librarian, the Abbe Pieralisi. 

The Via delle Quattro Fontane now leads to the summit of 
the Quirinal , on which a street 3/ 4 M. in length (to the right, Via 
del Quirinale, see below; to the left, Via Venti Settembre, p. 171) 
extends from the Piazza del Quirinale to the Porta Pia. At the 
four corners formed by the intersection of these two main-streets, 
are Four Fountains (PI. I, 22) erected by Sixtus V., the builder 
of the former street, which derives its name from these fountains. 

We now enter the Via del Quibinale to the right. At the cor- 
ner on the left is the small, unattractive church of 5. Carlo, erected 
by Borromini. Farther on, to the left, S. Andrea, by Bernini, with 
the former Noviciate of the Jesuits. To the right are buildings con- 
nected with the royal palace. In a few minutes more we reach the 
*Piazza del Quirinale, formerly di Monte f'avallo (PI. II, 19) re- 
cently extended and levelled, in the centre of which is a Fountain 
with an antique granite basin. Adjacent to the fountain are an 
Obelisk, 48 ft. high, which once stood in front of the mausoleum of 

Palazzo Reg io. ROME. II. The Hills. 169 

Augustus and was erected here in 1787, and the two colossal 
marble **Horse Tamkhs from which the piazza formerly derived its 
name. These admirable groups once stood in front, probably at the 
entrance, of the Thermae of Constantine (see below) which were 
situated here. They are frequently mentioned in history, and have 
never been buried or concealed from view. The inscriptions on the 
pedestals , Opus Phidiae and Opus Praxitelis are apocryphal , the 
groups being works of the imperial age, copied from originals of 
the school of Lysippus. In the middle ages these were supposed to 
be the names of two philosophers, who, having divined the thoughts 
of Tiberius, were honoured by the erection of these monuments in 
recognition of their wisdom. 

Opposite the Royal Palace, on the left, is the Pal. of the Con- 
sulta, erected under Clement XII. by Del Fuga, formerly the seat 
of a tribunal of that name, charged with the internal administration 
of the Papal States. It is now occupied by the offices of the Minister 
of the Exterior. On the S.W. side of the piazza, behind the obelisk, 
stands the Palazzo della Dataria, erected by Paul V. Farther on, to 
the left, is the Pal. Rospigliosi (p. 170). 

The piazza commands a fine *Vibw of the town, with the 
dome of St. Peter's in the background. During the excavations 
preparatory to the construction of the new steps and the carriage- 
road, were found extensive fragments of the walls of the Thermae of 
Constantine (p. 157") and below them older walls of solid blocks, 
belonging apparently to the walls of Servius Tullius. The new Via 
della Dataria descends straight to the Corso, and the first transverse 
street to the right, the Via di S. Vincenzo , leads to the Fontana 
Trevi (p. 144). 

The Palazzo Regio, formerly Apostolico al Quirinale (PL 1, 19), 
begun in 1574 under Gregory XIII. by Flaminio Ponzio, continued 
under Sixtus V. and Clement VIII. by Fontana, and completed 
under Paul V. by Maderna, has frequently been occupied by the 
popes in summer on account of its lofty and healthful situation. 
The conclaves of the cardinals were at one time held here , and the 
name of the newly elected pope was proclaimed from the balcony of 
the facade towards Monte Cavallo. Pius VII. died here in 1823. 
After 20th Sept. 1870, the palace was taken possession of by the 
Italian government, and being now the residence of the king, the 
greater part is seldom shown to the public (p. 116). 

From the principal entrance we pass between the sentinels, and ascend 
the broad staircase to the left at the end of the vestibule. At the top of 
the staircase we write our names in a book, and obtain an escort (1 fr.). 
Adjacent to the Sala Regia, with frescoes by Lanfranco and Saracem, 
is the Cappella Paolina , erected by Carlo Maderna, and decorated with 
gilded stucco-work and copies in grisaille of Raphael's Apostles in S. Vincenzo 
ed Anastasio alle Tre Fontane, and with tapestry of the 18th cent. To the 
right lies a suite of apartments , Drawing and Reception Rooms, newly 
fitted up, and adorned with pictures and tapestry, chiefly modern. The 
reception-room of the ambassadors, beyond the throne-room, contains a 
portrait of the Emperor William, by Karl Arnold, presented in 1874. In 

1 70 //. The Hills. ROME. Pal. Rospigliosi. 

the 10th room, mosaics on the floor from Hadrian's villa. In the 14th, a 
•'Ceiling-painting by F. Ooerbeck (1859), to commemorate the flight of Pius IX. 
in 1848: Christ eluding the Jews who endeavoured to cast him over a preci- 
pice (Luke iv. 28, 29). In the 15th, views from the Vatican. Towards the 
garden are the Rotal Guest-Chambees, once occupied by Napoleon I., 
Francis I. of Austria, and in 1861 by IFrancis II. of Naples. The frieze 
of the former audience-chamber here is a cast of Thorvaldseifs "Triumphal 
Procession of Alex, the Great, ordered by Napoleon I. for this saloon. After 
1815 the original became the property of the Marchese Sommariva, and is 
now in the Villa Carlotta near Cadenabbia on the Lake of Como, formerly 
his residence. In the small Chapel deir Annunziata an ^Annunciation, an 
altar-piece by Guido Reni. — In the Court a staircase ascends to the right 
under the arcades; on the landing, "Christ surrounded by angels, a fresco by 
Melozzo da Forli, transferred thither in 1711 from SS. Apostoli. 

The Garden, which is rarely shown, was tastefully laid out by 
C. Maderna. It contains rare plants and several antiques, and com- 
mands a line view. 

The *Palazzo Rospigliosi (PI. II, 19), erected in 1603 by Card. 
Scipio Borghese, nephew of Paul V., on the ruins of the Theruue 
of Constantine, afterwards became the property of the princes Ros- 
pigliosi, relations of Clement IX., of Pistoja. The palace contains 
frescoes from the Baths of Constantine, a beautiful CI. Lorrain 
(Temple of Venus), and other treasures of art, but is only shown 
by special permission of the prince. The S.E. corner of the palace 
has been removed to make way for the new Via Nazionale (p. 171). 
Admission to the Casino, see p. 116 (^2 f r 0- 

We enter the court by a gate in the Piazza del Quirinale, No. 65, 
turn to the left under the arcades of the palace, and then ascend the steps 
to the left. Several small statues in the Garden. 

Along the external wall of the Casino are placed ancient sarcophagus- 
reliefs (Hunt of Meleager, Rape of Proserpine, etc.). By the door to the 
right we enter the — 

Principal Hall. ** Ceiling-painting by Guido Reni: Aurora strewing 
flowers before the chariot of the god of the sun, who is surrounded by 
dancing Hone, the master's finest work. The colouring deserves special 
notice. The strongest light is thrown upon the figure of Apollo, whose 
hair and flesh are of golden hue. Of a corresponding tint are the yellowish- 
red robes of the nymphs nearest to Apollo. The colours are then gradually 
shaded off from blue to white, and from green to white, while the dun- 
coloured horses accord with the clouds in the background. Opposite 
the entrance is placed a mirror, in which the painting may be conveniently 
inspected. — On the frieze, landscapes by Paul Brill , and on the ends of 
the sides , Triumph of Fauna and Cupid (from Petrarch), by Tempesta. 
Right wall : Statue of Athene Tritogeneia with a Triton ; " Van Dyck, Portrait. 

Room on the Right. In the centre a bronze steed from the Thermse 
of Constantine. Opposite the entrance, Domenichino , Fall of man. Left 
wall: 'Lorenzo Lotto, Vanita. Right wall: "Dutch School, Portrait; Do- 
menichino, Venus and Cupid ; "Luca Signorelli, "Holy Family. Entrance-wall : 
L. Carracci (?), Samson. — Room to the Left, entrance-wall , over the 
door: Passignani, Pieta; Guido Reni, Andromeda; Portrait of N. Poussin 
(at the age of 56), a copy of the original in the Louvre. Left wall : Dan. 
da Volterra , Bearing the Cross. In the corner a bronze bust of Sept. 
Severus. On these two walls and the following: Christ and the Apostles, 
thirteen pictures , attributed to Rubens , probably only partially by him ; 
Domenichino, Triumph of David. 

In the Via del Quirinale, farther on, to the right, is the church 

of S. Silvestro al Quirinale (PI. II, 19), erected at the close of the 

S. Ayattt in Suliurra. ROME. J I. The Hills. 171 

16th cent., and with the adjacent monastery belonging to the frater- 
nity of St. Vincent of Paola since 1770. 

In the Dome four oval frescoes by Domenichino : David dancing before 
the Ark, Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, Judith, Esther and Ahasuerus. 
In the 2nd Chapel to the left, two landscapes by Polidoro Caravaggio and 
his assistant Maturino: Betrothal of the Infant Christ with St. Catharine, 
and Christ appearing as the gardener to Mary Magdalene. 

At the end of the Via Quiiinale, in an oblique direction, runs 
'the new Via Nazionale (p. 175), the construction of which has 
caused great changes in this quarter of the town. Opposite to us 
rises the small church of 8. Caterina di Siena (PL II, 19, 7) of the 
17th century. Over the wall to the left peep the pines and palm- 
trees of the Villa Aldobrandini. In front of it, within a railing, is 
a fragment of the Servian wall (p. 175), excavated in 1875, with 
several palms. Behind the church, in the adjoining monastery, 
rises the Torre delle Milizie, erected about 1200 by the sons of Petrus 
Alexius, commonly called Torre di Nerone, because Nero is said to 
have witnessed the conflagration of Rome from this point. A similar 
and contemporaneous tower is the Torre dei Conti, near the Forum 
of Augustus (p. 239), to which the Via del Grillo descends. It was 
erected under Innocent III. (Conti) by Marchionne of Arezzo, but 
was almost entirely removed in the 17th century. — The Via Nazio- 
nale leads to the right, towards the S., in a wide curve, past the 
Piazza SS. Apostoli (p. 155) to the Corso, terminating opposite the 
Palazzo di Venezia (p. 157). 

The street diverging to the left from the Via Nazionale, by the 
above-mentioned Pal. Aldobrandini and the church of S. Domenico 
e Sisto erected in 1640 (on the right), is the Via Magnanapoli. 
The next cross-street to the left is the Via Mazzarina in which, to 
the right, opposite the Villa Aldobrandini, is the church of S. Agata 
in Suburra (PI. II, 22), dating from the 5th cent., but restored in 
1633, and now possessing 12 granite columns only of the original 
edifice. It belongs to the adjacent seminary for Irish priests. 

The left aisle contains the Monument of O'Connell (who bequeathed his 
heart to this church), with a relief by Benzoni, erected in 1856. To the 
right of the entrance is the Tomb of Jo/in Lascuris , author of the first 
modern Greek grammar (d. 1535). 

The Via Magnanapoli retains its name as far as its intersection 
with the Via de' Serpenti, whence it ascends the Viminal under the 
name of Via di 8. Lorenzo in Paneperna, affording a distinct view 
of that hill rising between the Quirinal and the Esquiline. On 
the summit of the Viminal to the left stands the church of S. 
Lorenzo in Paneperna (PI. II, 22), on the spot where St. Lawrence 
is said to have suffered martyrdom, an old edifice, but frequently 
restored. The street then descends, and under the name of Via di 
S. Maria Maggiore ascends the Esquiline, see p. 177. 

From the Quattro Fontane (p. 168) the Via Venti Sbttembre, 
formerly di Porta Pia, leads N.E. to the Porta Pia (3/ 4 M.). The 

172 II. The Hills. ROME. S.Bernardo. 

corner house on the right is the Palazzo Albani , erected by Do- 
menico Fontana, and afterwards the property of Card. Aless. Al- 
bani. — In the Via Venti Settembre, on the right, farther on, are 
the two uninteresting churches of 8. Teresa and 8. Cajo. 

In 5 irrin. more we reach the Piazza S. Bernardo (PI. I, 22), 
in which, to the right, standing a little back, is S. Bernardo, and 
to the left S. Susanna. Opposite to us, at the corner, rises the 
Fontanone dell' Acqua Felice. 

S. Bernardo (PI. I, 22), a circular edifice, originally one of the 
corners of the Thermae of Diocletian (p. 174) , was converted by 
Catharine Sforza, Countess of Santa Fiora, into a church. The 
vaulting is ancient, but like the Pantheon was once open. — The 
new Via Torino leads hence to S. Maria Maggiore (p. 177). 

The ancient church of 8. Susanna was altered to its present 
form in 1600 by C. Maderna by order of Card. Rusticucci. Paint- 
ings on the lateral walls from the history of Susanna, by Baldassare 
Croce ; those of the tribune by Cesare Nebbia. 

The Fontanone dell' Acqua Felice, or di Termini, was erected by 
Domenico Fontana under Sixtus V. ; the badly-executed copy of the 
Moses of Michael Angelo is by Prospero Bresciano, who is said to 
have died of vexation on account of his failure; at the sides Aaron 
and Gideon by Giov. Bait, della Porta and Flam. Vacca ; in front four 
modern lions. The Acqua Felice was conducted hither in 1583 from 
Colonna in the Alban Mts., a distance of 13 M., by order of Sixtus 
V. (Felice Peretti); comp. p. 354. 

On the right opens the Piazza delle Terme, see p. 174. To the 
left the Via di 8. Susanna descends to the Via di S. Nicola di 
Tolentino, which leads to the Piazza Barberini (p. 162). 

At the N. angle of the Piazza S. Bernardo stands the church of 
S. Maria della Vittoria (PI. I, 23) , so called from an image of 
the Virgin which is said to have been instrumental in gaining the 
victory for the imperial troops at the battle of the 'White Hill' near 
Prague, afterwards deposited here, but burned in 1833. The church, 
witli the exception of the facade, was erected by C. Maderna. 

In the 2nd Chapel on the right, an altar-piece (Mary giving the Infant 
Christ to St. Francis) and frescoes by Domenichino. In the left transept the 
notorious group of St. Theresa by Bernini (covered ; 5 s.). In the 3rd Chapel on 
the left, the Trinity by Guercino, and a Crucifixion attributed to Guido Reni. 

The imposing new edifice on the right is the government Finance 
Office. — A few minutes before the gate is reached, a street to the 
left diverges to the Porta Salara (p. 164) ; the Via del Maccao to 
the right terminates near the railway-station (p. 175). Farther on, 
to the left , are the Villa Bonaparte , and to the right , the Villa 
Beinach, formerly Torlonia. 

The Porta Pia (PI. I, 27, 30), famous in the annals of 1870, 
was begun by Pius IV. from designs by Michael Angelo in 1564, and 
restored by Pius IX. in 1861-69. On 20th Sept. 1870, the Italians 
directed their bombardment chiefly against this gate, and soon effected 

8. Agnese Fuori. ROME. II. The Hills. 173 

a breach at the side of it, through which they entered the city. 
The damage has since been repaired. On the outside, to the left, a 
memorial tablet, bearing the names of 33 soldiers of the Italian 
aTmy who fell on the occasion , marks the place where the breach 
was made. To the right of the gate is the old Porta Nomentana, 
closed since 1564, which led to Nomentum (p. 356). 

Outside the Gate (comp. map, p. 346) an unimpeded view is 
obtained of the Villa Albani and the Sabine Mts. to the left. To the 
right is the entrance to the Villa Patrizi, with pleasant garden and 
beautiful view (finest from the steps of the small summer-house and 
from the meadow). In the grounds are remains of ancient dwelling- 
houses and a catacomb (Catacomba Nicomedi) with well-preserved 
entrance. Permessi obtained by presenting a -visiting - card at the 
Pal. Patrizi, Piazza S. Luigi de' Francesi, p. 194. — About 1 / i M. 
farther , on the right , is the Villa Torlonia , with pleasant gardens 
and artificial ruins (admission, see p. 116). 

On this road, the ancient Via Nomentana, which commands fine 
views from various points, on the left, l 1 /^ M. from the gate, is — 

* S, Agnese Fuori le Mura, a church founded by Constantine, 
over the tomb of St. Agnes, and still presenting many of the char- 
acteristics of an early Christian basilica. It was re-erected by IIo- 
norius I. in 625-38, altered by Innocent VIII. in 1490, and restored 
by Pius IX. in 1856. The principal festival, on 21st Jan., is the 
'blessing of the lambs' from whose wool the archiepiscopal robes 
are woven. 

We enter by a gateway, where, to the right, is the entrance to the 
residence of the canons, with remnants of old frescoes in the corridor of the 
1st floor, dating from 1454, and including an Annunciation. In the Coukt, 
through a large window to the right, we observe a fresco painted in 
commemoration of an accident which happened to Pius IX. on 15th April, 
1855. The floor of a room adjoining the church, to which his Holiness 
had retired after mass, gave way, and he was precipitated into the cellar 
below, hut was extricated unhurt. On the farther side of the court, on 
the right, is the entrance to the church, to which a Staircase with 45 
marble steps descends. On the walls of the staircase are numerous ancient 
Christian inscriptions from the catacombs. 

The Interior is divided into nave and aisles by 16 antique columns 
of breccia, porta santa, and pavonazzetto, which support arches. Above the 
aisles and along the wall of the entrance are galleries with smaller co- 
lumns. The Tabernacle of 1614, borne by four fine columns of porphyry, 
covers a statue of St. Agnes, in alabaster, a restored antique. In the tribune, 
"Mosaics, representing St. Agnes between Popes Honorius I. and Symmachus, 
dating from the 7th cent., and an ancient episcopal chair. 2nd Ohapel on 
the right: Head of Christ in marble, a mediocre work of the 16th cent.; 
also a beautiful inlaid altar; above it a "Relief of SS. Stephen and Law- 
rence , of 1490. In the left aisle, over the altar of the chapel , a fine old 
fresco, Madonna and Child. — With regard to the Catacombs , to which 
there is an entrance in the left aisle, see p. 343 ; visitors may see them 
without a permesso by applying to the sacristan, from whom lights are 
also obtainable (1 fr.). 

Leaving the covered flight of steps which descend to S. Agnese, 
and descending to the right, we reach — 

S. Costanza (if closed, apply to the custodian of S. Agnese, 

174 II. The Hills. ROME. 8. Marin degli Angeli. 

^2 fr-Jj originally erected as a monument by Constantine to his 
daughter Constantia, but converted into a church in 1256. The 
dome, 70 ft. in diameter, is borne by 24 clustered columns of gra- 
nite. A few fragments only of the vestibule and the wall of the 
central part of the edifice now exist. In the tunnel-vaulting of the 
aisle are *Mosaics of the 4th cent, with genii gathering grapes, in 
the ancient style, but bearing traces of decline. The porphyry sar- 
cophagus of the saint, formerly in one of the niches (now in the Va- 
tican Museum, Sala a Croce Greca, p. 307), is similarly adorned. In 
the niches, Christ as the ruler of the world with SS. Peter and Paul. 
The Ccemeterium Ostrianum, ] /4 M. from this point, see p. 343. 
Beyond it lies the Campagna, see p. 355. 

Proceeding from the Piazza S. Bernardo and the Acqua Felice 
(p. 172) towards the S.E., we pass (left) a deaf-and-dumb asylum, 
and come to the Piazza dellb Termb (PI. I, 25), formerly di Ter- 
mini, named after the Thermae of Diocletian situated here. (Tram- 
way to the Piazza di Venezia, by the Via Nazionale, and to S. Lo- 
renzo Fuori, seep. 112). 

The Thermae of Diocletian, the most extensive in Rome, were 
constructed by Maximian and Diocletian at the besinning of the 4th 
century. The principal building was enclosed by a wall, a mas- 
sive round fragment of which, now intersected by the Via Nazio- 
nale (p. 171), is exposed to view on the S.W. side of the piazza. The 
corners on this side were formed by two circular buildings, one of 
which is now the church of S. Bernardo (p. 172 ), and the other be- 
longs to a prison. The circumference of the baths is said to have 
been about 2000yds., or half as much as that of the Baths of Cara- 
oalla (p. 258), and the number of daily bathers 3000. The front 
faced the E., and the circular part, mentioned above, was at the 
back. Tradition ascribes the execution of the work to condemned 
Christians, in memory of whom a church, no longer existing, was 
erected here as early as the nth century. A proposal to erect a Car- 
thusian monastery among the ruins, which had been abandoned in 
the 1 4th cent. , was revived by Pius IV., who entrusted the task 
to Michael Angela. That master accordingly converted a large vault- 
ed hall into the church of — 

*S. Maria degli Angeli (PI. I, 25), which was consecrated in 
1561. The present transept was then the nave, the principal portal 
was in the narrow end on the right, and the high-altar placed on the 
left. In 1749 Vtinnilelli entirely disfigured the church by converting 
the nave into the transept, blocking up the portal, and other inju- 
dicious alterations. 

A small Rotunda is first entered. The first tomb on the right is that of 
(lie painter Carlo Maratta (d. 1713). In tin; Chapel, Angels of I'eace and 
Juslii-e, by Pelhic/i. The first tomb on Ihe left is that of Salvator Rosa 
fd. 1073). In the Chapel , Christ appearing to Mary Magdalene, an alfar- 
pieee bv' Arriijo Fiamiixjo. 

Wall of Servius. ROME. II. The Hills. 175 

We next enter the great Tkansept. The niche on the right in the passage 
contains a colossal statue of St. Bruno, hy Houtlon; in the chapel on the left, 
the -Delivery of the Keys, an altar-piece by Muziano. The transept (formerly 
the nave) is 100 yds. long, 29 yds. wide, and 90 ft. high. Of the 16 columns, 
each 40 ft. in height, eight are antique, of oriental granite, which were 
barbarously painted by Vanvitelli, and the others were disengaged from 
the brick wall when the church was restored. — Most of the large 
pictures here and in the tribune were brought from St. Peter's, where they 
were replaced by copies in mosaic. In the right half (on the pavement the me- 
ridian of Rome, laid down in 1703) : on the right, Crucifixion of St. Peter by 
Ricciolini; Fall of Simon Magus, after F. Vanni (original in St. Peter's); on 
the left, "St. Jerome among the hermits, Muziano (landscape by Bril); Miracles 
of St. Peter, Baglioni. At the narrow end: chapel of B. Niccolo Albergati. 
In the left half: on the left, Mass of St. Basil with the Emperor Valens, 
Subleyras ; Fall of Simon Magus, Pomp. Battoni; on the right, Immaculate 
Conception, P. Bianchi; Resuscitation of Tabitha, P. Costanzi. At the nar- 
row end : chapel of St. Bruno. 

In the Tribune (one of the monks acts as guide here, '/a f''-) i right, 
Romanelli, Mary's first visit to the Temple; "Domenichino, Martyrdom of St. 
Sebastian (fresco); left, Pomarancio, Death of Ananias and Sapphira; Ma- 
raita , Baptism of Christ. The choir contains two monuments (1. Pius IV., 
r. Ant. Serbelloni), designed by Michael Angelo. 

The Certosa, or Carthusian Monastery, adjoining the church, is 
partly used as barracks. The second court (entrance hy No. 15, 
opposite the great fountain, where a sentinel stands; then turn to 
the left), embellished with 100 columns , was designed by Michael 
Angelo, who is said to have planted the beautiful cypresses in the 
centre. It is now a military depot, and whitewashed, so that it has 
lost much of its former interest. 

Permission to see the interior of the barracks, which are unattractive, 
must be obtained at the commandant's office, Via del Burro 147, 2nd floor. 
The most interesting parts, through which the visitor may ascend to the 
roof of the church for the sake of the view, belong to the monastery, 
and are shown by permission of the prior. 

Opposite the entrance of the church of S. Maria degli Angeli, 
and through the middle of the circular wall of the Thermae , runs 
the Via Nazionale (PI. I, II, 22; tramway, see p. 112), which 
intersects the Via Quattro Fontane, and leads to the Via del Qui- 
rinale, and thence in a curve to the Piazza Venezia (comp. pp. 171, 
158). To the right of the entrance to the Piazza delle Terme rises 
the War Office; on the left is the Hotel du Quirinal; and, farther 
on, the new Protestant Church of St. Paul, with chimes. At Via 
Nazionale 354 is the Galleria Tenerani (Wed., 1-4; at other times 
on payment of a fee), a complete collection of the original models of 
the sculptor P. Tenerani (d. 1869). 

On the E. side of the Piazza delle Terme is the extensive new 
Railway Station (PI. I, 25), constructed by Miriere and Bianchi, 
In front of it rises an imposing fountain, fed by the Aqua Marcia, 
which has been recently restored. 

On the B. side of the station, in consequence of the removal of a hill 
called the 'Monte della Giustizia', the largest and best-preserved part of 
the Wall of Servius (PI. I, 25, 28), which protected the city on this un- 
defended side, has been exposed to view. The wall, which is supported 
by a strong embankment, with its broad moat and numerous towers, 
might until recently be traced as far as the arch of Gallienus (p. 179); 

176 II. The Hills. ROME. S. Pudenziana. 

but the only parts now existing are a fragment in the Piazza Manfredo 
Fanti and another by the so - called Auditorium of Mtecenas on the Via 
Merulana (see p. 183). 

To the right (S.W.) runs the new Via del Viminale, which 
farther on intersects the Via delle Quattro Fontane. 

The tramway to S. Lorenzo Fuori passes the railway-station, and 
then leads to the right through the Via di Porta 8. Lorenzo to the 
gate of that name (p. 180). — Towards the N.E., passing the new 
buildings now springing up in this quarter, we reach (10 min.) the 
Campo di Maccao, or Campo Militate (PI. I, 29, 32 ), the camp of 
the Praetorians of imperial Rome, originally established by Tiberius, 
but destroyed by Constantine so far as it lay without the town-wall, 
from which it projects in a quadrangular form. At the end to the 
left, and on the side, traces of gates are still distinguished ; the wall 
was skirted by a passage , under which are several small chambers. 
The Campo is again devoted to military purposes, parades and reviews 
being held here, and large barracks have been erected. 

From the Quattro Fontane we next proceed to visit (10 min.) 
S. Maria Maggiore. We descend the Quirina) , cross the new Via 
Nazionale (see above), which leads to the Piazza delle Terme, and 
traverse the Viminal, which is here of insignificant height. To the 
left diverges the new Via del Viminale (see above) leading to the 
station. In the valley between the Viminal and Esquiline, in the 
first side-street to the right, is situated — 

S. Pudenziana (PI. II, 25; open till 9 a. m. ; custodian, Via 
Quattro Fontane 81), traditionally the oldest church in Rome, erected 
on the spot where St. Pudens and his daughters Praxedis and Pu- 
dentiana, who entertained St. Peter, are said to have lived. The 
church, the earliest record of which dates from 499, has been fre- 
quently restored ; it was much altered in 1598, and has recently 
been modernised in very bad taste. In the facade, lately adorned 
with mosaics (St. Peter with SS. Pudens and Pudentiana ; on the 
left Pius I., on the right Gregory VII.), is an ancient portal borne 
by columns , which has also been restored. Pleasing campanile of 
the 9th cent. Chief festival on 19th May. 

Interior. The nave and aisles are of unequal length. In the pillars 
are still to be seen the ancient marble columns which originally supported 
the wall. The "Mosaics in the Tribune (4th cent.), Christ with S. Praxedis 
and S. Pudentiana and the Apostles, and above them the emblems of 
the Evangelists on each side of the cross, are among the finest in Home 
(p. xlvi; several of those on the right are modern). The Dome above the 
high-altar was painted by Pomarancio. The Aisles contain remains of an 
ancient mosaic pavement. In the left aisle is the Cappella Gaetani, over 
the altar of which is an Adoration of the Magi, a relief in marble by Oli- 
vieri. At the extremity of this aisle is an altar with relics of the table at 
which Peter is said first to have read mass. Above it Christ and Peter, a 
group in marble by Q. B. della Porta. 

Below the church are ancient vaults in a good style of architecture, 
which the custodian shows if desired. 

We now ascend tliu Esquilinu , with the choir of S. Maria 

S. Maria Mag giore. ROME. II. The Hills. 177 

giore in view all the way. An entirely new quarter of the town 
is springing up here. To the right diverges the Via di S. Maria 
Maggiore, the continuation of the Via Magnanapoli which leads to 
Trajan's Forum (see p. 171). 

In front of the choir of the church, to which a handsome flight 
of steps ascends (two entrances adjoining the tribune) stands one 
of the two Obelisks which formerly rose in front of the mauso- 
leum of Augustus , 48 ft. in height (the other is on the Quirinal, 
p. 168). It was erected here by Sixtus V. in 1587. 

The facade of the church overlooks the Piazza S. Mama Magoio- 
ke, which is embellished with a handsome Column from the basilica 
of Constantine, 16 ft. in circumference, and 46 ft. in height, placed 
here and crowned with a bronze figure of the Virgin by Paul V. 

**S. Maria Maggiore (PI. 11,25), also named Basilica Liberiana, 
or 8. Maria ad Nives, or S. Maria ad Praesepe, from the manger 
which it contains, derives its usual name from its being the largest 
of the eighty churches in Rome dedicated to the Virgin. It is also 
one of the oldest at Rome, and perhaps the oldest in Christendom. 
This is one of the five patriarchal churches (p. 127), and has a spe- 
cial 'jubilee entrance'. The principal festivals are on Christmas 
Day, 5th Aug., and the Assumption (15th Aug.). According to 
a legend which cannot be traced farther back than the 13th cent., 
the Virgin appeared simultaneously to the devout Roman patrician 
Johannes and to Pope Liberius (352-66) in their dreams, com- 
manding them to erect a church to her on the spot where they 
should find a deposit of snow on the following morning (5th Aug.). 
The Basilica Liberiana, which they are said to have built in obe- 
dience to this vision, was re-erected by Sixtus III. (432-40), who 
named the church S. Maria Mater Dei , shortly after the Council of 
Ephesus had sanctioned this appellation of the Virgin (430). Of 
this edifice the nave with its ancient marble columns and mosaics 
is still preserved. In the 12th cent, the church was farther altered 
in the mediaeval style. Eugene III. added a new porch, Nicholas IV. 
a new tribune adorned with mosaics , and Gregory XI. gave the 
campanile its present form and its pointed roof. About the end of 
the 15th cent, began a new period in the history of the church, 
when the irregularities of the mediaeval additions were removed, 
and symmetrical lines were formed by the erection of accessory 
buildings and straight walls. The two large side-chapels, covered 
with domes, were added by Sixtus V. in 1586 and Paul V. in 
1611. The exterior of the tribune was remodelled by Clement X., 
and the final restoration was undertaken by Fuga , by order of 
Benedict XIV. 

The Facade, designed by Fuga in 1743, consists of a porch with 
a loggia above it, opening towards the piazza in five arches. Cor- 
responding with the five archways of the porch are four entrances 
to the church, the last of which on the left, the Porta Santa, is 

Baedekei "' " ~ 12 

1 78 II. The Hilts. ROME. S. Maria Maggiore. 

now built up, and a niche on the right. To the right is a statue 
of Philip IV. of Spain. The loggia (staircase to the left in the 
vestibule ; one of the vergers opens the door), from which the pope 
formerly pronounced his benediction on 15th Aug., contains mo- 
saics from a facade of the 13th cent., restored in 1825. 

Above, in the centre, Christ ; on the left the Virgin, SS. Paul, John, 
and James; on the right SS. Peter, Andrew, Philip, and John the Baptist. 
Below, on the left, the vision of Pope Liberius and the Patrician Jo- 
hannes ; on the right, the meeting of the two, and the tracing of the site 
of the church on the newly-fallen snow. 

The Interior, dating from the pontificate of Sixtns III., 93 yds. long 
and 19 yds. wide, and subsequently enlarged, produces a rich and 
imposing effect. The pavement of the Nave dates from the 12th cent., 
and the handsome ceiling was executed from designs by (Huliano da JS. 
Oallo. The architrave, adorned with mosaic, is supported by 42 Ionic 
columns, 33 in marble and 4 in granite, above which, and on the chancel 
arch, are "Mosaics of the 5th cent., in the ancient style (good light early 
in the morning). Those on the arch represent events from the Life of 
Mary, Annunciation, Infancy of Christ, Slaughter of the Innocents, etc. ; left 
wall, history of Abraham and Jacob; right wall, Moses and Joshua (several 
of the pictures were restored in 1825). In front of the chancel arch is 
the High-Altar, consisting of an ancient sarcophagus of porphyry, said to 
have been the tomb of the Patrician Johannes, and containing the remains 
of St. Matthew and other relics ; the canopy is borne by four columns of 
porphyry. In the apse of the Tkibune are "Mosaics by Jacobus Torrili 
(1292): Coronation of the Virgin, with saints, near whom are Pope Nicho- 
las IV. and Card. Jac. Colonna (comp. p. xlix). 

At the beginning of the nave are the tombs of Nicholas IV. (d. 1292) 
on the left, and Clement IX. (d. 1669) on the right, erected by Sixtus V. and 
Clement X. respectively. Bight Aisle: First chapel: Baptistery with fine 
ancient font of porphyry. Farther on is the Cap. del Crocefisso with 10 co- 
lumns of porphyry, containing Ave boards from the 'Manger of the Infant 
Christ' (whence termed Cappella del Presepe). — In the Right Transept is 
the sumptuous ; 'Sistine Chapel, constructed by Fontana, and of late gor- 
geously restored; in the niche on the left, an altar-piece (St. Jerome) by 
Ribera; on the right, occupying the whole wall, the monument of Sixtus V., 
with a statue of the Pope by Valsoldo ; on the left, monument of Pius V. 
by Leonardo da Sarzana. Over the altar, a canopy in gilded bronze re- 
presents angels bearing the church ; in the 'Confessio' under the staircase, 
a statue of S. Gaetano, by Bernini, and by the altar a relief of the Holy 
Family, by Cecchino da Pietrasanta (1480). — At the end of the right aisle, 
the Gothic monument of Card. Consalvi (Gunsalvus, d. 1299) by Oiov. Cosmas. 

Left Aisle. 1st Chapel (oftheCesi): Martyrdom of St. Catharine, altar- 
piece by Girol. da Sermoneta ; on the right and left two bronze statues to 
the memory of cardinals of the family. 2nd Chapel (of the Pallavicini-Sforza), 
said to have been designed by Mich. Angelo : Assumption of Mary, altar- 
piece by Gir. Sermoneta. — In the Left Transept, opposite the Sistine Chapel, 
is the Bobghese Chapel, constructed by Flaminio Ponzio in 1611, and also 
covered with a dome. Over the altar, which is gorgeously decorated with 
lapis lazuli and agate, an ancient and miraculous picture of the Virgin, 
oainted (almost black) according to tradition by St. Luke , which was car- 
led by Gregory I. as early as 590 in solemn procession through the city, 
and again by the clergy in the war of 1860. The frescoes in the large 
arches are by Guido Reni, Lanfranco, Cigoli, etc. The monuments of the 
Popes (1-) Paul V. (Camillo Borghese, d. 1621) and (r.) Clement VIII. (Aldo- 
brandini, d. 1605) are by pupils of Bernini. The crypt contains tombs of the 
Borghese family. 

To the S.E. of the Piazza S. Maria Maggiore (p. 177) is the church 
of 8. Antonio Abbate, with a portal of the 13th cent. ; interior un- 
interesting. S. Antonio is the tutelary saint of animals, and in 

S. Prassede. ROME. II. The Hills. 179 

front of the church from 17th to 23rd Jan., domestic animals of 
every kind were formerly blessed and sprinkled with holy water. 

In the Via S. Prassede, in the right corner of the piazza, is a 
side-entrance to the church of — 

*S. Prassede (PI. II, 25), erected by Paschalisl. in 822, and dedi- 
cated to St. Praxedis, the daughter of St. Pudens with whom Peter 
lodged at Rome, and the sister of S. Pudentiana. It was restored by 
Nicholas V. about 1450, again in 1832, and finally in 1869. The 
church is generally entered by the side-door. 

Interior. The nave is separated from the aisles by [16 columns of 
granite (six others, bearing arches, having been replaced by pillars). The 
Mosaics (9th cent.) deserve special notice. On the triumphal arch the new 
Jerusalem guarded by angels, Christ in the centre, towards whom the saved 
are hastening; on the arch of the tribune the Lamb, at the sides the seven 
candlesticks and the symbols of the evangelists ; lower down the twenty- 
four elders (interesting as showing the mode in which the art accommo- 
dated itself to the spaces allotted to it; thus, in order to follow the curve 
of the arch, the arms of the foremost elders in the middle and upper rows 
gradually increase in length) ; in the round part of the apse, Christ sur- 
rounded with saints (on the left Paul, Praxedis, and Pope Paschalis with 
the church ; on the right Peter, Pudentiana, and Zeno). On either side 
of the tribune are galleries. — Right Aisle. The 3rd chapel is the Chapel of 
the Column (ladies admitted on the Sundays of Lent only; the sacristan 
opens the door when desired). At the entrance are two columns of black 
granite with ancient entablature. The interior is entirely covered with 
mosaics on gold ground (about the 10th cent.), whence the chapel is some- 
times called Orto del Paradiso. On the vaulting a medallion with head of 
Christ, supported by four angels. Above the altar a Madonna between the 
saints Praxedis and Pudentiana. To the right in a niche , the column at 
which Christ is said to have been scourged. The 4th chapel contains the 
tomb of Card. Cetti (d. 1474). At the extremity of the right aisle the Cap. del 
Crocefisso contains the tomb of a French cardinal (d. 1286). — In the Left 
Aisle by the entrance-wall is a stone-slab, on which St. Praxedis is said to 
have slept. The 2nd Cap. di S. Carlo Borromeo contains a chair and table 
once used by the saint. The 3rd Cap. Agiati contains paintings by the Cav. 
aVArpino. — The marble spout of a fountain in the nave indicates the 
spot where St. Praxedis collected the blood of the martyrs. 

The Confessio (keys kept by the sacristan) contains ancient sarcophagi 
with the bones of the sister saints Praxedis and Pudentiana on the right, 
and those of martyrs on the left. The altar is decorated with fine mosaic 
of the 13th cent. Above it an ancient fresco of the Madonna between the 
sisters. — The Sacristy contains a Scourging by Giulio Romano. 

To the S. and S.E. of the Piazza S. Maria Maggiore run the 
Piazza di S. Antonio Abbate (see above), continued by the Via Carlo 
Alberto, and the Via Merulana (p. 183), two streets now in course of 
construction. Great alterations have been made here. The level of 
the surface has been lowered by 13-16 ft., whereby numerous re- 
mains of ancient walls , fragments of sculptures in marble and 
bronze, sarcophagi, columns, etc., were brought to light. The ruins 
have been partly covered up again, and nothing certain is known of 
their history. 

"We follow the Via Carlo Alberto (PI. II, 25, 28), from which, 
immediately to the right, the Via di S. Vito diverges, passing under 
the Arch of Oallienus. This honorary arch, adjoining the church of 
S. Vito, was erected in 262 in honour of the Emp. Gallienus 'on 


180 II. The Hills. ROME. S. Lorenzo Fuori. 

account of his bravery , surpassed only by his piety' by a certain 
M. Aurelius Victor. The architecture is simple, but in the degraded 
style of the age. 

The Via Carlo Alberto leads to the large and still deserted Piazza 
Vittorio Emanuele. Here, on the left, rises the church of <S. Eusebio, 
re-erected in the last century, with the exception of the campanile. 
The ceiling-painting, the glory of St. Eusebius, is one of the earliest 
works of Raphael Mengs ; the high altar-piece is by Bald. Croce. 
Opposite the church , to the right , are considerable remains of a 
water-tower of the Aqua Julia or Claudia (PI. II , 28) , in the 
niches of which the so-called trophies of Marius , now on the 
balustrade of the Capitol, were formerly placed (p. 212). The ruin, 
called Trofei di Mario, has been partially restored, and is under 
care of a 'guardia degli scavi'. — For the prolongation of the street 
to the Porta Maggiore, see p. 182. 

Following one of the new streets to the left, between S. Eusebio 
and the Trofei di Mario, we reach (^2 M.) the Porta S. Lorenzo 
(PI. II, 31), constructed by Honorius against an arch, over which, 
according to the inscription, passed the three aqueducts Marcia, 
Tepula, and Julia. The arch stands on its original site, while the 
gateway occupies considerably higher ground. The gate derives 
its name from the church near it, and stands on the site of the an- 
cientPorto Tiburtina, which led to Tivoli. The road (Via Tiburtina) 
is bounded by walls, and does not afford views of the Sabine Mts. 
until the church is reached, 3 / 4 M. from the gate. — Tramway from 
the Piazza delle Terme to S. Lorenzo, see p. 112. 

*S. Loreuzo Fuori le Mura (see map, p. 346) occupies the spot 
where Constantine founded a church on the burial-place of St. Law- 
rence and St. Cyriaca. In 578 it was rebuilt by Pelagius II. This 
ancient edifice, which was entered from the E. , was entirely re- 
modelled by Honorius III. (1216-27), who added the present 
nave to the apse, and transferred the facade with the porch to the 
W. end. An angle formed by the outer walls shows where the new 
part was added. Under Nicholas V. and Innocent X., and lastly 
under Pius IX. in 1864-70, the church underwent extensive altera- 
tions, and is now at least partially freed from disfiguring patchwork. 
S. Lorenzo is a patriarchal church, and one of the seven pilgrimage- 
churches of Rome (p. 127). Festival, 10th Aug. 

In the piazza in front of the church is a Column with a bronze 
statue of St. Lawrence. The Facade has been recently embellished 
with paintings resembling mosaic, representing the founders and 
patrons of the church: Pelagius II., the Emp. Constantine, Ho- 
norius III., Pius IX., Sixtus III., and Hadrian I. The vestibule is 
borne by six ancient columns, above which is an architrave with mo- 
saics (St. Lawrence and Honorius III.); it contains retouched frescoes 
of the 13th cent., two tombs in the form of temples, and two rude 
Christian sarcophagi. The door-posts rest on lions. 

8. Lorenzo Fuori. ROME. II. The Hills. 181 

The Interior consists of two parts. The anterior Later Church, which 
chiefly dates from Honorius III., consists of nave and two aisles, separated 
by 22 antique columns of granite and cipolline of unequal thickness. On 
the capital of the 8th column on the right are a frog and a lizard, and 
it is therefore supposed, hut without authority, to have been brought 
from the colonnade of Octavia , where two sculptors Batraohus (frog) 
and Saurus (lizard) are said to have adopted this method of perpetuating 
their names. Above the plain entablature rises a wall recently adorned 
with frescoes by Fraccassini (on the right, history of St. Lawrence; on the 
left, that of St. Stephen), and the gaudily painted open roof. The pavement, 
in opus Alexandrinum, dates from the 12th century. Underamediseval canopy 
to the right of the entranee is an ancient sarcophagus with a representation 
of a wedding, in which in 1256 the remains of Card. Fieschi, nephew of 
Innocent IV., were placed. In the nave are the two elevated ambos, that 
to the "right for the gospel, near which is a wreathed candelabrum for the 
Easter candle, that to the left for the epistle (12th cent.). On the trium- 
phal arch are modern paintings (resembling mosaics) of the Madonna and 
saints. At the extremity of the N. aisle a flight of 12 steps, on the left, 
descends to a chapel and the catacombs. 

Adjoining this building of Honorius on the E. is the Older Church, 
erected by Pelagius, the pavement of which lies 3 ft. lower. The raised 
central space, to which seven steps ascend on each side of the Confessio, 
dates from the time of Honorius, who converted the nave of the older 
church into a choir with a crypt by laying a pavement halfway up the 
columns, and caused the aisles to be filled up. The rubbish has been 
recently removed, and the original level of the aisles exposed to view. 
They are reached by de-cending 14 steps from the prolongation of the aisles 
of the anterior church. The church of Pelagius, a basilica with aisles in 
the style of S. Agnese Fuori (the only two examples of churches with 
galleries at Rome), was originally entered at the opposite (E.) end. 
Twelve magnificent fluted columns of pavonazzetto with Corinthian capitals 
(those of the two first are formed of trophies , on the benches in front of 
them are mediaeval lions) support the ''Entablature, which consists of an- 
tique fragments and bears a gallery with graceful smaller columns. On 
the triumphal arch , of which this is the original front , are restored mo- 
saics of the time of Pelagius II. : Christ, right SS. Peter, Lawrence, and 
Pelagius; left SS. Paul, Stephen, and Hippolytus. The canopy dates from 
1148. The dome is modern. By the wall at the back is the handsome 
episcopal throne. 

The handsome old "Monastery Court (generally closed; apply to one 
of the monks in the church ; no fee) contains numerous fragments of sculp- 
tures and inscriptions built into its walls; in the corner to the right of 
the principal entrance is the lid of a sarcophagus adorned with the trium- 
phal procession of Cybele. 

Adjoining the church is the Campo Verano, an extensive church- 
yard, consecrated in 1837, and much enlarged in 1854 ; the upper 
part commands a beautiful view of the mountains and the Campagna. 
A monument with appropriate inscriptions, erected here in 1870, 
commemorates the Battle of Mentana. In the tufa rock of the hill 
are observed tomb-niches from the catacombs of St. Cyriaca, dis- 
covered when the cemetery was extended in this direction. 

To the S. of the Porta S. Lorenzo, within the city-walls, are 
the church of S. Bibiana and the picturesque Tuined 'Temple of 
Minerva Medica', both conveniently reached by the streets lately 
constructed here. As already stated, great alterations are taking place 
here, and fragments of ancient walls are still frequently discovered. 

S. Bibiana (PL II, 31'), consecrated in 470, was rebuilt for the 

182 II. The Hills. ROME. T. of Minerva Medica. 

last time in 1625 by Bernini. It contains eight antique columns; 
above these are frescoes from the life of the saint , on the Tight by 
Ciampelli , on the left by Pietro da Cortona (modernised). The 
statue of St. Bibiana on the high-altar is by Bernini. To the left 
by the entrance is the stump of a column, at which the saint is said 
to have been scourged to death. 

The so-called Temple of Minerva Medica (PI. II, 32), the ruin 
of an ancient Nymphaeum in the form of a decagon, 55 yds. in cir- 
cumference, with deep niches in the walls, and originally covered 
with marble below and stucco above, must have belonged to some 
splendid bath-establishment, as many ancient statues have been 
found in the vicinity. One of these, the Minerva Giustiniani of the 
Braccio Nuovo in the Vatican (p. 318), has given rise to the other- 
wise unfounded appellation of 'Temple of Minerva'. In the middle 
ages the ruin was called Le Terme di Oalluccio, a name which has 
been conjectured to be a corruption of 'Gaius and Lucius Caesar'. 
The vaulting existed down to 1828. The building, which is archi- 
tecturally interesting, dates from about the 3rd cent, after Christ. 
— In the Vigna between this ruin and the Porta Maggiore, several 
Columbaria were discovered in 1875, the largest being that of the 
Gens Statilia. Their contents have been transferred to the Museo 
Kircheriano (p. 151). 

The Via di Porta Maggiore leads in 20 min. from the church of 
S. Maria to the *Porta Maggiore (PI. II, 35), formed by a monu- 
ment belonging to the Aqua Claudia, above which the Anio Novus 
flowed through a second conduit. The inscriptions record the con-, 
struction of both aqueducts by the Emp. Claudius, A.D. 52, the 
Claudia, 45 M. in length, bringing water from the neighbourhood 
of Subiaco, and the Anio Novus coming from the sources of the river 
of that name, a distance of 62 M. ; and also their restoration by 
Vespasian in 71, and by Titus in 80. Aurelian converted the mon- 
ument into one of the gates of his city-wall; and the Colonnas used 
it in the middle ages as the nucleus of a fortification. The gate 
derives its name either from its imposing dimensions, or from the 
church of that name. It was purged of the later additions by Gre- 
gory XVI., who closed up the N. archway. Two roads diverged 
hence : to the left, through the now closed arch, the Via Labicana, 
and to the right the Via Praenestina. 

Between the two roads, outside the gate, on the removal of the 
fortifications of Honorius, which have been re-erected by the wall 
to the right, was discovered the * Monument of the Baker Eurysaces, 
in the form of an oven, dating from the close of the republic. 

The monument was erected by the baker himself ; and the principal 
inscription , repeated |several times , is to the effect that — 'This is the 
monument of Marcus Vergilius Kurysaces, a public purveyor of bread and 
an official'. Some of the reliefs represent grinding, baking, and other 
parts of his trade, and others refer to his post of purveyor to the city. 

From this point to the Campagna, see pp. 354, 376. 

S. Croce. ROME. II. The Hills. 183 

From the Porta Maggiore a road leads to (5 min.) S. Croce, 
passing under the arch of the Claudian aqueduct, and skirting the 
wall on the inside. From S. Maria Maggiore to this church by the 
Via di S. Croce is a walk of 20 min. 

S. Croce in Gerusalemme (PI. II, 36), one of the seven pil- 
grimage-churches, once named Basilica Sessoriana, because the 
Sessorium, perhaps an ancient court of judicature, once stood here, 
is said to have been erected by St. Helena in honour of the cross 
found by her. As early as 433 a Council met here. The church was 
rebuilt by Lucius II. in 1144, and was modernised under Bene- 
dict XIV. in 1743, by Qregorini, who added the poor facade. 

Interior. The nave was originally borne by 12 antique columns of 
granite, of which 8 only are now visible. An ancient sarcophagus of basalt 
below the high-altar contains the relics of SS. Anastasius and Casarius. 
In the tribune are modernised "Frescoes ascribed to Pinturicchio (according 
to C. & C, by Fiorenzo di Lorenzo), the Finding of the Cross. The church 
contains numerous relics, including the 'Inscription on the Cross'. 

To the left of the tribune a staircase descends to the Crypt, where on 
the left is an altar with a marble relief (Pieta) ; at the sides are statues 
of Peter and Paul of the 12th cent. On the right the chapel of St. Helena 
(to which ladies are admitted on 20th March only). On the vaulting are 
"Mosaics , after Bald. Peruzzi , representing the Four Evangelists. In the 
centre, Christ. In the arch over the entrance, on the left St. Helena, right 
St. Sylvester; over the altar, on the left St. Peter, on the right St. Paul. 
The altar-statue of St. Helena is an exact copy of the Barberini Juno in the 
Sala Rotonda of the Vatican (p. 309), with the exception that a cross has 
been substituted for the sceptre in the right hand, and a nail of the cross 
for the vase in the left. 

The greater part of the old Cistercian monastery formerly belong- 
ing to the church is now used as a barrack. 

Adjacent to S. Croce, in the direction of the Lateran, is the Am- 
phitheatrum Castrense (PI. II, 36), of which only 16 arches of the 
enclosing wall, incorporated with the old city -fortifications, still 
exist. The building itself and the Corinthian capitals and other de- 
corations are of brick. The date of its erection is uncertain. The 
longer diameter of the amphitheatre is 57 yds., the shorter 44 yds., 
and the arena 41 yds. in length. The outside is best seen in the 
course of a walk from the Porta Maggiore to the Porta S. Giovanni 
(from gate to gate 1 M.). In the interior is a kitchen-garden. 

On the other side of S. Croce is an apse with arched windows 
and the beginning of adjoining walls, which are supposed to have 
belonged to a Temple of Venus and Cupid , or a Nymphaeum of 
Alexander Severus, or to the Sessorium mentioned above. 

From S. Croce to the Lateran is a walk of 5 min. (p. 268). 

From S. Maria Maggiore the Via Merulana (PI. II, 26, 29, 30) 
leads to the right to the Lateran (in */ 4 hr. ; p. 268). The first 
cross-street to the right is the Via di S. Prassede (with the church 
of that name, p. 179), which, under different names, leads through 
a well-peopled quarter to the Forum. To the left is the Via di S. 
Vito, in which is situated S. Alfonso de' Liguori, a Gothic church 

184 //. The Hills. ROME. S. Martino ai Monti. 

built by Wigley, an English architect, at the cost of a Mr. Douglas. 
At the end of the street are the church of S. Vito and the Arch of 
Oallienus (see p. 179). 

Halfway between S. Maria Maggiore and the Lateran, and beyond the 
beginning of the Via di S. Pietro in Vincoli mentioned below, a building 
in 'opus reticulatum' has recently been discovered. It is supposed to have 
been an Auditorium belonging to the Gardens of Maecenas which lay 
here. (Permission to see it must be obtained from the Commissione Ar- 
cheologica Comunale, on the Capitol;, by the side-entrance to Aracceli.) 
The oblong chamber, now roofed in, lias a number of steps rising at the 
N. end, like the seats in an amphitheatre. The walls were richly de- 
corated with paintings, which are now rapidly fading. Outside the S. 
wall are seen fragments of the Servian wall (p. 175), conspicuous remains 
of which, particularly on the E. side, flank the Via Leopardi. 

From the Via Merulana diverges the lonely and sometimes unsafe 
Via di S. Pietro in Vincoli to the W., leading to the church of — 

S. Martino ai Monti (PI. II, 26), erected by Symmachus about 
the year 500, adjacent to the Baths of Trajan and an old church of 
Pope Sylvester. It was rebuilt in 844 by Sergius II. and Leo IV., 
and handsomely modernised about 1650. The adjoining Carmelite 
monastery is now used as a barrack. Principal festival, 11th Nov. 

The Interior, a basilica with a roof of straight beams, contains 24 an- 
tique columns. In the S. aisle six -'Frescoes by O. Poussin, from the life of 
Elijah, the patron of the order (marred by restoration). In the N. aisle 
six smaller 'Frescoes. Also two pictures representing the interior of the 
old churches of the Lateran and of St. Peter. — The Pkesbyterium is eleven 
steps higher; below is the Crypt. From the latter we enter a large vault, 
probably once belonging to Thermae, but at an early period converted into a 
church. The vaulting bears traces of ancient painting. This is supposed to 
be the site of Pope Sylvester's church, of the period of Constantine. 

To the E., near S. Martino, diverges the Via delle Sette Sale, 
skirting the vineyards of the Esquiline, and terminating near S. Cle- 
mente (p. 264). On this road, immediately to the right, in theVigna 
No. 10, is the entrance to the so-called Sette Sale (PI. II, 26), con- 
sisting of seven, or rather nine parallel chambers, which appear to 
have been used as reservoirs for the Thermae of Titus. The other 
ruins in the vineyard also belonged to the baths. The celebrated 
group of the Laocoon (p. 312) was found in the vicinity. 

Leaving S. Martino, we next proceed in 5 min. to — 

* S. Pietro in Vincoli (PI. II, 23 ; 151 ft. above the sea-level), 
also named Basilica Eudoxiana after Eudoxia, wife of Valentinian 
III., who founded the church about the year 442, as a receptacle for 
the chains of St. Peter which had been presented by her to Pope 
Leo I. It was restored by Pelagius I. and Hadrian I., the vestibule 
added by Baccio Pontelli(?), and the whole is now modernised. Ad- 
mission before 11 a.m. and after 3 p.m. ; when closed, visitors ring 
at the adjacent door to the left, No. 4 («/ 2 fr.). 

Interior. The nave and aisles are separated by 20 antique Doric 
columns. To the left of the entrance is the monument of the Florentine 
painters Pietro and Antonio Pollajuolo (d. 1498). The fresco above it, 
representing the plague of 080, is attributed to the latter master. The 
Left Aisle, on the left contains the monument of the learned Card. Nico- 
laus Cusanns (from Cues on the Moselle, d. 1465). Above it a relief: Peter 
with keys and chains, on the left the donor (Nic. Cusanus), right an angel. 

8. Pietro in Vincoli. ROME. II. The Hills. 185 

On the 3rd altar to the left a mosaic of the 7th cent, with St. Sebastian. 
— At the end of the Right Aisle is the monument of Pope Julius II. with the 
** Statue of Moses by Michael Angelo, one of his most famous works. The 
monument was originally destined for St. Peter's, and intended to be a most 
imposing work, consisting of upwards of 30 statues. Owing to various ad- 
verse circumstances the portion preserved here was alone completed. (Two 
statues destined for this monument are at the Louvre.) The statues of Moses 
(who is represented by mediaeval Christian artists with horns owing to 
an erroneous translation of Exodus xxxiv. 35), Rachel, and Leah (as 
symbols, on the left of meditative, on the right of active life) alone were 
executed by the great master, and even these were not entirely his ov\ n 
workmanship. The grouping only of the remainder was from his design. 
The figure of the pope (who is not interred here) by Maso del Bosco is a 
failure; the prophet and the sibyl at the side are by Raf. da Monlelupo. — 
To the right of the choir is St. Margaret, an altarpiece by Guercino. — 
The Choir contains an ancient marble seat from a bath, converted into 
an episcopal throne. 

Adjacent to the statue of Moses is the entrance to the Sackisty. A 
cabinet here with * bronze doors (by the Pollajuoli, 1477) contains the chains 
of St. Peter, which are exhibited to the pious on 1st Aug. 

The adjacent monastery of the Canonici Regolari is now the seat 
of the physical and mathematical faculty of the university. The 
handsome old monastery-court, by Giuliano da San Oallo, planted 
with orange trees , is embellished with a fountain by Antonio da 
San Oallo. (Entrance by No. 5, to the right of the church.) — In a 
garden opposite the facade of the church is a handsome palm-tree. 

Proceeding to the left, and then, where the street divides, to the 
left again, we reach the Thermae of Titus (p. 237) in 5 min. — The 
street in a straight direction descends to the Basilica of Constantine 
(p. 233), which is conveniently visited after the church of S. Pietro. 
To the right of S. Pietro in Vincoli is the church of S. Francesco di 
Paola, with a monastery, now the B. Istitulo Tecnico. 

III. Home on the Tiber {Left Bank). 

That part of the city which extends to the W. from the Corso as far 
as the river was uninhabited in the most ancient times (Campus Marlins), 
but was gradually covered with buildings as Rome extended her sway, 
and as far back as the Republic, but more particularly in the reign of 
Augustus, it became the site of many palatial edifices, and the new town 
of ancient Rome. This quarter, which is now densely peopled, and is in 
the main mediaeval in character, consists of a network of narrow and 
dirty streets and lanes, enlivened by the busy traffic of the lower classes, 
and rarely intersected by great thoroughfares. Although the topography 
of these purlieus is sometimes puzzling, and their appearance uninviting, 
they contain many highly interesting churches and palaces, and afford the 
traveller an excellent opportunity of becoming acquainted with mediseval 
Rome, and with the characteristics of its present inhabitants. It is pro- 
posed by the present government to improve this quarter by the construc- 
tion of new and broad streets, but the work has not yet been begun. The 
following description begins with the N. side. 

From the Piazza del Popolo the broad Via di Ripetta (PI. I, 
15, 14), with its prolongation the Via della Scrofa, leads to the S. 
in 16 min. to S. Luigi de' Francesi and the Piazza Navona. On the 
right, 4 min. from the Piazza del Popolo, is a modern building with 
numerous windows, erected by Gregory -XVI., and now containing 

186 IJI. Left Bank. ROME. Mausoleum of Augustus. 

the Direzione Centrale del Lotto, and studios belonging to the Acca- 
demia delle Belle Arti, or di S. Luca (p. 238). The gateway of 
the circular building leads to a quiet quay , planted with trees and 
used by the barges which ascend the river. Pleasing view of the 
opposite bank. 

In the Via de' Pontefici, a cross-street to the left, is the entrance 
(No. 57; on the right) to the Mausoleum of Augustus (PL I, 17), 
erected by that emperor as a burial-place for himself and his family, 
and in which most of his successors down to Nerva were interred. 
On a huge substructure , which contained the mortuary chambers, 
arose a mound of earth in the form of terraces , embellished with 
cypresses, surmounted by a statue of the emperor, and environed 
with a park. In the middle ages it was converted into a fortress by 
the Colonnas; and a small day-theatre, sometimes used as a circus 
(Anftteatro Corea) , is now fitted up within its precincts. A few 
only of the tomb-chambers are still preserved. Fee ^2 fr- 

To the left in the Via di Kipetta we next reach the church of 
S8. Rocco e Martino (PI. I, 14), erected in 1657 by De Eossi, the 
facade with its Corinthian columns having been added in 1834. 
Immediately beyond it, on the right, is the Harbour of the Bipetta, 
constructed by Clement XI. in 1707, from which the Ponte Nuovo, 
completed in 1880, crosses to the Prati di Castello, or meadows lying 
beyond the Castle of S. Angelo (toll 5 c. ; Osterie, see p. 106). On 
the left, S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni (PI. I, 14), a small church. 

A little farther on, the street takes the name of Via dblla 
Scrofa (PI. I, 3 ; II, 3), whioh it retains as far as the Piazza of 
S. Luigi de' Francesi (see p. 191 et seq.). 

The Via della Scrofa is soon intersected (about 9 min. from 
the Piazza del Popolo) by an important street, which leads from the 
Corso, opposite the Via Condotti, to the Ponte S. Angelo under dif- 
ferent names , and forms the direct route between the strangers' 
quarter (Piazza di Spagna) and the Vatican. The church of S. Tri- 
nita de' Monti (p. 142) is visible the greater part of the way, forming 
the termination of the street. From the Corso to the Piazza Borg- 
hese (PI. I, 16; 4 min.) this street is called Via dblla Fontanella 
di Borghesb ; thence to the Via della Scrofa, Via del Clementino, 
in which are back-buildings of the Palazzo di Firenze, formerly the 
residence of the Tuscan ambassador, now that of the Minister of 
Justice. — In the Piazza Borghese rises the celebrated — 

* Palazzo Borghese, begun by order of Card. Dezza in 1590 
by the architect Mart. Lunghi the Elder, and completed by Fla- 
minio Ponzio by order of Paul V. , through whom it came into 
the possession of the Borghese family. The principal facade 
(with respect to the construction of the court) towards the street 
bears the inscription : Bonitatem et disciplinam et scientiam doce- 
m(us); the more imposing lateral facade is towards the Piazza 

Palazzo Borghese. ROME. III. Left Bank. 187 

Borghese. On the ground-floor and first floor the *Coub,t is surrounded 
by arcades resting on clustered granite columns. Below these are 
three ancient colossal statues (a Muse, an Apollo Musagetes, and 
a portrait-statue) ; and at the end of the right passage a fragment 
of the statue of an Amazon. In the centre of the left side of the 
arcades is the entrance to the **(xalleria Borghese (admission, see 
p. 115; catalogues for the use of visitors), the most important in 
Rome next to that of the Vatican. It embraces a longer period, 
and contains more master-pieces , than the other private galleries. 
The fifteenth century is of course rather poorly represented, as the 
gallery was founded at a time when the works of that period were 
not generally appreciated ; but it possesses some excellent works 
of the close of that century, such as the Madonna with the vase by 
Lorenzo di Credi (I. Room, No. 2), and the Holy Family (I. Room, 
No. 54), of doubtful authorship. — The Milanese School of 
Leonardo is largely represented (I. Room), but the authenticity 
of most of the pictures is questionable. The best are the Christ 
imparting his blessing, a small work by Marco d'Oggiono (I. Room, 
No. 33), and Christ bearing his Cross, by Solario (III. Room, No. 1). 
— Among the earlier masters of the Upper Italian School, Franc. 
Francia is highly esteemed, and his St. Stephen, a half-figure in 
the red robe of a deacon (II, 51), affords ^abundant proof that he 
has not been overrated. 

Among the works ascribed to Raphael the Entombment (II. 
Room, No. 38) alone is authentic. The picture is not well pre- 
served, and is perhaps not entirely by Raphael's own hand. The 
impression produced by it is disappointing, the composition seems 
too studied, and the colouring cold. The predelle belonging to it 
are in the Vatican Gallery (p. 304). The Fornarina (II. Room, 
No. 65), the Madonna d'Alba (II, 39), Pope Julius II. (II, 18), 
and the Madonna col divino amore (II, 24) are copies ; the un- 
known Cardinal (II, 21) is by a somewhat later Florentine master, 
who for the colouring of the gown has used a different kind of red 
from Raphael. It is quite as improbable that the so-called Portrait 
of Cesare Borgia (II, 26) was executed by Raphael. Cesare Borgia 
died in 1507, whereas the costume of the portrait is in the style 
of the middle of that century. The painter of this unknown per- 
sonage was perhaps Angelo Bronzino. The IX. Room contains 
several Frescoes transferred hither from the Villa of Raphael, and 
ascribed to that master ; but they are unlike his workmanship, both 
in composition and execution. 

The School op Ferraea of the 16th cent, is copiously and 
well represented. A fine example of Mazzolino's richness of colour- 
ing is his Adoration of the Magi (II, 59). Dosso Dossi's Circe 
(III, 11). conducts us into a world of fancy, similar to that depicted 
by Ariosto in his Orlando. Lastly there are several excellent works 
by Qarofalo, the Raphael of Ferrara (II, 9 : Descent from the Cross). 

188 ///. Left Bank. ROME. Palazzo Sorghese. 

The Colourists of the XVI. Cent, will not fail to attract the 
visitor. To Sodoma the gallery is indebted for a Pieta (I, 7) and 
a Holy Family (II, 44), in which the head of the Madonna is radiant 
with beauty. At a comparatively recent period (1824) an important 
work by Correggio was secured for the gallery. It represents Danae 
with Cupids sharpening their arrows (III, 40). The figure of Danae 
is rather graceful than strictly beautiful, but the Cupids are very 
charming, and the chiaroscuro masterly. — A whole room is de- 
voted to the Venetian School. Titian's so-called Earthly and 
Heavenly Love (X, 21) is one of those creations which produces 
an indelible impression on the beholder. The picture rivets the 
attention like a poetical dream, and after the eye has feasted on the 
chaTms of the colouring the composition still captivates the imagi- 
nation. The Arming of Cupid (X, 2) is one of the finest mytho- 
logical works by the same master. Bonifazio is another master who 
supplies us with examples of the richness of colouring of the Ve- 
netian School (XI, 16, being the finest). Giorgione , on the other 
hand, is not fairly represented by the only specimen of his handi- 
work which the gallery possesses (X, 13). 

As it is generally the case in the Roman galleries, the painters 
of the later revival of art, the adherents of the Carracei and the 
Naturalists, figure very numerously here. Domenichino' s Diana 
(IV, 15) contains a number of nymphs with life-like heads, and 
an excellent background of landscape ; Albani's Seasons are superb 
decorative pictures ; and the half-figures of Guercino are above the 
average of his compositions. On the other hand, the works of 
Caravaggio, the chief of the naturalists (V, 26), are repulsive. The 
pictures by German and Netherlandish masters in the XII. Room 
are unimportant. — The apartments are artistically decorated. 

I. Room. *Decorations in grisaille and gold, by Carlo Villani. 
Left: *1. Sandro Botticelli, Madonna; *2. Lorenzo di Credi, Ma- 
donna ; 7. Sodoma, Pieta, unfortunately darkened by age ; 8. Luini 
(a copy), Vanita; *17. Solario (?), EcceHomo; 26. School of Leo- 
nardo, Madonna; 27, 28. Laura and Petrarch (portraits) ; 30. Peru- 
gino (?), Ecce Homo ; 32. Luini (a copy), St. Agatha ; *33. Marco 
da Oggiono, Youthful Christ ; 34. Perugino, Madonna (a copy) ; 
*35. Kidolfo Ghirlandajo (according to Passavant, by Timoteo della 
Vite~), Portrait of a boy, erroneously called a portrait of Raphael; 
43. Ft. Francia (?), Madonna ; 45. After Raphael , St. Catherine ; 
48. Perugino, St. Sebastian; 49, 57. Pinturicchio, Cabinet-pictures 
of the kind which used to be in vogue at Florence for the decoration 
of wedding cabinets, etc. ; *54. Lorenzo di Credi (?), Holy Family, 
a work of the highest rank ; *56. Leonardo, Leda and the swan, an 
excellent copy of the celebrated picture; 61. Fr. Francia (?), St. 
Antony; *65. School of Leonardo, Madonna; 67. Ortolano. Adora- 
tion of the Child; *69. Pollajuolo, Holy Family. 

II. Room. 4. Portrait, copy from Perugino ; 16. Qarofalo, Ma- 

Palazzo Borghese. ROME. III. Left Bank. 189 

donna with St. Joseph and St. Michael; 7. Fr. Franc in, Madonna 
■with two saints ; *9. Oarofalo, Christ mourned over by his friends ; 
*18. Raphael, Portrait of Julius II., an admirable copy ; *21. Ra- 
phael (?), Portrait of a cardinal ; *24. Raphael , Madonna with the 
young St. John, St. Joseph and St. Elizabeth (Madonna col divino 
amore, original at Naples) ; *26. Raphael (?), Portrait of Cjesar 
Borgia (?); 30. (?) Portrait of a woman; 35. Andrea del Sarto, 
Madonna; *38. Raphael, Entombment (1507), his last work before 
going to Rome, ordered by Atalanta Baglioni for her chapel in S. 
Francesco de' Conventuali at Perugia (p. 53), afterwards purchased 
by Paul V. ; 39. Raphael], Madonna di Casa d'Alba, an old copy ; 
40. Fra Bartolommeo , Holy Family ; 43. Fr. Francia , Madonna ; 
*44. Sodoma, Madonna; *51. Fr. Francia, St. Stephen; 59. Maz- 
zolino, Adoration of the Magi ; *65. Portrait of the so-called Forna- 
rina, a good copy of Raphael's original in the Pal. Barberini (p. 168), 
perhaps by Sassoferrato ; 69. After Raphael, John in the wilderness. 

III. Room. 1. Andrea Solario, Christ bearing the Cross; *2.P<xr- 
meggianino , Portrait; 5. Aless. Alori , Christ risen; *11. Dosso 
Dossi, The Sorceress Circe (?); 13. Solario (?), Mater Dolorosa; 
14. Sofonisba Anguissola, Portrait of a woman; 15. Scarsellino, 
Madonna; 19. Angelo Bronzino , Cleopatra; 22. Sch. of Raphael, 
Holy Family ; 21. Andrea del Sarto, Madonna with angels ; *28. Ma- 
donna with the Child and St. John , by the same ; 35. Andr. del 
Sarto (?), Venus with two Cupids ; 37. Portrait, unknown ; *40. Cor- 
reggio , Danae, one of his finest easel-pieces; 42. Bronzino (?), 
Portrait of Cosimo de' Medici ; 46. Mary Magdalene, after Correggio's 
original at Dresden ; 47. Pomarancio, Holy Family ; *48. Sebast. 
del Piombo , Scourging of Christ (the same piece is in S. Pietro in 
Montorio as a fresco, p. 330) ; 49. And. del Sarto, Mary Magdalene. 

IV. Room. 1. Ann. Carracci , Entombment; *2. Domenichino. 
Cumaean Sibyl; 4. Lod. Carracci, Head; 10. Cav. d'Arpino, Rape 
of Europa; 14. Sch. of the Carracci, Entombment; *15. Guido Cag- 
nacci, Sibyl; 18. Cigoli, St. Francis; 20. Guido Reni, St. Joseph; 
29. Ann. Carracci, St. Dominicus ; 33. Luca Giordano, Martyrdom 
of St. Ignatius; 36. Carlo Dolci, Madonna; 37. Mater Dolorosa, by 
the same; 38, 41. Furino , Annunciation; 39. Ribera, Neptune; 
40. St. Jerome, by the same; 42. Carlo Dolci, Head of Christ ; 
43. Sassoferrato, Madonna. 

V. Room. *11, 12, 13, 14. Francesco Alb ani, the Four Seasons, 
landscapes with mythological accessories; *15. Domenichino, 
Diana and her Nymphs practising with their bows; 21. Francesco 
Mola, Liberation of Peter; 22. Psyche borne aloft by Cupids, copy 
from a picture in the Farnesina ; 25. Fed. Zuccaro, Christ bewailed 
by angels; 26. Caravaggio, Madonna with St. Anna and the Child 
Jesus ; 27. Varotari (il Padovanino), Venus ; 28. Cav. d'Arpino, 
Battle; 29. Sch. of Poussin, Landscape. 

VI. Room. 1. Guercino, Mater Dolorosa; 2. Female half-figure, 

1 90 ///. Left Bank. ROME. Palazzo Borghese. 

by the same ; *3. Andrea Sacchi , Portrait of Orazio Giustiniani ; 
5. Guercino, Return of the Prodigal ; 7. Pietro da Cortona, Portrait 
ofGius. Ghislieri; 10. Ribera, St. Stanislaus with the Child Jesus ; 
12. Valentin, Joseph interpreting the dreams in prison ; *13. Titian, 
Three periods of life, a copy by Sassoferrato (original in London) ; 
16, 17. Franc. Orimaldi, Landscapes; 18. Sassoferrato, Madonna; 
22. Baroccio , Flight of ^Eneas from Troy; 24, 25. Landscapes in 
the style of Poussin. 

VII. Room. The lower part of the wall is chiefly adorned with 
mirrors, on which Cupids (by Ciroferri) and wreaths of flowers (by 
Mario de' Fiori) aTe painted. Above, in small niches , are 16 an- 
cient portrait-busts, some of them freely restored. In the centre is 
a table of irregular mosaic composed of stones of every variety, some 
of them extremely rare. 

VIII. Room , containing a number of small objects of art and 
curiosities. Entrance-wall : 96. Bril (?), Orpheus with the animals 
in a landscape; *90. Female head, a drawing of the School of Leo- 
nardo. By the window-wall and the wall of the egress are twelve 
small antique bronzes. 38. Franc. Viola, Landscape. Wall op- 
posite the window: 86. Marcello Provenzali, Mater Dolorosa; 
4. Oiulio Clodio, Madonna; 91. Vanni, The Graces; *88. View of 
the Villa Borghese in the 17th cent. The egress affords a view of the 
banks of the Tiber beyond the fountain below. — To the left a pas- 
sage adorned with landscape-frescoes leads to the — 

IX. Room , where several frescoes removed from their original 
situations are collected. The most important are three *Frescoes 
(under glass) from the so-called Villa of Raphael, which formerly 
stood within the grounds of the Villa Borghese, and was removed 
in 1849 (p. 160): 1. Marriage of Alexander and Roxane, from a 
drawing in the Albertina in Vienna , which bears the name of Ra- 
phael , but shows close resemblance to the composition of Sodoma 
in the Farnesina ; 2. Nuptials of Vertumnus and Pomona , of in- 
ferior value; 3. The so-called 'Bersaglio de' Dei' (shooting contest 
of the gods), from a drawing in the Brera at Milan bearing the name 
of Mich. Angelo ; this obscure composition is perhaps borrowed from 
Lucian (Nigrinus, C. 36). These three were probably executed by 
Raphael's pupils. Some of the other paintings are from the Villa 
Lante. The balcony reached from this room affords a pleasing view 
of the Tiber and its banks as far as Monte Mario. — Returning to 
the mirror-room , and leaving it by the door to the left in the op- 
posite wall, we enter the — 

X. Room. Opposite the entrance : 1. Moroni, Portrait; *2. Ti- 
tian, Cupid equipped by Venus ; 4. Sch. of Titian, or Oiorgione, 
Judith, said to have the features of Titian's wife; 6. Sch. of Fer- 
rara, Cupid and Psyche; *9. Pordenone (according to Crowe, by 
Lor. Lotto'), Portrait; 13. Oiorgione (or school of Ferrara?), David 
with the head of Goliath; 14. Paolo Veronese, John the Baptist 

Palazzo Galizin. ROME. III. Left Bank. 191 

preaching repentance; 16. Titian, St. Dominicus; 19. Qiac. Bas- 
sano, Portrait; **21. Titian, 'Amor sagro e profano' (earthly and 
heavenly love), one of his greatest works ; 22. Leonello Spada, 
Concert ; 34. Sch. of Ferrara, SS. Cosmas and Damianus ; 30. Ve- 
netian School, Family scene, probably the Nativity of the Virgin ; 
*36. Bellini (?), Madonna, an early work. 

XI. Room. *1. Lor. Lotto , Madonna with SS. Onophrius 'and 
Augustine, the St. Onophrius being copied from Diirer, as the vis- 
itor may satisfy himself by comparing it with Diirer's picture in 
the Palazzo Barberini (1518) ; 2. Paolo Veronese (?), St. Antony 
about to preach to the fishes ; 3. Titian (?), Madonna ; 9. Moroni, 
Portrait; 11. Luc. Cambiaso, Venus and Cupid on dolphins (un- 
finished) ; 14. Andr. Schiavone, Last Supper; 15. Bonifazio, Christ 
among his disciples and the sons of Zebedee with their mother; 
*16. Bonifazio, Return of the Prodigal; 17. Titian, Samson; 
18. Bonifazio , Christ and the adulteress ; 19. Palma Vecchio (?), 
Madonna with saints, etc. ; 20. Paolo Veronese, Venus and Cupid; 
24. Schidone, Madonna; 25. Titian (a copy), Portrait of himself; 
*27. Giov. Bellini (or Antonello da Messina?), Portrait; 28. Un- 
known master, Head of John the Baptist; 31. Giov. Bellini, Ma- 
donna and St. Peter ; *32. Palma Vecchio, Holy Family ; 33. Ber- 
nardino Licinio da Pordenone, Family-portrait; 39. Giov. Bellini, 
Portrait of a woman. 

XII. Room. Dutch and German masters. 1. Van Dyck (?), 
Crucifixion ; *7. Entombment, by the same ; 8. D. Teniers, Genre 
picture; 9. A. Brouwer, Genre picture; 15. Brabant Sch., Mary's 
visit to Elizabeth; 19. Diirer (?) , Portrait (said to be of Duke 
Louis VI. of Bavaria); 20. Holbein, Portrait; 21. Wouverman (?), 
Landscape and accessories ; 22. Potter (?), Cattle-piece ; 23. Back- 
huyzen , Quay; 26. Crossing the ice, in different shades of brown, 
perhaps by Berchem ; 54. Holbein (?), Portrait; 27. Van Dyck (?), 
Portrait; *35. Perugino (not Holbein), Portrait of himself ; 37. Dii- 
rer, Portrait of Pirkheimer (?) ; 41. Gherardo delle Notti , Lot and 
his daughters ; 44. Lucas Cranach, Venus and Cupid. — In a small 
cabinet (which the custodian opens if desired) are a number of 
less important Italian pictures of the 14th and 15th centuries. 

Returning from the Piazza Borghese to the Via della Scrofa, we 
follow the transverse street mentioned at p. 186 towards the E., 
to the Ponte S. Angelo (10 min.). This street, which is separated 
from the river by a single row of houses only, frequently changes 
its name. We first cross the Piazza Nicosia (PI. I, 13), where, in 
the corner to the left, is the recently erected Pal. Galizin (PI. I, 
13, 13), built partly on the plan of the Pal. Giraud near St. Pe- 
ter's (p. 279). Farther on, in the Via della Tinta, on the left, 
is the small church of S. Lucia (PI. 11), mentioned as early as 
the 9th century. In the Via di Monte Brianzo there are no build- 

192 III. Left Bank. ROME. S. Agostino. 

ings worthy of note. The side-streets diverging from it, however, 
contain several interesting Renaissance palaces. Thus in the Via 
dell' Orso, the Albergo deW Orso ; in the Via del Soldato, the 
Pal. Sacripante (PI. I, 13, 5), built by B. Ammanati; opposite 
to it (PI. I, 13, 6) the Pal. Altemps (p. 1931; on the house Via 
Maschera d'Oro No. 7, is a frieze with paintings from the myth of 
Niobe by Pol. Caravaggio, much damaged. — A few paces beyond 
the last is the — 

Pal. Lancelotti (PI. I, 13, 7), erected under Sixtus V. by 
F. da Volterra, and completed by C. Maderna. The portal was 
designed by Domeniehino . The court contains ancient statues and 

In the private apartments of Prince Lancelotti, shown by special per- 
mission only, stands the celebrated statue of the "-Discus Thrower, found 
on the Esquiline in 1761, and formerly in the Pal. Massimi (p. 201). It is 
a copy of the bronze statue by Huron, and is one of the most interesting 
antiques in Rome, being almost perfect, and far better executed than the 
inaccurately restored replica in the Vatican (p. 308). 

The Via di Tordinone , or Tor di Nona , is named after a 
prison-tower once situated here. To the left the Vicolo de' Marche- 
giani diverges to the church of S. Salvatore in Lauro, erected by 
TJrsini in 1450 , and remodelled by Pius IX. in 1862 , with an 
adjacent monastery-court. At the end of the Via Tordinone, on the 
right, is the Teatro Apollo (p. 110), restored by Valadier in 1830. 

The street terminates in the Piazza di Pontb S. Angelo, 
whence three others diverge. The first, the Via in Panico, leads 
with its prolongations to the Piazza Navona (p. 198); the Via del 
Banco di S. Spirito in the centre to the Piazza Farnese (p. 203) ; 
and the Via Paola to the Chain-bridge and to the Via Giulia (p. 205) 
which runs parallel with the Tiber. This was formerly the public 
place of execution, which has been removed to the neighbourhood 
of the Ponte Rotto. — By the Ponte 8. Angelo to the Church of St. 
Peter and the Vatican, see p. 278. 

If we follow the Via della Scrofa (p. 186), passing the Pal. 
Galizin on the right, the fourth transverse street on the right (at 
the left corner of which, Via della Scrofa 70. is the palace of the 
general-vicar, where permessi for the catacombs are obtained, 11- 
12 a.m.) leads us to the Piazza di S. Agostino. 

*S. Agostino (PI. I, 13), erected by Baccio Pontelli{1) in 1483 
by order of Card. d'Estouteville, the protector of the Augustinians, 
on the site of an old oratorium, was the first Roman church with 
a dome. The facade and the spacious flight of steps are said to have 
been constructed of stones from the Colosseum. The interior, in 
the form of a Latin cross, was restored in 1750 , and again in 
1860, when it was adorned with frescoes by Oagliardi. 

Interior. On the entrance - wall a 'Madonna and Child, in marble, 
by Jacopo Tatti, surnamed Jac. Samovino after his master Andrea Sanso- 
yino, surrounded by numerous votive offerings. In the 1st Chapel on the 

S. Luigi de' Francesi. ROME. III. Left Bank. 193 

right, St. Catharine by Venusii; in the 2nd, Nucci's free copy of the lost 
Madonna della Rosa of Raphael; in the 4th, * Christ delivering the keys to 
Peter, a group by Cotignola. By the 5th Chapel is the monument (the second 
to the left) of the learned Onofrio Panvinio (d. 1568). Adjoining the door 
of the sacristy is the monument of the learned Cardinal Noris. — The 
Eight Transept contains the chapel of St. Augustine with an altar-piece 
by Guercino: St. Augustine between John the Baptist and Paul the Hermit. 

The High Altae was decorated by Bernini; the image of the Madonna is 
said to have been painted by St. Luke, and brought from the church of St. 
Sophia at Constantinople. In the chapel on the left of this are preserved 
the remains of St. Monica, mother of Augustine; altar-piece by Ootlardi. 

The 2nd Chapel in the Left Aisle contains a 'Group in marble (St. Anna, 
Mary, and Jesus) by Andrea Sansovino (1512). In the 4th , St. Apollonia, 
altar-piece by Muziano. In the Nave, on the 3rd pillar to the left, "Raphael's 
Prophet Isaiah, holding a scroll with the words from Is. xxvi, 2, painted 
in 1512, but unfortunately retouched by Dan. da Volterra, and now much 
injured. In the execution of this work the great master is said to have 
been influenced by that of M. Angelo in the Sistine Chapel. 

The neighbouring monastery, now occupied by the Minister of 
the Marine, contains the Biblioteca Angelica (entrance on the right 
of the church), consisting of 150,000 vols, and 2945 MSS., of which 
complete catalogues have been formed. Admission, see p. 108. 

Proceeding from the Piazza S. Agostino straight through the 
archway, we reach the Piazza S. Apollinare, cross the Piazza Tor 
Sanguigna, and pass through the narrow Via de' Coronari to the 
Via in Panico and the Ponte S. Angelo (8min.). This is the shortest 
way from the Piazza Colonna (p. 147) to the Vatican. 

In the Piazza S. Ai>ollina:re (PI. I, 13) are situated the 
Seminario Romano, a kind of grammar-school, and S. Apollinare, 
an old church, rebuilt in 1552 and 1750, and owing its present 
form to Fuga. To the left, over the altar in the inner vestibule, is 
a Madonna by Perugino (?). — Opposite the church is the Pal. 
Altemps, of the 16th cent. , completed by the elder Lunghi, pos- 
sessing a handsome double court with arcades, the lateral colonnades 
of which are built up, and containing a few ancient statues. 

From the Piazza S. Apollinare the Via Agonale leads to the S. 
to the Piazza Navona (p. 198); and from Tor Sanguigna, S. Maria 
dell' Anima (p. 198) and della Pace (p. 199) are reached to the left. 

In the direction of the Ponte S. Angelo the Pal. Lancelotti 
(p. 192) lies on the right (3 min.); a little farther on is the side- 
entrance to S. Salvatore in Lauro (p. 192). 

The Via della Scrofa leads to the small , but busy Piazza di 
S. Luigi de' Francesi, to the right in which rises S. Luigi de' 
Francesi (PL II, 13), the national church of the French, con- 
secrated in 1589, having been built on the site of several earlier 
churches. Facade by Oiac. della Porta. It is one of the best build- 
ings of its period, and the interior also is judiciously decorated. 
Some of the pictures are badly lighted. 

Right Aisle. 1st Chapel: St. John, altar-piece by G. B. Naldini. On the 
opposite pillar is a monument to French soldiers who fell at the siege of 
Rome in 1849. 2nd Chapel : "Frescoes from the life of St. Cecilia, one of 
the most admirable works of Domenichino ; on the right the saint distributes 
clothing to the poor ; in the lunette above, she and her betrothed are crowned 

Baedeker. Italy II. 7th Edition. 13 

194 777. Left Bank. ROME. Pantheon. 

by an angel ; on the left the saint suffers martyrdom with the blessing ol 
the Pope ; above, she is urged to participate in a heathen sacrifice; on the 
ceiling, admission of the saint into heaven; altar-piece, a copy of Raphael's 
St. Cecilia (in Bologna) by Guido Rent. 4th Chapel, of St. Eemigius : altar- 
piece , the Oath of Clovis , by Oiac. del Conte ; frescoes on the right , Cam- 
paign of Clovis, by Girolamo Sicciolante (da Sermoneta); on the left, Bap- 
tism of Clovis, by Pellegriiio da Bologna. 5th Chapel, del Crocifisso : on the 
left the monument of the painter Guerin , on the right that of Agincourt 
(d. 1814), the writer on art. — Over the high-altar: "Assumption of Mary, 
by Franc. Bassano. 

Left Aisle. 1st Chapel: St. Sebastian, altar-piece by Massei; on the right 
and left modern frescoes ; by the first pillar on the right the monument of 
Claude Lorrain, erected in 1836. 3rd Chapel, of St. Louis: altar-piece by 
Plaulilla Bricci, who is said to have designed the architecture also ; picture 
on the left by Gimignani. 5th Chapel, of St. Matthew : altar-piece and pic- 
tures on the right and left by Caravaggio , on the left the evangelist's 
vocation to the apostleship, on the right his death. 

Opposite the church is the Palazzo Patrizi (PL II, 13), where 
permessi for the Villa Patrizi (p. 173) are obtained. Adjoining the 
church is a lateral facade of the Pal. Madama (p. 198). 

Opposite the Pal. Madama is the Palazzo Oiustiniani (PL II, 13), 
erected by Giov. Fontana, which once contained valuable collections. 
There are now only a few antiques in the court and passages. 

"We next reach the small Piazza S. Eustachio; to the right, 
opposite the Pal. Maccarini, which was designed by Giul. Romano, 
is the back of the — 

University della Sapieuza (PL II, 13, 25 ; entrance Via della 
Sapienza71), founded in 1303 by Boniface VIII., and after a rapid 
decline re-established by Eugene IV. It attained its greatest pros- 
perity under Leo X., and under Leo XII. and Gregory XVI. possessed 
five faculties, but there are now four only (law, medicine, physical 
science, and philology). It contains several natural history collec- 
tions and the Biblioteca Alessandrina, a library of 90,000 vols., 
which is open daily ( p. 108). The present building was designed 
by Oiac. della Porta. The church (S. Ivo), with its grotesque spiral 
tower, was designed by Borromini in the form of a bee, in honour 
of Urban VIII., in whose armorial bearings that insect figures. 

Turning to the left, or following one of the two preceding cross- 
lanes, we reach the Piazza della Rotonda (PL II, 16). Above the 
large Fountain erected by Lunghi under Gregory XIII., was placed 
the upper end of a broken obelisk by order of Clement XI. This 
piazza generally presents a busy scene (comp. p. 115). 

On the S. side of the piazza rises the church of S. Maria Rotonda, 
or the **Pantheon, the only ancient edifice at Rome which is still 
in perfect preservation as regards the walls and the vaulting. 
The original statues and architectural decorations have long since 
been replaced by modern and inferior works, but the huge circular 
structure with its vast colonnade still presents a strikingly imposing 
appearance. The walls , constructed of admirable brickwork, 20 ft. 
in thickness, were originally covered with marble and stucco. The 
ground in the environs has gradually been so much raised that the 

Pantheon. ROME. HI. Left Bank. 195 

pavement of the temple, to which five steps formerly ascended, now 
lies below the level of the piazza. Excavations recently made in 
front of the edifice , which led to the discovery of the two fine 
marble reliefs now in the vestibule, have been filled up again as 
they interfered with the street traffic. 

The Pobtico (36 yds. wide, 14 yds. deep) is borne by 16 
Corinthian columns of granite , 13 ft. in circumference , and 39 
ft. in height; the tympanum formerly contained reliefs, and the 
Toof was embellished .by statues. Eight of the columns are in front; 
the others form three colonnades, originally vaulted over, termi- 
nating in niches, in which stood the colossal statues of Augustus and 
his son-in-law M. Agrippa. The latter, according to the inscription 
on the frieze (M. Agrippa L. F. Cos. tertium fecit) , caused the edi- 
fice to be erected B.C. 27. — The central colonnade leads to the 
Entrance, with its ancient door strongly secured by bronze plates, 
in order to diminish the weight of which the upper portion is re- 
placed by a railing. 

The Intekiob, lighted by a single aperture in the centre of the 
dome, produces so beautiful an effect that it was currently believed 
at an early period that the temple derived the name of Pantheon, 
which was applied to it as early as A. D. 59, from its resemblance 
to the vault of heaven. The height and diameter of the dome are 
equal, being each 140 ft. The surface of the walls is broken by 
seven large niches, in which stood the statues of the gods, including, 
as has been ascertained, those of Mars, Venus, and Caesar. The 
architrave is borne by fluted columns of giallo antico or pavonazzetto 
in couples, the shafts being 26 ft. in height. Above the latter, and 
corresponding with the niches, formerly rose a series of round arches, 
borne by Caryatides, but they appear to have been removed during 
a very early restoration of the edifice. The coffered ceiling of the 
vault, which consists of concrete, was decorated with gold-leaf, and 
the whole roof was covered with gilded bronze tiles, which the Emp. 
Constans II. caused to be removed to Constantinople in 655. Under 
Gregory III. these tiles were replaced by lead. The building has 
frequently been restored, as, for example, by Domitian, Trajan, 
Septimius Severus, and Caracalla. The names of the last two are 
recorded by an inscription on the architrave of the portico. 

In 609 the Pantheon was consecrated by Pope Boniface IV. as a 
Christian church, under the name of S. Maria ad Martyres (p. 338), 
and in commemoration of the event the festival of All Saints was 
instituted (13th May, but afterwards celebrated on 1st Nov.). A 
palace , a cathedral-chapter , and a cardinal's title were afterwards 
attached to the church, which is generally known as S. Maria 
Botonda, or La Rotonda. Under Urban VIII. (Barberini) the two 
campanili were erected by Bernini, the 'ass's ears', as they have 
been derisively named. The same pope removed from the portico 
the brazen tubes on which the roof rested, and caused them to be 


196 ///. Left Bank. ROME. S. Maria sopra Minerva. 

converted into columns for the canopy of the high-altar of St. Peter's, 
and cannons for the defence of the castle of S. Angelo. This Van- 
dalism gave rise to the complaint of Pasquin, 'Quod non fecerunt 
barbari, fecerunt Barberint . 

To the right of the high-altar is the burial vault of King Victor 
Emanuel (d. Jan. 9, 1878). In the first Chapel to the left of the high- 
altar stands the simple monument of Card. Consalvi (buried in S. Marcello, 
p. 151) by Thorvaldsen. 

To the left of the 3rd altar is Raphael's Tomb (Jo. 6th Apr., 1483; d. 6th 
Apr., 1520). On the wall is the graceful composed by Card. Bembo: — 
Hie hie est Raphael, timuit quo sospile vinci 
Rerum magna parens, et moriente mori. 
The Italian translation runs thus : — 

'Questi e quel Raffaele, cui vivo vinta 
Esser temea Watura, e morto estinta''. 

A lengthy inscription beside it announces that Raphael's remains were 
placed in a new sarcophagus in 1833. The statue of the Madonna on the 
altar, by Lorenzelto, was executed in accordance with Raphael's last will. 

The Pantheon is also the last resting-place of Ann. Caracci, Tadd. 
Zucchero, Bald. Peruzzi, Perino del Vaga, Giov. da Udine, and other 
celebrated artists. 

A visit to the interior by moonlight is recommended, but the sacristan 
must be informed in good time. Visitors are then admitted by the door 
at the back of the sacristy, Via della Palombella 10. For the ascent of 
the dome a special permesso must be obtained. 

At the back of the Pantheon are situated the ruins of the Ther- 
mae of Agrippa , the proximity of which to the Pantheon once gave 
rise to the absurd conjecture that it originally belonged to the baths, 
and was afterwards converted into a temple. 

From the Piazza of the Pantheon the Via de' Pastini leads towards 
the E. to the Piazza di Pietra (p. 147); or we may turn to the left, 
towards the N., cross the Piazza Capranica, containing a small 
theatre of that name, and reach Monte Citorio (p. 147) ; or, lastly, 
we may follow the Via del Seminario, also towards theE., to S. 
Ignazio (p. 148). 

Leaving the Pantheon, we proceed towards the S.E., through 
the Via della Minerva, to the Piazza della Minerva (PI. II, 16), 
where the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva lies on the left, and 
the Hotel de la Minerve opposite to us. In the centre of the piazza is 
a marble elephant, on the back of which a small Obelisk was placed 
by Bernini in 1667, being one of those which are said once to have 
risen here in front of a temple of Isis. The other obelisk is in the 
Piazza della Rotonda (p. 194). 

*S. Maria sopra Minerva, erected on the ruins of a temple of 
Minerva founded by Domitian, the only Gothic church at Rome, 
was probably begun about 1285 by the builders of S. Maria No- 
vella at Florence. It was restored and re-decorated with painting 
in 1848-55, and contains several valuable works of art. 

Interior. By the entrance- wall, on the right, the tomb of the Florentine 
knight Diotisalvi (d. 1482). — Left Aisle. On the left, the tomb of the Floren- 
tine Franc. Tornabuoni, by Mino da Fiesole ; above it the monument of Card 
Giac. Tebaldi (d. 1466). To the right of the altar in the 3rd Chapel , "St! 
Sebastian, by Mino da Fiesole (t). Over the altar: head of Christ by Pe- 
rugino. In the 5th Chapel is (r.) the monument of the Princess Lante by 

S. Maria sopra Minerva. ROME. ///. Left Bank. 197 

Tenerani. — Eight Aisle. By the pillar between the 3rd and 4th chapels is an 
egress (generally closed) with an ancient Greek sarcophagus (Hercules taming 
the lion). In the 4th Chapel, the ''Annunciation, a picture on a golden ground 
(in the foreground Card. Giov. a Torrecremata recommending three poor girls 
to the Virgin), painted to commemorate the foundation of the charitable in- 
stitution of S. Annunziata, erroneously attributed to Fiesole ; on the left the 
tomb of Urban VII. (d. 1590), by Ambrogio Buonvicino. The 5th Chapel (Al- 
dobrandini) contains paintings by Alberti; over the altar the Last Supper by 
Baroccio ; monuments of the parents of Clement VIII. by Giac. delta Porta. 
— Right Transept. A small chapel on the right is first observed, containing 
a wooden crucifix attributed to Giotto; then the *Caraffa Chapel (recently 
restored), with a handsome balustrade, painted by Filippino Lippi; on the 
right Thomas Aquinas, surrounded by allegorical figures, defending the 
Catholic religion against heretics ; on the wall at the back, the Assumption 
of the Virgin \ altar-fresco , the Annunciation , with a portrait of the donor 
Card. Caraffa; sibyls on the vaulting by Rafaetlino del Garbo; on the left the 
monument of Paul IV. (d. 1559), designed by Pirro Ligorio , executed by 
Giac. and Tom. Casignola. By the wall, adjacent to the latter, the "tomb of 
Bishop Guiliel. Durantus (d. 1296), with a Madonna in mosaic by Johannes 
Cosmas, one of the best works of that period. The first chapel by the choir 
contains an altar-piece by C. Maratta. The second is the Cappella del Eosario ; 
altar-piece groundlessly attributed to Fiesole; on the right the tomb of Card. 
Capranica (about 1470). — The Choir contains the large monuments of the 
two Medicis , (1.) Leo X. and (r.) Clement VII. , designed by Ant. da San 
Gallo; that of Leo executed by Raffaele da Monte Lupo, that of Clement by 
Giov. di BaccioBigio; on the pavement the tombstone of the celebrated scho- 
lar Pietro Bembo (d. 1547). 

In front of the high-altar, to the left, is Michael Angelo's '"Christ with 
the Cross, which was ordered by Metello Vari and P. Castellari in 1514, 
and erected in 1521. Pietro Urbano, an assistant of the great master, was 
entrusted with the touching up of the work after its erection, but as he 
acquitted himself badly of his task, the finishing strokes were given to 
it by Roderigo Frizzi. The nudity of the figure is justified by the 
master's intention to pourtray the Eisen Christ, but it is now marred by 
a bronze drapery ; the right foot also is protected against the kisses of 
the devout by a bronze shoe. On the left by the choir is a passage to the 
Via S. Ignazio; on the wall the tombstone (first on the left) of Fra Beato 
Angelico da Fiesole, who died in the neighbouring monastery in 1455, with 
his portrait and the inscription : Hie jacet Venerabilis pictor Frater Joannes 
de Florentia Ordinis praedicatorum 14 LV. — In the Left Transept is the 
Chapel of S. Domenico, with 8 black columns, and the monument of Bene- 
dict XIII. (d. 1730) by P. Bracci. Adjacent, to the right, is the entrance to 
the sacristy. 

The adjoining Dominican monastery, formerly the residence of 
the chief of the order, now contains the offices of the Minister of 
Education and the Bibliotheca Casanatensis (entrance to the left by 
the church, first door to the right beyond the court; adm., see 
p. 108). The library is the largest in Rome after that of the Vatican, 
consisting of 200,000 vols, and 1000 MSS., and is connected by a 
bridge over the Via S. Ignazio with the Biblioteca Vitt. Emanuele 
in the Coll. Romano (p. 148). 

From the Piazza della Minerva, past the S. side of the church, 
the Via del Pi'e di Marmo leads to the Piazza del Coll. Romano (p. 
148). From the Pie di Marmo the Via del Gesil diverges to the right, 
leading in 3 M. to the Piazza del Gesu (p. 159). 

From the Piazza S. Luigi de' Francesi (p. 193) the short street 
to the right on leaving the church leads to the Piazza Madama, 

198 ///. Left Bank. ROME. S. Maria dell' An ima. 

where to the left rises the facade of the Palazzo Madama (PI. II, 
13), so called from Margaret of Parma, daughter of Charles V., by 
whom it was once occupied. Previously and subsequently it belonged 
to the Medicis, afterwards grand-dukes of Tuscany, by whose or- 
ders Marocelli altered it to its present form in 1642. The Italian 
Senate now meets in this palace. One entrance is from the Piazza 
S. Luigi, the other from the Piazza Madama. — A short side-street 
leads hence to the — 

*Piazza Navona (PI. II, 13), the largest in Rome after that ot 
St. Peter, officially named Circo Agonale. As its form still indicates, 
the Circus, or Stadium of Domitian, formerly lay here. The name 
is said to be derived from the agones (corrupted to Navone, Navona), 
or contests which took place in the circus. 

It is embellished with three Fountains. That on the N. side, 
erected in 1878, represents Neptune in conflict with a sea-monster 
(polypus); round the central group are Nereids and sea-horses. Not 
far from it, in the centTe of a large ancient basin of Pentelic marble, 
rises a fountain erected by Bernini under Innocent X.; at the corners 
of the lofty mass of rock, the different parts of which represent the 
four quarters of the globe, are placed the gods of the four largest 
rivers, the Danube, Ganges, Nile, and Rio della Plata, executed by 
pupils of Bernini. The whole is surmounted by an obelisk, -which was 
originally erected in honour of Domitian in the Circus of Maxentius. 
— The third fountain, at the S. end of the piazza, is adorned with 
masks, Tritons, and the statue of a Moor by Bernini. 

The piazza was used from 1447 to 1870 as a vegetable market; 
but the Campo di Fiori (p. 203) is now used for that purpose. 

On the W. side of the Piazza Navona stands the church ol 
S. Agnese ; the interior, in the form of a Greek cross , and the 
campanili, are by C. Rinaldi, and the tasteless facade by Borromini. 
The Romans used to maintain that the Nile on the great fountain 
veiled his head in order to avoid seeing this facade. 

Over the principal door is the monument of Innocent X. by Maini; 
to the left, in the chapel of the transept, is a statue of St. Sebastian, adapted 
from an ancient statue by Maini. Beneath the dome are eight columns ol 
'cognatello'. The old church was situated in the side-vaults of the Circus 
where the saint suffered martyrdom. Two chapels with ancient vaulting 
still remain. 

To the left of the church is the Palazzo Pamphilj, also erected 
by Rinaldi, now the property of Prince Doria. Opposite to it is the 
national church of the Spaniards, S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli (PI. II, 
13, 23), erected in 1450. The entrance is in the Via della Sapienza, 

The Via di S. Agnese, to the right of the church, leads to the 
Via deW Anima on the right, where on the left side is situated *S 
Maria dell' Anima (PI. II, 13 ; open till 8^2 a.m., on holidays til 
noon ; when closed, visitors go round the church by the Vicolo delh 
Pace on the right, and ring at the door of the Hospice, oppositi 
S. .Maria della Pace). The name is derived from a small marble- 

S. Maria della Pace. ROME. III. Left Bank. 199 

group in the tympanum of the portal: a Madonna invoked by two 
souls in purgatory. This is the German national church, connected 
with the Hospice, and was erected in 1500-14. Handsome facade 
by Oiuliano da Sangallo. Part of the interior is said to have been 
designed by Bramante. 

Interior (restoration nearly completed). The central window of the 
entrance- wall formerly contained stained glass by William of Marseilles, now 
modern. The modern frescoes of saints on the ceiling are by L. Seilz, and 
the stained-glass window over the chief portal was designed by him. — 
Eight Aisle. 1st Chapel:' ::: St. Benno receiving from a fisherman the keys 
of the cathedral at Meissen (Saxony), which had been recovered from the 
stomach of a fish, altar-piece by Carlo Saraceni. 2nd Chapel : Holy Family, 
altar-piece by Qimignani; left, monument and bust of Card. Slusius. 4th 
Chapel: altered copy of Michael Angela's Pieta in St. Peter's, by Namii 
di Baccio Bigio. — Left Aisle. 1st Chapel: "'Martyrdom of St. Lambert, 
C. Saraceni. 3rd Chapel : frescoes from the life of St. Barbara, Mich. Coxcie. 
4th Chapel: altar-piece (Entombment) and frescoes by Salviati. 

Choik. Over the high-altar, 'Holy Family with saints, by G. Romano, 
damaged by inundations; on the right, '"monument of Hadrian IV. of Utrecht 
(preceptor of Charles V., d. 1523), with figures of justice, prudence, strength, 
and temperance, designed by Baldassare Peruzzi , executed by Michelangiolo 
Sanese and Niccolb Tribolo; opposite to it, that of a Duke of Cleve-Jiilich- 
Berg (d. 1575) by Egidius of Riviere and Nicolaus of Arras. A relief in the 
antechamber of the sacristy (at the end of the N. aisle) represents the in- 
vestiture of this prince by Gregory XIII. In the church, at the entrance 
to the sacristy, is the tomb of the learned Lucas Holstein of Hamburg, 
librarian of the Vatican (d. 1661). 

The German Hospice connected with the church was under 
Austrian management from 1815 to 1863. Opposite the hospital 
rises the church of — 

*S. Maria della Pace (PI. II, I, 13, 3), erected by Sixtus IV. 
(1484) and Innocent VIII., restored by Alexander VII., and pro- 
vided by Pietro da Cortona with a facade and semicircular portico. 
The church consists of a nave only , and terminates in an octagon 
with a dome. 

Over the 1st Chapel on the right are **RaphaeVs Sibyls : to 
the left the Sibyl of Cumae ; on the arch above, the Persian ; then 
the Phrygian , and the aged Sibyl of Tibur , receiving from angels 
and recording revelations regarding the Saviour. They were painted 
in 1514 by order of Agostino Chigi who erected the chapel, and 
skilfully freed from 'restorations' by Palmaroli in 1816 (best light, 
10-11 a.m.). 

'With perfect mastery of the art of utilising the space at his com- 
mand, a talent admirably illustrated in the Stanze, Raphael has here filled 
up the segment of the arch so simply and naturally that the spectator is 
apt to overlook the consummate skilfulncss of the grouping. Equally 
characteristic of Raphael are the rhythm of the composition, the display 
of spirited contrasts , and the delicate gradations and judicious de'noue- 
ment of passionate emotions; while the gracefulness of the female forms 
and the sprightly beauty of the angel-hoys are specially Raphaelesque. 
Michael Angelo's' Sibyls are justly extolled as creations of a sublime 
imagination, striking'the spectator with their supernatural majesty; but 
these female figures uf Raphael are pre-eminently human and lovable'. 

In the lunette above the Sibyls are the Prophets by Timoteo Yiti 
(p. 89) : on the right Jonah and Joshua, on the left Daniel and David, 

200 III. Left Bank. ROME. 8. Andrea della Valle. 

At the sides of the 1st Chapel on the left are *Monuments of 
the Ponzetti family, of 1505 and 1509 (which should be compared 
■with the heavy decorations of the 2nd chapel on the right, executed 
half-a-century later). *Altar-piece in fresco by Bald. Peruzzi: 
Madonna between St. Brigitta and St. Catherine, in front the donor 
Card. Ponzetti kneeling (1516). The vaulting above contains scenes 
from the Old and New Testament , in three rows , also by Peruzzi. 
— To the left, under the DoMe, is the entrance to the sacristy and 
court (see below). Over the first altar on the left, Adoration of the 
Shepherds, by Sermoneta; above it , the Death of Mary , by Mo- 
randa. The second altar, with handsome marble-work, partially 
gilded, is of 1490. The high-altar is adorned with an ancient and 
highly revered Madonna ; on the vaulting are pleasing 'putti' by 
Albani. Over the adjacent altar to the right, Baptism of Christ, by 
Sermoneta. Over the niche , Mary's first visit to the Temple , by 
Bald. Peruzzi (retouched). 

Newly-married couples usually attend their first mass in this 

The *Monasteky Couet, constructed by Bramante (p. lii) by 
order of Card. Caraffa in 1504, is interesting. On the ground-floor 
are arcades , above which runs a series of columns. By the right 
wall, the tomb of Bishop Bocciacio (d. 1437). Entrance through the 
church, or by Via Arco della Pace 5. 

From the portal of the church the Via della Pace and the Via in 
Parione lead straight to the busy Via del Ooverno Vecchio (p. 202). 

From the Piazza del Gesti (p. 159) the Via de' Cesaejni (PI. II, 
16) leads straight towards the W. to the (right) Piazza delle Stimate, 
with the church of that name, and the Pal. Strozzi with a small 
piazza called after it. (The streets to the right lead hence to the 
Piazza della Minerva and the Pantheon, pp. 196, 194.) We next 
pass (left) the Teatro Argentina and follow the Via del Sudakio 
(PI. II, 13), the continuation of the Via de' Cesarini, in the direction 
of the church of S. Andrea della Valle, which is already visible. 

The corner-house to the left (No. 13), before the church is 
reached , is the Palazzo Vidoni , formerly Caffarelli and Stoppani, 
originally designed by Raphael. On the staircase are a few antiques 
(L. Verus , Minerva, Diana). In one of the rooms is the famous 
Calendarium Praenestinum of Verrius Flaccus, being five months of 
a Roman calendar found by Card. Stoppani at Palestrina. This palace 
was once occupied by Charles V. (admission not easily obtained). — 
On the side of the palace next the church is the so-called Abbate 
Luigi, a mutilated ancient statue (see p. 158). 

*S. Andrea della Valle (PI. II, 13), begun by P. Olivieri in 
1591 on the site of several earlier churches, was completed by 
C. Muderna. Facade designed by A. Rinaldi. The interior is well 
proportioned, but part of it has unfortunately been whitewashed. 

Palazzo Sraschi. ROME. III. Left Bank. 201 

On the right the *2nd Chapel (Steozzi) contains copies in bronze of the 
Pieta (in St. Peter's) and the .Rachel and Leah (in S. Pietm in 'Vine.) of 
Michael Angelo, by whom this chapel itself was perhaps designed. — On 
the left the 1st Chapel (Babbekini) is adorned with several marble statues 
of the school of Bernini: St. Martha by Mocchi , John the Baptist by 
Pietro Bernini, Mary Magdalene by Stuti da Bracciuno, and St. John by 
Buonviciho. — At the end of the Nave are the monuments of the two 
popes of the Piccolomini family, brought here from the old church of 
St. Peter; on the left that of Pius II. (d. 1464), by Mc. della Guardia and 
Pietro Paolo da Todi\ on the right that of Pius III. (d. 1503), executed 
somewhat later. — In the Dome: Glory of Paradise, by Lanfranco; be- 
low, the 'Evangelists by Dornenichino, one of his finest works. By the same 
master, "Paintings on the vaulting of the apse. In front, between the trans- 
verse ribs: John the Baptist, St. John, and St. Andrew pointing to Christ 
('this is the Lamb', etc.); in the vaulting itself, on the left, the Scourging of 
St. Andrew; then the Vocation of Peter and Andrew by Christ; on the right, 
St. Andrew beholds and reveres the cross to which he is about to be affixed; 
below are six female figures representing the virtues. The large lower 
frescoes by Calabrese (martyrdom of the saint) are of no great value. 

To the N.W. of S. Andrea, No. 17 Via de' Massimi (right), is 
the — 

Palazzo Massimi alle Colonne (PI. II, 13, ll), a line structure 
by Baldassare Peruzzi, who however died in 1536 before its com- 
pletion. The facade follows the curved direction of the street. The 
glimpse obtained of the double court is strikingly picturesque. On 
the second floor is the Chapel of S. Filippo Neri (open on 16th 
March), who is said to have here resuscitated a child of the family. 

In 1467, within the buildings connected with this palace, the Germans 
Pannartz and Schweinheim, who during the two previous years had found an 
asylum in the monastery of Subiaco, established the first printing-office in 
Rome, from which they issued Cicero's epistles and other works, furnished 
with the name of the printers and the words 'In aedibus Petri de Maxi- 
mis\ — The Massimi family claims descent from the ancient Fabii Maximi, 
and their armorial bearings have the motto 'Cunctando restituit\ 

Following the Via dei Massimi (whence the Via de' Baullari leads 
to the lefttothePal. Farnese, which is visible from this point, p. 203), 
and crossing the small Piazza S. Pantaleo, with the small church of 
that name on the right, we observe opposite to us the spacious — 

Palazzo Sraschi (PI. II, 13, 77), erected by Morelli at the end 
of last century, and now occupied by of the Minister of the Interior. 
It contains a fine marble *Staircase and a few ancient statues. The 
back of the building looks towards the Piazza Navona (p. 198). 

Passing the palace, we reach the Piazza del Pasuuino (PL II, 
13), which derives its name from an ancient group of statuary placed 
at the obtuse angle of the Pal. Braschi. This was an admirable, 
but now sadly mutilated work of a good period of art, and is said 
to have been called Pasquino as early as the end of the 15th cent, 
after a tailor of that name who lived in the vicinity and was 
notorious for his lampooning propensities. It was once the custom 
to affix satires and ebullitions of malice to this statue, the answers 
to which used to be attached to the Marforio (p. 158, 217), and to 
refer them to the slanderous tailor, whose name is perpetuated in 
the word 'pasquinade'. Compositions of this kind have been much 

202 ///. Left Bank, ROME. Chiesa Nuova. 

in vogue at Rome ever since that period, sometimes vying "with the 
best satires of antiquity. The group represents Menelaus with the 
body of Patroclus, looking around for succour in the tumult of battle. 
Duplicates of the group are in the Loggia de' Lanzi and the Palazzo 
Pitti at Florence, and there are fragments in the Vatican (p. 311). 

We follow the Via del Governo Vecchio, which with its pro- 
longations to the N.W. and P..E. forms the direct route between the 
Piazza di Venezia and the Ponte S. Angelo (comp. p. 160). On the 
right is the Pal. del Governo Vecchio (PI. II, 13, 20), which for a 
time was occupied by the law and police courts. No. 124, opposite, 
is an elegant little house in Bramante's style (1500). — We turn to 
the left, and soon reach, in the Piazza of that name, the — 

Chiesa Nuova (PI. II, 10), or S. Maria in Vallicella, erected by 
S. Filippo Neri (about 1550-1605) for the order of Oratorians found- 
ed by him. Architecture by Oiov. Matteo da Citta di Castello, in- 
terior by Mart. Lunghi Senr., facade by Rughesi. 

The Interior, which is dark and unfavourable for pictures, is richly 
decorated. The admirable stucco-work is by Cos. Faniello, and Ercole 
Ferrata. The ceiling of the Nave, the dome, and the tribune are painted 
by Pietro da Cortona. — On the right, 1st Chapel, Crucifixion, Scip. di 
Gaetano ; 3rd Chapel, dell' Ascensione, altar-piece by Muziano. — On the left, 
2nd Chapel, Adoration of the Magi, Ces. Nebbia; 3rd Chapel, Nativity, 
Durante Alberti ; 4th Chapel, Visit of Elizabeth, Baroccio. — Left Transept: 
Presentation in the Temple, Baroccio; Peter and Paul, statues in marble, 
by Valsoldo. Here also, adjoining the tribune, is the small and sumptuous 
Chapel of S. Filippo Neri, beneath the altar of which his remains repose. 
Above is the portrait of the saint in mosaic , after the original of Guido 
Reni preserved in the adjoining monastery. — Over the High Altar, with 
its four columns of porta santa, a Madonna by Rubens ; on the right "SS. Gre- 
gory, Maurus , and Papia , on the left "SS. Nereus and Achilleus , also by 
Rubens, who painted these pictures during his second stay in Home in 1606 
for this church , which was then the most fashionable in the city. — Right 
Transept. On the right, Coronation of Mary, Cav. d' Arpino; SS. John 
the Baptist and John the Evangelist, statues in marble by Flaminio Vacca. 

The Sacristy (entered from the left transept) was constructed by Marru- 
celli. On the vaulting: Angel with instruments of torture, by Pietro da Cor- 
tona. Colossal statue of the saint by Algardi. 

On 26th May, the festival of the saint, and after Ave Maria every 
Sunday from 1st Nov. to Palm Sunday, concerts of sacred music, to which 
men only are admitted, are given in the adjoining Oratorium, which 
derives its name from the oratories fitted up by S. Filippo Neri. The 
saint was fond of music and advocated a cheerful form of divine service. 

The adjoining Monastery, erected by Borromini, is of irregular 
shape, but remarkably massive in its construction. It contains a 
room once occupied by the saint, with various relics. The Corte di 
Appello, the Tribunale Civile e Correzionale, and the Tribunate di 
Commercio are now established here. — The valuable Bibliotheca 
Vallicelliana , a library founded by S. Filippo Neri, and gradually 
enriched by rare MSS., now belongs to government (adm., see 
p. 108). 

From the Piazza della Chiesa Nuova we may return to the Via del 
Governo Vecchio and proceed to the Ponte S. Angelo (p. 278); or, 
turning to the left opposite the facade of the church, we may follow 

Palazzo Farnese. ROME. III. Left Bank. 203 

the Via del Pellegrino, at the E. end of which , on the left, is the 
Cancelleria (see below). 

The Via be' Baullaiu, mentioned at p. 201, leads to several 
interesting palaces in the best style of the Renaissance. On the 
right, a little back from the street, is the elegant little * Palazzo 
Linotta or Palazzetto Farnese, of which Bald. Peruzzi is said to have 
been the architect. Tasteful court and staircase. 

The short streets • diverging to the right lead to the Piazza and 
*Palazzo della Cancelleria (PI. II, 13), an edifice of majestic sim- 
plicity. The palace, designed by Bramante in strict conformity with 
the ancient orders of architecture, is one of the finest in Rome. It 
contains within its precincts the church of S. Lorenzo, originally- 
erected near the theatre of Pompey. The elegant Facade (with portal 
added by Dom. Fontana~) is constructed of blocks of travertine from 
the Colosseum. The *Coub,t, in two stories, is surrounded by ar- 
cades. The columns are ancient; the graceful capitals are decorated 
with roses, a flower which belonged to the armorial bearings of the 
founder Card. Riario. In this palace, in 1848, Pius IX. convoked 
a parliament to deliberate on reforms in the States of the Church. 
On 15th Nov. of that year the minister Count Rossi was assassinated 
on the first landing of the staircase. This is the only palace in the 
interior of the city which the Italian government still permits to be 
occupied by the ecclesiastical authorities. 

To the right of the palace is the church of S. Lorenzo in Da- 
maso (with an entrance to the right from the court) , which has the 
above-mentioned facade in common with the palace. It was also de- 
signed by Bramante (originally erected by Damasus I.), and is bound- 
ed by arcades on three sides. The architecture is interesting, but 
the pictures were destroyed during the revolution of last century. 
At the end of the right aisle is the tomb of the ill-fated Count Rossi 
(see above), with a bust by Tenerani. 

The Piazza della Cancelleria is adjoined by the Piazza Campo di 
Fiori (PI. II, 13), an important centre of business, especially since 
the vegetable-market, with the picturesque country-people who fre- 
quent it in the morning, was transferred hither from the Piazza 
Navona. • — Theatre of Pompey and Via de' Giubbonari, p. 206. 

Adjoining the Campo di Fiori to the S.W. is the Piazza Far- 
nese, adorned with two fountains. Here is situated the ■ — • 

*Palazzo Farnese (PI. II, 14), one of the finest palaces at Rome, 
begun by Card. Alex. Farnese, afterwards Pope Paul III. (1534-45), 
from designs by Ant. da Sangallo Junr., continued after his death 
(1546) under the direction of Michael Angelo (who designed the 
beautiful cornicing and the court), and completed by the construc- 
tion of the loggia at the back, towards the Tiber, by Oiac. della Porta 
in 1580. The building materials were taken partly from the Colos- 
seum, and partly from the Theatre ofMarcellus. This palace was 

204 ///. Left Bank. ROME. Pal. Spada alia Regola. 

inherited by the kings of Naples, and from 1862 to 1870 was occu- 
pied by Francis II. It was purchased in 1874 by the French govern- 
ment, whose embassy to the papal court is now established here; on 
the second floor is the 'Ecole de Rome', or French archaeological in- 
stitution, founded in 1875. The triple *Colonnade of the entrance 
and the two halls of the court were designed by Sangallo , in imi- 
tation of the Theatre of Mareellus. The court contains two ancient 
sarcophagi (that to the right from the tomb of Caecilia Metella, 
p. 350). The celebrated antiquities once in this palace (Farnese Bull, 
Hercules, Flora) are now in the Museum of Naples. 

A room on the 1st floor (admission rarely granted) contains *Fbescoes 
by Annibale Carracci , his finest work, consisting of mythological scenes 
with rich architectural painting, executed in eight years by him, his bro- 
ther Lodovico, Domenichino , and other masters. — The old banquet-hall 
has a ~ : Ceiling in carved wood, designed by Michael Angelo. 

From the Piazza Farnese a line of streets , called the Via di 
Monsekrato and Via de' Banchi Vecchi, leads to the N.W. to the 
Ponte S. Angelo (p. 278). On the left is <S. Maria di Monserrato 
(PI. II, 10, 3), the national Spanish church, with a hospice. It was 
erected in 1495 by Ant. da Sangallo Senr., and afterwards restored. 
The altar-piece of the first chapel on the right is by Ann. Carracci. 

To the S.E. of the Piazza Farnese the Vicolo de' Venti leads to 
the Piazza di Capo di Fekko. Here, on the right, rises the — 

*Palazzo Spada alia Regola (PI. II, 14), erected in the ponti- 
ficate of Paul III. about 1540 by Card. Capodiferro, in imitation of a 
house built by Raphael for himself. Since 1640 the palace has 
belonged to the Spada family. It contains an interesting collection 
of * Antiquities and pictures (adm., see p. 116). 

The most important Antiquities are exhibited in a room on the 
Ground Floor (visitors turn to the left in the gateway ; fee l /z fr .). Op- 
posite the entrance-wall : sitting * Statue of Aristotle, formerly erroneously 
called Aristides, a copy of a celebrated Greek work; right arm and left leg 
new. Then eight fine "Reliefs, found in 1620 in S. Agnese Fuori le Mura, 
where they formed part of the pavement with their faces downwards. 
Beyond the Aristotle, to the left, 65. Dfedalus and Pasiphae; right, 72. 
Paris as a cowherd. Window-wall: 66. Wounded Adonis; 67. Ulysses and 
Diomedes carrying off the Palladium. Entrance wall : Endymion ; Perseus 
and Andromeda , casts from the originals in the Capitoline museum. Left 
wall : 68. Paris taking leave of GSnone ; 69. Hypsipyle finds Opheltes , who 
had been entrusted to her, killed by a snake; 70. Amphion and Zethus ; 
71. Bellerophon watering Pegasus. Also several busts, small statues, etc. 

From the court we ascend by a staircase to the right to the TJpfeb 
Floor 0/2 fr.). In the Ante -Chamber is a Colossal Statue of Pompey, 
found in the pontificate of Julius III. (1550) in digging the foundations of 
a house in the Vicolo de 1 Leutari. The body was in the ground of one pro- 
prietor, while the legs were in that of another. As both parties claimed 
the statue, the judge ordered it to be divided; but the pope prevented this 
by purchasing it for 500 scudi, and presented it to Card. Capodiferro. The 
head, though of a separate block, belongs to the original. Workmanship 

We now traverse a room adorned with unimportant frescoes to the 
Picture Gallery (provided with catalogues). I. Room, beginning opposite 
the entrance: A. Bolognese Sch., Madonna; 7, 12. French Sch., Portraits' 10. 
Caimicnini, Card. Patrizi ; 22. Caravaggio, Portrait; 40. Sc. Oaetano, Julius 
HI-; 56. Sch. of Francia, Madonna. — II. Room: 1. Seb. del Piombo, Astro-'Fiorentini. ROME. III. Left Bank. 205 

nomev; 6. Baudin, Still life; 9. Breughel, Landscape ; 10. Gaido Reiti, Judith ; 
12. O. Poussin, Landscape; 16. And. del Sarto, Visitation of Elizabeth 
(seriously damaged) ; 43. Leonardo da Vinci (a copy of the original in 
England), Christ and the scrihes. — III. Room : 2. Caravaggio, St. Anna and 
the Virgin ; 4. Raphael, John the Baptist, a copy ; 15. Brueghel, Landscape ; 
24. Guercino , Dido's death ; 26. Baciccio , Design of the ceiling-painting in 
Gesii; 29. Salvator Rosa, Landscape; 31. Titian, Portrait; "40. Moroni, Por- 
trait; 48, "49. Marco Palmezzano, God the Father, and Bearing the Cross; 51. 
Titian(1), Card. Paolo Spada; 60, 70. Salv. Rosa, Landscapes; 63. Ouido Rent, 
Abduction of Helen; 67. Borgognone, Cavalry-skirmish. — IV. Room: 4. 
Ouido Rent, Card. Bernardo Spada; 9. After Titian, Paul III.; 10. German 
Sch. , Portrait (1511); 15. Caravaggio, Laughing angel's head; 18. German 
Sch., Portrait; 26. Ger. Honthorst, Christ in the garden; 30. Caravaggio, 
St. Cecilia; 31. Maratta, Card. Fabricius Spada; 44. Andr. del Sarto (?), 
Madonna; 54. French Sch., Portrait. 

Pursuing the same direction beyond the Piazza Capo di Ferro, 
we next reach the small Piazza de' Pellegrini. On the left is the 
hack of the Pal. Santacroce, now a Monte di Pieth (PI. II, 14), or 
pawn-office, founded in 1539, and established here in 1604. (Some 
of the numerous pictures pledged here are of great value.) On the 
right is the church of S. Trinita de' Pellegrini, erected in 1614; the 
high-altar is adorned with a Trinity, by Guido Reni. The neigh- 
bouring hospital for convalescents and pilgrims contains 488 beds, 
and can provide dinner for 944 persons at one time. Italian pil- 
grims are entertained here at Easter for three days, and foreigners 
for four. — In the vicinity is the church of S. Maria in Montieelli 
(PI. II, 14), consecrated by Paschalis II. in 1101, but restored sev- 
eral times , so that the campanile and remains of mosaics in the 
tribune now alone belong to the period of its foundation. 

The Via de' Pettinam (PI. II, 14) leads from the Piazza de' 
Pellegrini to the Ponte Sisto. At the end of the street, on the right, 
is the small church of S. Salvatore in Onda, re-erected in 1684. On 
the left formerly stood the Fontanone di Ponte Sisto, constructed by 
Giov. Fontana under Paul V. ; it has been removed to make way for 
improvements , but will probably be re-erected at the end of the 
Via Giulia. — The Ponte Sisto, see p. 330. 

From this point towards the N.W., and near the river, runs the 
Via del Fontanone, prolonged by the Via Gitjlia (PI. II, 14, 10), 
which was built by Julius II., leading in 12 min. to the Ponte S. 
Angelo. To the left in the Via Giulia, opposite the garden of the 
Pal. Farnese , is the small church of S. Maria delta Morte, or dell' 
Orazione (PI. II, 11), erected by Fuga about the middle of last cen- 
tury, and belonging to a burial-society. Then, on the left, the Pal. 
Falconieri, built by Borromini, which once contained the picture- 
gallery of Card. Fesch. On the same side, farther on, the Carceri 
Nuovi, a prison founded by Innocent X. ; then No. 66, the Pal. 
Sacchetti (PI. II, 10), originally erected by Antonio da Sangallo 
Junr. as his private residence. 

At the end of the street, on the left, is S. Giovanni de' Fioren- 
tini (PI. II, 10), the handsome national church of the Florentines. 
The building was begun, by desire of Leo X., from a design by Jac. 

206 III. Left Bank. ROME. 8. Carlo a' Catinari. 

Sansovino (which was preferred to competing plans of Raphael, 
Sangallo Junr., and Peruzzi) ; and the difficult task of completing 
the substructions on the river was executed by Sangallo. At a later 
period Michael Angelo and after his death Giacomo della Porta were 
engaged in the work, and the facade was added by Aless. Oalilei in 
1725. The only object of interest in the church is a picture by Sal- 
vator Rosa in the chapel of the right transept (SS. Cosmas and Da- 
mianus at the stake). 

Near the church a Chain-Bridge (1 soldo), constructed in 1863, 
crosses the river to the Longara (p. 324). The Via Paola leads from 
the church to the Ponte S. Angelo (p. 278). 

In the Piazza Campo di Fiori (p. 203), on the side next S. 
Andrea della Valle, once lay the Theatre of Pomp ey (PI. II, 13, 14). 
In this piazza is the Pal. Righetti (entrance, Via del Biscione 95), 
in the court of which the bronze statue of Hercules (p. 309) and 
substructions of the theatre were discovered in 1864. Numerous 
fragments of the ancient walls are now incorporated with the mo- 
dern building. The semicircular bend of the street by S. Maria di 
Grottapinta (PI. II, 13, 5) distinctly shows the form of the ancient 

From the Campo di Fiori the busy Via de' Giubbonari leads 
S.E. to the Capitol and the S. quarters of the city. After 2 min. it 
expands into the Piazza 8. Carlo a' Catinari. Here, on the left, is 
S. Carlo a' Catinari (PI. II, 14), built by Rosati in 1612 in honour 
of S. Carlo Borromeo, in the form of a Greek cross, covered with a 

1st Chapel on the right : Annunciation , by Lanfranco. In the spaces 
h;low the dome are the four cardinal virtues, by Domenichino. In the 
tiansept to the right, Death of St. Anna, Andrea Sacchi. Over the high- 
a tar, Card. Borromeo in the procession of the plague at Milan, P. da 
C"rtona; tribune decorated by Lanfranco. The other paintings are of little 

The Pal. Santacroce (PI. II, 14, 4), situated opposite, has its 
principal facade towards the Piazza Branca. 

Farther on, the street divides : to the right, the Via del Pianto, 
see p. 207 ; to the left, the Via de' Falegnami leads to the small 
Piazza Tartaruga (PI. II, 17), named after the graceful *Fontana 
delle Tartaraghe (tortoises), erected by Giac. della Porta in 1585, 
and embellished with bronze figures of four youths, by the Floren- 
tine Taddeo Landini. This is the most charming fountain in Rome; 
the design was formerly attributed to Raphael. 

No. 10, Piazza Tartaruga, to the right (another entrance, Piazza 
Costaguti 16), is the Palazzo Costaguti (PI. II, 17, 20), erected 
about 1590 by Carlo Lombardi. On the first floor (closed to the 
public) are ceiling-paintings by Franc. Albani, Domenichino, Guer- 
c'mo ( Armida with Rinaldo in the dragon-chariot, admirably colour- 
ed), by the Cao. d'Arpino, and other masters. One wing of the pa- 

S. Maria in Campitelli. ROME. III. Left Bank. 207 

lace (formerly Boccapaduli) was long the residence of the Poussins, 
and still contains works by them (no admittance). 

To the left is the Palazzo Mattei (PL II, 17, 27), originally an 
aggregate of separate buildings which occupied the block between 
S. Caterina de' Funari and Via Paganica. Of these the handsomest 
is the present so-called palace (principal entrance, Via di S. Cate- 
rina de' Funari 32; side-entrance, No. 31), erected in 1616 by Carlo 
Maderna, and one of his finest productions. 

In the passages of the entrance , in the arcades , and along the 
sides of the Coukt, a great number of ancient reliefs are built into the 
walls. In the court are (r.) Mars with Rhea Silvia, and Apollo with tbe 
Muses; and (1.) the Calydonian hunt and Rape of Proserpine. In the 
portico, Sacrifice of Mithras, Apollo with the Muses, and a Bacchanalian 
procession, all from sarcophagi. The statues in the court and niches on 
the staircase, some of them much modernised, are of no great value. The 
stucco decorations of the ceiling on the staircases are well executed. 

Farther on , in the Via de' Falegnami , we observe on the left, 
within the ancient Circus Flaminius , the church of S. Caterina de' 
Funari (PI. II, 17) , erected in 1564 by Oiac. della Porta , with a 
singular-looking tower. It contains a few unimportant pictures by 
A. Carracci (1st chapel on the right), Nanni, Venusti, Muziano, and 
Agresti. The adjoining Augustinian nunnery contains a girls' school. 

The street ends in the Via Delfini, which to the left leads to the 
Via Aracoeli (p. 160), and to the right to the Piazza Campitelli, 
beyond the next corner. Here, on the right, is S. Maria in Campi- 
telli (PI. II, 17), erected by Rinaldi under Alexander VII. for the 
worthy reception of a miraculous image of the Virgin , to which the 
cessation of the plague in 1656 was ascribed. A smaller church of 
the same name, mentioned in the 13th cent., formerly stood on 
this site. 

The Inteeioe, with its handsome projecting columns, is effective. — 
Beneath the canopy over the High-Altar is placed the miraculous Ma- 
donna. In the 2nd Chapel on the right, the Effusion of the Holy Ghost, by 
Luca Giordano; in the 1st Chapel on the left, two monuments resting on 
lions of rosso antico. In the S. transept is the tomb of Cardinal Pacca by 

Opposite the church is the Pal. Pacca.— Omnibuses to S.Paolo 
Fuori, see p. 112. 

From the S.E. end of the Piazza Campitelli the Via Tor de' 
Specchi leads to the left to the Piazza Aracoeli (p. 210), at the foot of 
the Capitol , and the Via Montanara to the right to the Theatre of 
Marcellus (see p. 208). 

From the Piazza S. Carlo a' Catinari (p. 206) the Via del Pianto 
(PI. II, 14, 17) leads to the right to the Piazza Giudea, or <S. Maria 
del Pianto, called after a small church (which once bore a Hebrew 
inscription on the portal lamenting the obduracy of the Jews). Ad- 
joining this piazza on the right is the Piazza Cenci (PI. II, 17), 
with the Synagogue and (right) the Palazzo Cenci-Bolognetti. In 
this palace once resided the ill-fated Beatrice Cenci, who was exe- 

208 III. Left Bank. KUME. Ghetto. 

cuted in 1599 for the murder of her lather, a man of execrable 
character. Her portrait in the Pal. Barberini (p. 168) is frequently 
copied by the Roman artists. 

The Via del Portico di Ottavia , formerly the Pescheria , or fish- 
market (which was held here until recently), leads from the Piazza 
Giudea to the Portico of Octavia. Between this street and the Tiber 
lies the Ghetto (PI. II, 17), the quarter allotted by Paul IV. to the 
Jews , who in ancient and mediaeval times occupied a quarter in 
Trastevere, formerly closed by a gate. It consists of several streets 
parallel with the river, connected by narrow lanes. The same pope 
compelled the Jews to wear yellow headgear ; and among other op- 
pressive exactions, they had to provide the prizes for the horse-races 
at the Carnival. The traveller may explore this quarter for the sake 
of observing the oriental type of its occupants, and the characteristic 
industry with which they seek to counteract their social disadvan- 
tages. The Via della Fiumara, the nearest to the river, leads to the 
Ponte de' Quattro Oapi (see p. 333). 

The Via del Portico di Ottavia leads straight to the interesting 
remains of the Portico of Octavia (PI. II, 17, 18~), which was erect- 
ed by Augustus on the site of a similar structure of Metellus (B.C. 
149), and dedicated to his sister. Under Titus it was destroyed by 
a fire which raged in this quarter of the city, but was restored by 
Sept. Severus and Caracalla in 203, as the inscription records. The 
colonnade enclosed an oblong space, within which stood temples of 
Jupiter Stator and Juno. Columns from this structure are frequently 
seen built into other edifices. It was adorned with many admirable 
works of art which formed part of the Macedonian booty, and it 
was here that the Medici Venus was found. In 770 the church of 
8. Angelo in Pescheria was built on the ruins of the colonnade by 
Stephen III. , but, having been frequently restored, it has lost its 
mediaeval character. A papal bull, issued in 1584, formerly com- 
pelled the Jews to hear sermons here on their Sabbath, when the 
Old Testament was expounded to them in accordance with the 
doctrines of the church. 

From the colonnade the Via del Teatro di Marcello leads to the 
Theatre of Marcellus (PI. II, 17, 5), which was begun by Caesar, 
and completed in B.C. 13 by Augustus, who named it after his 
nephew, the son of Octavia. Twelve arches of the outer wall are 
now occupied by smiths and other artizans as workshops. The lower 
story, partly fllled up, is in the Doric, the second in the Ionic style, 
above which, as in the Colosseum, a third probably rose in the 
Corinthian order. It is said to have accommodated 20,000 spectators. 
The stage lay towards the Tiber. It has recently been proposed to 
purge the ruin of all unseemly adjuncts, and to form an open space 
around it. In the 11th cent, the theatre was used by Pierleone as a 
fortress. To his descendants succeeded the Savelli, whose palace 
(opposite the Ponte Quattro Capi) stands on a lofty mound of debris 

OograpL Aiurtalt 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 209 

within the theatre. In 1712 the palace was purchased by the Orsini, 
and in 1816-23 was occupied by the historian Niebuhr, when Prus- 
sian ambassador. 

The external wall adjoins the small and busy Piazza Moxtanara, 
a frequent resort of the peasantry. To the left a street leads to the 
Piazza Aracoeli (p. 210), and, to the right, the busy Via Boccabella 
Vbrita. to the piazza of that name (p. 250). To the right in the 
latter street, standing back , is the church of S. Nicola in Carcere 
(PI. II, 17), recently restored, containing, on the outer wall and 
in the interior, ancient columns which appear to have belonged to 
three different temples, including those of Spes and Juno Sospita. 
Visitors may descend and examine the foundations of these temples, 
which have been excavated (sacristan with light i/ 2 f r 0- 

IV. Ancient Rome. 

This part of our description of Rome embraces the southern portion 
of the city, beginning with the Capitol, and extending eastwards as far as 
the Lateran: i. e. the hills of the Capitoline, Palatine, Aventine, Ceelius, 
and the S. slope of the Esquiline. The imposing monuments and reminis- 
cences of classical antiquity , more of which are daily being brought to 
light by the excavations, impart its characteristic aspect to this, the prin- 
cipal, but now almost deserted quarter of the Republican and Imperial 
city. A number of ancient churches , which are extremely interesting to 
students of Christian architecture , as well as the imposing collections of 
the Capitol and Lateran, also attract numerous visitors. 

The Capitol. 

This is the smallest , but historically the most important of the 
hills of Rome. It was originally merely the S. spur of the Quirinal, 
from which it was separated by a slight depression, but this hollow 
was greatly enlarged in consequence of the building operations of 
Trajan. The Capitol consists of three distinct parts: (1) the N. 
summit with the church and monastery of Aracoeli (164 ft.) ; (2) the 
depression in the middle with the piazza of the Capitol (98 ft.); 
and (3) the S.W. point with the Pal. Caffarelli (156 ft.). It was on 
this piazza, the Area Capitolina, that Romulus is said to have found- 
ed his asylum; it was here that popular assemblies were after- 
wards held; and it was here, in the year B. C. 133, on the occasion 
of the suppression of the revolt of Tiberius Gracchus, that the blood 
of the citizens flowed for the first time in civil warfare. One of the 
peaks of the hill was occupied by the Arx , or citadel , with the 
temple of Juno Moneta, while the other was the site of the great 
Temple of Jupiter. Topographers differed long as to which height 
was occupied by the citadel, German scholars placing it on the Ara- 
coeli height, and the temple of Jupiter on the Caffarelli height, while 
the Italian authorities were inclined to invert this order. The Italian 
topographers, however, have recently been more disposed to take 
the view of the German savants , chiefly owing to the discoveries 
Baece " ' " "'" ~" 14 

210 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

made in the course of the excavations in connection with the dome- 
saloon of the New Capitoline Museum (see p. 214). The temple 
was built by Tarquinius Superbus, the last of the kings, and con- 
secrated in B.C. 509, the first year of the Republic. It was 800 ft. 
in circumference, and possessed a triple colonnade and three cells, 
that of Jupiter being in the middle, and one for Juno and Minerva 
on each side. In the year B.C. 83, during the civil war, the temple 
was burned down, and the same fate overtook it in A.D. 69, on the 
occasion of the struggle between Vespasian and Vitellius. This 
most sacred shrine of ancient Rome was magnificently restored by 
Domitian , and was preserved down to the year 455 , when it was 
plundered by the Vandals and robbed of its gilded bronze tiles. 
After that period there is no trace of it in history. The numerous 
shrines which once surrounded it have been consigned to the same 
fate, and the whole of the hill now bears the stamp of modern times. 

For nearly 500 years after the time of Cassiodorus , the Goth 
(6th cent.), there is no mention of the Capitol in the annals of 
Rome. The hill was in the possession of the monastery of Aracceli, 
and the name of Monte Caprino, or hill of goats, which was applied 
to the S.E. height, bears testimony to its desertion. The glorious 
traditions, however, which attached to this spot, gave rise to a 
renewal of its importance on the revival of a spirit of municipal in- 
dependence at Rome. In the 11th century it again became the centre 
of the civic administration. The prefect of the city resided here ; 
among the ruins of the venerable citadel the nobility and the citi- 
zens held their public assemblies ; and in 1341 Petrarch was crown- 
ed as a poet in the great senate-hall here. The hill could originally 
be approached from the Forum only, the N.W. side being precipi- 
tous and inaccessible, but in 1348 the latter side was connected for 
the first time with the new quarter of the city by the construction 
of the flight of steps of Aracoeli, which was almost the only public 
work executed at Rome during the exile of the papal court at Avig- 
non. About 1389 Boniface IX. converted the palace of the senate 
into a kind of fortress, but its present form dates from the 16th cen- 
tury. Two new approaches from the city having been constructed 
in 1536, the Capitol has since formed a kind of termination of the 
modern part of the city in the direction of the ruins of ancient Rome. 

From the Piazza Aracceli (PI. II, 17) three approaches lead to 
the Capitoline Hill, that in the centre being the principal ascent for 
pedestrians. On the left a lofty Flight of Steps (124), constructed 
in 1348. ascends to the principal entrance of the church of S. Maria 
in Aracali (generally closed , see below). — On the right the Via 
delle Tkb Pilb, recently converted into a handsome drive (on which 
occasion remains of the ancient Servian wall , enclosing the hill in 
the direction of the Campus Martins, were brought to light, and are 
seen behind the railings to the left), leads past the entrance of the 
Pal. Caffarelli, which was erected in the 16th cent, by Ascanio 

S. Maria in Aracali. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 21 1 

Caffarelli, a former page of Charles V., and is now the residence of 
the German ambassador. The principal approach and the Via delle 
Tre Pile lead to the Piazza del Campidoglio, see p. 212. 

*S. Maria in Aracoeli (PI. II, 20), a very ancient church, is men- 
tioned in the 9th cent, as <S'. Maria de Capitolio. The present name, 
derived from a well-known legend (see below), dates from the 14th 
century. The church, of which the Roman senate formerly enjoyed 
the patronage, has given a title to a cardinal since the time of Leo X. 
The unfinished facade has escaped modernisation owing to the timely 
remonstrances of Overbeck, the celebrated German artist. 

Visitors generally approach the church from the Piazza of the Capitol 
by the staircase to the left, at the back of the Capitoline Museum, and 
on the first landing turn to the left. Over the door an ancient mosaic, 
the Madonna between two angels. 

The Interior is disfigured by modern additions. The nave is borne by 
22 ancient columns, chiefly of granite, varying greatly in style and dimen- 
sions. The 3rd on the left bears the inscription L A cubiculo Augustorum? . The 
rich ceiling was executed to commemorate the victory of Lepanto in 1571. 

By the wall of the principal Entkance, to the left, is the tomb of 
the astronomer Lodovico Grato (1531) , with a figure of Christ by Andrea 
Sansovino ; on the right the 'Monument of Card. Lebretto (1465) with partially 
preserved painting. — Right Aisle, 1st Chapel : "Frescoes from the life of 
St. Bernardino of Siena , by Pinturicchio, restored by Camuccini. Frescoes 
on the ceiling attributed to Franc, da Citta di Castello and L. Signorelli. 
The 5th Chapel (of St. Matthew) contains good pictures by Uuziano. — Left 
Aisle. In the 2nd Chapel a manger (presepe) is fitted up at Christmas, 
i.e., a gorgeous representation of the Nativity in life-size, with the richly 
decorated image of the Infant Christ (il santo bambino) , which forms the 
principal ornament of the church. This image is believed to protect per- 
sons in imminent danger, is frequently invoked and revered, and is some- 
times conveyed to the houses of the sick, on which occasions passers-by kneel 
on its approach. During the week after Christmas, from 3 to 4 o'clock 
daily, a number of children from 5 to 10 years of age address their pe- 
titions to the bambino. At the end of the left aisle a tomb-relief of Msgr. 
Crivelli by Donatello (much damaged). 

Transept. On the right and left, by the pillars of the nave , are two 
,; 'Ambos from the old choir, by Laurentius and Jacobus Cosmas. The Chapel 
on the right belongs to the Savelli; on the right and left (the latter origi- 
nally an ancient sarcophagus) are monuments of the family, of the 13th 
cent, (of the parents and a brother of Honorius IV.). The left transept 
contains a rectangular canopy, borne by eight columns of alabaster, cal- 
led the Cappella Santa, or di S. Ki.ena. Beneath the altar, which was 
destroyed during the French Revolution , but was restored in 1835 , the 
remains of S. Helena are said to repose in an ancient sarcophagus of 
porphyry. The present altar also encloses an ancient altar, bearing the 
inscription Ara Primogeniti Dei, which is said to have been erected by 
Augustus. According to a legend of the 12th cent., this was the spot 
where the Sibyl of Tibur appeared to the emperor, whom the senate 
proposed to elevate to the rank of a god, and revealed to him a vision 
of the Virgin and her Son. This was the origin of the name, 'Church of 
the Altar of Heaven'. At the end of the N. transept is the monument of 
Matthseus of Aquasparta (d. 1302), the principal of the Franciscan order, 
mentioned bv Dante. 

Choir. 'To the left, the monument of Giov. Batt. Savelli (d. 1498). 
From 1512 down to 1565 the high-altar was adorned with the Madonna of 
Foligno by Raphael, ordered for this church, afterwards at Foligno (p. 75), 
and now in the Vatican Gallery. The donor, Sigismondo Conti da Foligno, 
is interred in the choir. The present altar-piece is an ancient picture of 
the Madonna, attributed to St. Luke. 


212 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

The adjacent Monastery (reached by the continuation of the side- 
steps from the piazza of the Capitol) has belonged to the Frati Minori 
Osservanti di S. Francesco since 1251, and was the residence of the 
principal of the order, but part of it is now a barrack. Fine view 
of ancient Rome from the corridors. — In the monastery-garden 
fragments of very ancient walls, running parallel with the Via dell' 
Arco di Settimio Severo , have lately been discovered. They are 
constructed of tufa, like the walls of Servius, and perhaps belonged 
to the fortifications of the Arx. 

The Central Approach, ascending in low steps paved with 
asphalte ('la cordonnata'), leads to the Piazza del Campidoglio. At 
the foot of the steps are two handsome Egyptian Lions, and at the 
top a group of the horse-taming Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux), which 
are said once to have adorned the theatre of Pompey. To the left of 
the highest steps a pair of wolves are kept in a cage in reminis- 
cence of the story of the foundation of Rome. 

The design of the present *Piazza del Campidoglio, or Square 
of the Capitol (PI. II, 20), is due to Michael Angelo, and its execu- 
tion was begun in 1536 by Paul III. (comp. p. 225). The palaces 
of the Conservatori and Senators were already in existence , but 
their facades were altered. Michael Angelo caused the open space 
towards the slope of the hill to be widened, so as to impart to the 
piazza an appearan6e of greater size. — On the balustrade in front, 
at the sides of the Dioscuri, are the so-called Trophies of Marius, 
from the water-tower of that name of the Aqua Julia (p. 180), 
and the statues of the Emp. Constantine and his son Constans from 
the Thermae of Constantine on the Quirinal. On the right is the first 
ancient milestone of the Via Appia (on the left a modern counterpart). 

In the centre of the piazza rises the admirable *Equestrian Statue 
of Marcus Aurelius (161-181), in bronze, once gilded, and originally 
placed in the forum near the arch of Sept. Severus. In 1187 it was 
erected near the Lateran, and, as the inscription records, transferred 
hither in 1538. For its excellent preservation it has been indebted 
to the popular belief that it was a statue of Constantine, the first 
Christian emperor (see also p. 125). The pedestal is said to have 
been designed by Michael Angelo. Owing to the moderateness of 
its height, the head of the statue is distinctly visible, whereas 
modern figures of the kind are often perched so high as to be almost 

Beyond this monument rises the Palazzo del Senatore (PI. II, 
20, 2), which was re-erected by Boniface IX. in 1389 on the site 
of the ancient Tabularium, and provided with its handsome flight 
of steps by Michael Angelo, under whose directions it is probable 
that the facade was constructed by Giac. della Porta. The river- 
gods which adorn it are the (right) Tiber and (left) Nile. In the 
centre a fountain, above which is a sitting statue of Rome. The 
palace contains a spacious senate -hall, the offices of the civic 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 213 

administration, and an observatory. The Campanile was erected by 
Gregory XIII. in 1572, to replace an older one, probably belonging 
(like the four corner-towers, one of which towards the Forum, on 
the left, is still recognisable) to the edifice of Boniface. The roof of 
the tower, which is adorned with a standing figure of Roma, com- 
mands an extensive *VrEW. The ascent is somewhat fatiguing. 
Admission on week-days 10-3, on Sundays 10-1, by permesso 
obtainable at the municipal offices (Via del Campidoglio, first gate 
on the left, on the 5th landing of the staircase turn to the left in 
the passage, and enter the third door on the right; visitors apply 
to one of the custodians ; the permesso is also available for the 
saloons of the Conservatori). On the ground-floor of the same house 
is the entrance to the Tabularium (p. 222). 

The two palaces at the sides were erected in the 17th cent, by 
Oiacomo del Buca, with some deviations from the plans of Michael 
Angelo. On the right is the Palace of the Conservatori (PI. i), 
or town-council, with its collections (see below ; a fire-engine station 
on the ground-floor), and opposite is the Capitoline Museum (PI. 12 ; 
p. 217). — The flights of steps and colonnades on the E. side of 
these palaces were erected by Vignola ; that to the left by the 
museum leads to the church of S. Maria in Aracoeli and the former 
Franciscan monastery (p. 212); that to the right, on the opposite 
side, to Monte Caprino (p. 222). 

On the right of the Palace of the Senators runs the Via del 
Campidoglio, and on the left the Via dell' Arco di Settimio Severo, 
both descending to the Forum (comp. Plan, p. 216). 

Collections op the Capitol. 
These are contained in the two side-palaces just mentioned, 
and are open daily (except on Easter Sunday, 20th Sept., 1st Nov., 
and 24th Dec), 10-3, adm. l l%ii.\ gratis on Sundays, 10-1, during 
the months from May to September, inclusive, and also on New 
Year's Day, Epiphany, during the Festa dello Statuto (at the 
beginning of June), on Ascension Day, Corpus Christi, SS. Peter 
and Paul (29th June), 15th Aug., 8th Sept., and 8th Dec. 

A. *Palace of trie Conservatori. 

(Comp. Plan, p. 216). 
This palace contains a number of antiques and particularly of 
bronzes, the yield of the most recent excavations, and also a small 
Etruscan Museum. Here, too, are the 'Protomoteca', or Capitoline 
Picture Gallery, and the 'Saloons of the Conservatori'. 

The principal door leads from the Piazza del Campidoglio into the 
Court, where on the right, by the door, is a statue of Csesar, and on the 
left one of Augustus. In the court lie numerous pieces of columns of 
coloured marble, capitals, fragments of friezes, etc., found during recent 
excavations; by the right wall, hand and limbs of a colossal figure in 
marble; left, colossal head in marble, high-relief of a province on the 

214 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

pedestal. Adjacent is the cinerary urn of Agrippina, wife of Germanicus, 
which in the middle-ages was employed as a measure for corn; inscrip- 
tion, Ossa Agrippinae M. Agrippae f. dioi Augusti neptis uxoris Germanici 
Caesaris Matris C. Caesaris Aug. Germanici principis. In the centre of 
the Colonnade opposite the entrance, a statue of Koma ; at the sides statues 
of barbarians in grey marble. Between the Roma and the Barbarian on 
the right is a statue supposed to represent the Kmp. Trajanus Decius in 
the character of Mars. To the left, in the corner, a colossal bronze head ; 
right an antique group, -Horse torn by a lion. 

In the Entbance-Hall farther on, to the left, 29. Statue of a Bac- 
chante; opposite the staircase, 30. Modern 'columna rostrata\ with the 
genuine fragment of an inscription in honour of C. Duilius, the victor of 
Myke, B.C. 260, and renewed under Tiberius. On each side of the stair- 
case are Roman inscriptions built into the wall, most of which were found 
on the Esquiline. — In the niches on the landing of the staircase, 
left, 35. Ceres ; right, 34. Urania (inaccurately restored). Here in the 
small court , in the centre , is a bust of Hadrian ; on the pedestal an 
ancient list of streets of the year 136 A. D. Built into the walls, are 
four * reliefs from a triumphal arch of 31. Aurelius, found near S. Martina 
in the Forum : on the right, 44. Sacrifice in front of the Capitoline temple ; 
on the long wall, 43. Entry of the emperor, passing the temple of Jupiter 
Tonans ; 42. Pardon of conquered enemies ; 41. His reception by Roma at the 
triumphal gate. On the walls are ancient inscriptions. On the left above 
the second landing, No. 43. Relief, Curtius on horseback leaping into 
the chasm. — In the passage above, two reliefs from the triumphal arch of 
M. Aurelius (p. 146), which was removed in 1653 by order of Alexander VII., 
representing the apotheosis of Faustina. 

Adjacent, on the Left, is the entrance to the Collections. We traverse 
two Rooms with modern lists of Roman magistrates, and enter a long 
Cokbidok containing the so-called Protomoteca, founded by Pius VII.. a 
collection of busts of celebrated Italians, including poets (such as Dante, 
Petrarch, and Ariosto), scholars, painters, architects, and sculptors. At 
the end of the corridor is a monument to Canova. Several eminent foreigners 
have also been admitted: (1.) Winckelmann, (r.) Poussin and Raphael 
Mengs. — The second door to the right in this passage is the entrance to 
the New Capitoline Museum (see below), wile the last door but two leads 
to the picture-gallery (see lielow), and the last but one leads up two steps 
to the 7th, 6th, and 5th rooms of the New Capitoline Museum. 

"New Capitoline Collection. I. Room. In glass cabinets along the 
walls are arranged all kinds of bronze utensils ; a Roman balance , with 
scales, chains, and weights ; then helmets, candelabra, and vases. Under 
glass: (1.) Bronze Chariot, with representations in relief; (r.) "Bronze 
Seat, with a footstool, adorned with inlaid silver work, found at the 
ancient Amiternum, and presented by A. Castellani. In the centre, also 
under glass, a Litter, partly inlaid with silver; right, Statuette of a Ro- 
man Lar ; left, Hermaphrodite, from whose back springs an arabesque, 
designed as a bearer. — We now proceed in a straight direction into the — 

II. Room. The antique "Pavement, found on the Esquiline, consists 
of tablets of many different and very rare kinds of alabaster. In the 
centre is the former Albani-Campana Collection of Coins, including many 
of the imperial epoch in gold. A small case to the left contains glass-pastes, 
gems, and cameos. On the walls are specimens of aes grave, coins of the 
emperors and gentes, medals and coins of various periods. — We retrace 
our steps hence, and turn to the right into the large octagonal — 

III. Dome Saloon, lighted from above, and constructed of iron and 
wood in the Pompeian style , by Vespignani. In the Vestibule , to the 
right : 2. Tombstone of Q. Sulpicius Maximus , a boy of ID/2 years, who, 
according to the Latin inscription, worked himself to death after having 
gained the prize over 52 competitors for extemporising in Greek verses, 
quotations from which are inscribed on each side of the statuette of the 
youthful poet (found at the Porta Salara in 1870, p. 161). To the left: 
S. Sitting Statue of Terra Mater (Mother Earth), in a small temple with 
inscription, found in 1872 in the burial eround near S. Lorenzo. In the 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 215 

wall are several reliefs. — Farther on , at the entrance to the saloon, is 
a large dog in verde ranocchio. On the right , 10. Old woman carrying 
off a young lamb, a very realistic figure, with new head; 11. Bust of 
Faustina, the elder ; 14, 16. Tritons, of good workmanship ; ''15. Admirably 
preserved half-figure of the Emperor Commodus , with the attributes of 
Hercules. The marble still displays its fine original polish. The pedestal 
is formed by two Amazons (one only preserved) bearing a shield enclosed 
by cornucopia, below which is the globe of the firmament; 17. Bust of 
Plotina , wife of Trajan; 21. Large Sarcophagus from Vicovaro; on the 
lid a recumbent group, representing a man with a scroll, and a woman 
with a lute; on the front, the Hunt of Meleager; on the left side, a Lion 
hunt, on the right, the Bringing home of the spoil ; 24. Terpsichore ; 
25. Well preserved youthful head (Commodus ?) ; "26. Venus in the act 
of loosening her hair (both arms missing); 28. Polyhymnia; 30, 31. Colossal 
statues, between which is an elegant candelabrum ; 33. Statue of Claudia 
Justa, with attributes of Fortune ; Replica of the so-called Eros of Praxiteles 
(Vatican, Galleria delle Statue), found on the Esquiline; in a niche behind 
it, to the right, interesting '''Relief, representing Vulcan and three Cyclopes 
making the shield of Achilles, while on the left stands Minerva with the 
olive-tree, segis , and owl, and on the right Juno with an oak-tree, on 
which sits the peacock, sacred to that goddess ; "36. Head of a Centaur ; 
38, 42. Athletes, who must be supposed standing opposite each other, found 
atVelletri; 40. Cow, of good workmanship; below it a sarcophagus with 
the four seasons ; 44. Bust of Manlia Scantilla, wife of the Emperor Didius 
Julianus; 45. Tiberius; 46. Colossal bust of Maecenas, found at Otricoli; 
47. Characteristic portrait head of a Roman ; 48. Bust of Didia Clara, daughter 
of the Emperor Didius Julianus; the last female bust, with a diadem, 
perhaps represents Antonia, wife of Drusus. — By the Pilasters: 53. Well 
preserved head of JSsculapius ; 56. Head of a boy; '59. Head of an Ama- 
zon , found on the Esquiline ; 62-65. Caryatides in the Archaic style ; 
two large vases, the one with spirited Bacchic representations particularly 
fine. Over the fountain, Boy hunting ; 35. Infant Hercules with the lion's 
skin, club, and quiver, in his left hand the apples of the Hesperides, 
found, in 1872 together with the Terra Mater (No. 8, see above). 69. 
Fountain in the shape of a goblet resting on a wreath of leaves , and 
terminating in a winged Chimsera. The upper part of the goblet is 
embellished with three delicately designed Msenades. According to the 
Greek inscription below the water -spout, this work was executed by 
Pontios of Athens ; it was found in the gardens of Meecenas. 

IV. Gallery. To the right : "'75. Fighting Hercules, with a portrait head, 
composed of numerous fragments ; 78. Two ancient Trapezophorse, with 
a modern marble slab, on which are placed various small works in marble, 
and a fragment of a Roman calendar, found at Corneto. Opposite, 130. 
Silenus, un a crouching attitude, a fountain-figure, found in 1874 in the 
Via di Porta S. Lorenzo ; 70. Colossal foot in marble, whose Tyrrhenian 
sandal is adorned with a pleasing composition of Tritons, Cupids, and 
Dolphins , found in 1872 in front of S. Cesareo on the Via Appia ; 
125. Boy (restored as Mercury) playing with a tortoise (fountain-figure), 
— On the walls of the Coekidok are copies of the mural paintings 
found in a columbarium near the so-called temple of Minerva Medica, 
referring to the earliest mythical history of Rome (see p. 182); 124. 
Marble vase, richly adorned with acanthus leaves; 123. Boy with a 
small dog ; 86. iEsculapius. On the sarcophagus to the right are various 
candelabra in stone ; 90. Sacrifice to Mithras. On the sarcophagus adorned 
with Tritons and Nereids to the left, are several Hermes (busts); 117. Relief 
in travertine with representations of sacrifices to Mithras; 115. Trilateral 
pedestal of a candelabrum , with Jupiter, Hercules , and Spes ; 105, 106. 
Marble reliefs with scenes from the worship of Mithras, the larger of them 
bearing distinct traces of gilding and colour. — A glass door, generally 
closed, next leads us into a court (giardino) of the Palazzo of the Con- 
servator^ where part of the substructions of the Capitoline temple of Ju- 
piter, and (in the wall to the left) the fragment of a colossal column of 
the temple are noteworthy. 

216 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

We traverse the corridor of the Protomoteca (passing the monument 
of Canova on the right), and enter the — 

V. Room of the Teeeacottas. Along the walls are all kinds of com- 
mon domestic utensils (pitchers, lamps, jars, etc.) and terracotta reliefs 
used as mural decorations, with the painting partly preserved; then Ar- 
retinian pottery, votive, and other objects. The remains of the oldest- 
tombs found on the Esquiline, placed immediately to the left of the 
entrance, are particularly interesting. In the centre are glass cabinets, 
containing earthenware lamps, glass vessels', potsherds, mosaics, and a 
variety of anticaglias. 

VI. Room of the Bronzes. At the entrance, "Priest's Boy (Camillus), 
Ephesian Diana, on a trilateral altar. By the window, the so-called 
"Capitoline Wolf, in the early Etruscan style, with Romulus and Remus; 
possibly the same which the tediles Cneius and (Juintus Ogulnius erected 
in B.C. 296. An injury on the right hind-leg is supposed to have been 
caused by lightning, by which, according to Cicero, the figure was struck 
in B.C. 65, in the consulate of Manlius and Cotta ; the twins are modern. 
This work, with other bronzes, stood near the Lateran as early as the 
10th century. In the centre, an expressive Bronze Head, said to be that 
of L. Junius Brutus who expelled the kings, and became the first consul; 
eyes restored. 36. Small three-bodied Hecale. The "Thorn Extractor, a 
boy removing a thorn from his foot. A Horse, sadly mutilated, but of 
excellent workmanship, found in 1849 in the Vicolo delle Palme 'in Traste- 
vere, together with the fragments of a Bull. Then a Colossal Hand and 
a Colossal Fool (comp. p. 253). Between these a Tripod. 2. Vase, found 
near Porto d'Anzio , presented by King Jlithridates to a gymnasium. 
Gilded Statue of Hercules. The glass cabinets along the walls contain 
fragments of weapons, bronze implements, Roman scales, two inscriptions 
on brass, etc. 

VII. Room of Ethuscan Teeeacottas, or the so-called Museo Italico, 
a collection of vases, terracottas (including two sarcophagi with figures 
on the lids), bronzes, and various anticaglias from Etruria and Latium, 
presented to the city by A. Castellani in 1866, and interesting only for 
purposes of study. Under glass: Silver cover of a cist with archaic figures 
of animals, found at Palestrina. 

On quitting this collection we enter by the first door on the right, a 
room with excellent, but sadly damaged frescoes, and ascend to the — 

Picture Gallery, founded by Benedict XIV. In a straight direction we 
enter the first saloon. The names are given by labels attached. 

I. Fikst Saloon. Right wall: 6. Romanelli, St. Cecilia; 7. Pietro da 
Cortona, Triumph of Dionysus; 13. Guercino, John the Baptist; 14. N. 
Poussiu , Flora (copy of the picture in the Louvre); 16. Guido Reni, 
M. Magdalene; 20. Domenichino, Cumsean Sibyl; 65. Garofalo, Madonna 
and saints; 115. Giorgione, Holy Family. Narrow wall: Albani, Nativity; 

26. Tintoretto, M. Magdalene; Gaud. Ferrari, Adoration of the Shepherds; 

27. Fra Bartolommeo (V), Presentation in the Temple; 30. Garofalo , Holy 
Family ; 34. Guercino, Persian Sibyl. Left window-wall : 9. Albani, Magdalene ; 
55. Ann. Carracci, Holy Family; 51. AVA. of Raphael, Holy Family; 195. 
Paolo Veronese, Ascension; 52. >S\ Botticelli (?), Madonna and saints; 54. 
Garofalo, Coronation of St. Catharine; Guido Reni, The Holy Ghost. 
Entrance-wall: 76. Polid. Caravaggio, Meleager; 78. Fr. Francia, Madonna 
and saints (1513); ! 89. Rubens, Romulus and Remus; 157. Giulio Romano, 
Judith; 127. Lorenzo di Credi, Madonna and Child. On the two window- 
walls, above: "Ten frescoes attributed to Spagna, representing Apollo and 
the nine Muses, formerly in the hunting chateau La Magliana (see p. 387). 

Passing through a door in the corner to the right, and traversing a 
small corridor with landscapes, we next enter the — 

II. lioosi. 223. Paolo Veronese, Madonna with angels; Garofalo, 201. 
Transfiguration; 161. Annunciation; 204. Adoration of saints; "61. Guido 
Reni, Portrait of himself; 100. Van Duck, Two portraits; Portrait of 
Michael Angelo, probably by himself; : "i(l0. Van Duck, Portraits of two 
men ; 80. Velasquez, Portrait. 



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The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 217 

III. Room. *132. Giov. Bellini, Portrait; 87. St. Augustine, by the 
same; 124. Titian, Baptism of Christ; 136. Giov. Bellini ('!), Petrarch; 
129. Portrait, by the same; 49. DomenicMno , Landscape with Hercules; 
8. Caracci, Landscape with St. Magdalene; 103. DomenicMno, St. Barbara; 
66. Bronzino, Portrait of a lady ; 137. DomenicMno , Landscape with St. 
Sebastian; 98. School of Bellini, Holy Family. 

IV. Second Saloon. P. da Cortona, Rape of the Sabine women; 116. 
Guido Reni, St. Sebastian; 117. Guercino, Cleopatra and Octavian; 119. Lod. 
Caracci, St. Sebastian; 128. Caravaggio, Fortune-telling gipsy. Short wall: 
142. Albano, Nativity of the Virgin ; "143. Guercino, St. Petronella raised from 
her tomb and shown to her bridegroom. Left wall : 41. iV. Poussin, Orpheus ; 
154. P. Veronese, Magdalene; 164. Garofalo, Madonna; 169. Cignani, Madonna ; 
180. Titian, Christ and the adulteress; 186. Carpi, Holy Family; 224. Paolo 
Veronese, Rape of Europa. 

The following Sale dei Conservator! are shown on the same days as the 
gallery (p. 213). We are first conducted to the Large Saloon, with frescoes 
by the Cavaliere d'Arpino, representing the Combat of the Horatii and the 
Curiatii, and other scenes from the period of the Kings ; it also contains a 
bronze statue of Innocent X. by Algardi, and marble statues of Urban VIII. 
by Bernini, and Leo X. by Giacomo del Duca. — II. Room : Paintings by 
Laureti ; statues of the generals Marcantonio Colonna, Alexander Farnese, 
Rospigliosi, Aldobrandini, and Barberini. — III. Room: Scenes from the 
Cimbrian war, and several antique busts. — IV. Room: Fragments of the 
'■'■'Fasti Consulares, or lists of Roman consuls, found in the 16th cent, (and 
smaller fragments in 1818 and 1872), near the temple of the Dioscuri, the 
steps to which they perhaps flanked. Along the walls are busts of Socra- 
tes, Sappho(?), Alcibiades(?), and Diogenes (?), in the hermal form, with 
modern inscriptions. — V. Room. Several antiques : jug in the form of a 
female head in bronze ; two ducks ; Head of Medusa , by Bernini. — 
VI. Room, formerly the assembly hall of the senate. The frieze, represent- 
ing scenes from the life of Scipio Africanus, is attributed to Ann. Carracci. 
On the walls is tapestry woven at S. Michele. Bust of Michael Angelo, 
attributed to himself. Also busts in marble of Victor Emmanuel, Cavour, 
and Mazzini. — VII. Room: Mural paintings by Sodoma, from the First 
and Second Punic Wars. — Adjacent is the old Chapel with an "'Altar- 
fresco of the Madonna, probably by Pinturicchio. 

B. **Capitoline Museum. 
This museum was founded by Innocent X., and extended by 
Clement XII. , Benedict XIV., Clement XIII., and Pius VI. The 
works carried off by the French were restored with few exceptions 
to Pius VII. The collection is much smaller than that of the Vatican, 
but is rich in admirable works. New catalogue in preparation. 

A. Ground Floor. 

Court (Cortile). Above the fountain in the centre is the 
*Marforio (supposed to be derived from 'Forum Martis'), a colossal 
river- god holding a shell, probably representing the Rhine or 
Danube, erected in the middle ages in the Via di Marforio opposite 
the Career Mamertinus, where it was employed as a vehicle for the 
sarcastic answers to the interrogatories of Pasquino (see p. 201). 
At the sides two Pans, and several sarcophagi and busts. 

Corridor (PI. 4), to the left of the entrance: 3. Colossal 
Minerva; 6. Sarcophagus with Bacchanalian representation; 7. 
Bacchante. — On the Left, at the end, is the entrance to the — 

I. Room (PI. 1). Sarcophagus with a lion hunt. In the centre 

218 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

is a vase in the Egyptian style on a marble pedestal with a Pal- 
my rene inscription. On the walls are inscriptions, and an ancient 
mosaic, representing Hercules spinning in female attire, and Cupids 
binding a lion. A number of reliefs and inscriptions are still 
awaiting arrangement. — II. and III. Rooms (PI. 2, 3) : Inscriptions, 
sarcophagi, and cinerary urns ; No. 4, in the 3rd room, bearing a 
representation of the Calydonian, and No. 8, another hunt. 

We return to the Corridor (PI. 4). At the end to the left : 
9. Province in high-relief. Farther on, to the left, several mediocre 
female draped statues. — To the right of the principal entrance : 
(right) 20. Diana; 21. Young Hercules; 22. Luna; 26. Mercury; 
(left) 25. Cyclopean Polyphemus with one of his victims (improperly 
restored); (left) 28. Hadrian as a priest; (right) 29. Sarcophagus 
with the Calydonian hunt; (right) 30. Jupiter; (right) 31. Colossal 
Mars (legs modern) ; 32. Hercules with the Hydra ; adjoining, Leg 
of Hercules belonging to the statue. — Adjacent, to the right, is 
the entrance to three rooms containing inscriptions and several 
interesting sarcophagi. 

I. Room (PI. 5). 1. Ara, which stood in the market-place of 
Albano till 1743, with archaic representation of the exploits of 
Hercules. Also a few insignificant busts. — ■ II. Room (PI. 6). 
*4. Sarcophagus with battle between the Romans and Gauls ; the 
commander of the latter commits suicide (perhaps Anerostus, de- 
feated B.C. 225 near Pisa) ; (left) 14. Cippus of T. Statilius Aper, 
with a wild boar (aper) at his feet. On the walls are inscriptions. — 
III. Room (PI. 7). Large *sarcophagus (formerly supposed to be 
that of Alex. Severus and his mother Mammaea), with scenes from 
the life of Achilles : Achilles among the daughters of Lycomedes, 
(left) farewell of Deidamia, (right) arming of Achilles; at the back, 
Priam begging for the body of Hector (found with the Portland 
Vase of the British Museum near Porta Maggiore). Left of the 
door: 14. Sitting statue of Pluto. — We now return to the hall, 
and ascend the staircase to the — 

B. First Floor. 

Staircase (PI. 8). Into the walls are built the fragments of 
the marble Plan of Rome, an important topographic relic, executed 
under Sept. Severus , found in the 16th cent, in SS. Cosma e Da- 
miano (p. 232). Portions of the pieces found have been lost, hut 
supplemented from the extant drawings (these parts are indicated 
by asterisks). On the landing of the stair are two female statues, 
groundlessly designated as Pudicitia and Juno Lanuvina. 

I. Room op the Dying Gladiator. In the centre: 1. **Dying 
Gladiator, representing a mortally wounded Gaul, sitting on his 
shield, while the blood pours from his wounded breast; he has evi- 
dently inflicted the fatal blow himself, having previously broken 
the crooked horn which lies on his shield. He has preferred death 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 219 

to captivity, and exhibits the same dignity of chaiacter as the Bar- 
barian in the group now in the Villa Ludovisi, which was probably 
found at the same time (comp. p. 163). The visitor will readily 
recall the exquisite lines by Byron: Childe Harold, Canto iv., 140. 
— 2. (right of the door) Apollo with lyre, Right wall : *4. Head of 
Dionysus, erroneously taken for a woman's (Ariadne's); 5. Amazon; 
6. Alexander the Great; 7. Demeter. Wall opposite the entrance: 
9. Head of M. Jun. Brutus, the 'tu quoque Brute' of Caesar; 10. 
Priestess of Isis; 11. Flora from the villa of Hadrian. Left wall : 
*13. Antinous from Hadrian's villa (p.xxxviii); *15. Satyr of Praxi- 
teles, the best of the extant copies (p. xxxiii); 16. Girl protecting a 
dove ; instead of the modern snake , there was probably a dog , or 
some other animal in the original. Entrance-wall : 17. Zeno, found 
in 1701 in a villa of Antoninus Pius at Civita Lavinia. 

II. Stanza dbl Fauno. On the walls reliefs, inscriptions, etc., 
among them the Lex Regia of Vespasian (black tablet on the en- 
trance-wall), whence Cola di Rienzi 'the last of the Tribunes' once 
demonstrated to the people the might and liberty of ancient Rome. 
In the centre, 1. Satyr (Fauno J in rosso antico, raising a bunch of 
grapes to his mouth, from Hadrian's villa, placed on a remarkable 
altar, dedicated to Serapis. Window-wall: 5. Colossal head of 
Bacchus , on a circular ara with a rostrum , and the inscription ara 
tranquillitatis , found together with the Ara Ventorum (No. 6) and 
the Ara Neptuni (No. 2) at Porto d'Anzio, where they were employ- 
ed by sailors for offering sacrifices. Wall of egress : 8. Head of 
Mercury (?); 11. Sarcophagus with relief of Luna and Endymion ; 
*10. Head of Juno Sospita; 13. Boy with mask of Silenus. Right 
wall: 15. Small Minerva; 17. Mars. Entrance-wall: 20. Bust of 
Hercules; 21. Boy struggling with a goose, copy of a statue by 
Boethus, excavated near the Lateran in 1741; *26. Sarcophagus 
with battle of Amazons, and, on its left corner, 23. Head of Ari- 
adne crowned with ivy. 

III. Large Saloon. In the centre : 1. Jupiter, in nero antico, 
or black marble, found at Porto d'Anzio , on an altar adorned with 
Mercury, Apollo , and Diana , in the archaic style. *2, *4. Two 
Centaurs in bigio morato , by Aristeas and Papias , found in Ha- 
drian's villa in 1736 ; 3. Colossal basaltic statue of the youthful 
Hercules , found on the Aventine ; it stands on a beautiful altar of 
Jupiter , embellished with representations of his birth, education, 
etc. ; 5. ^Esculapius, in nero antico , on an altar representing a 
sacrifice. — Window-wall to the left of the entrance : 6. Portrait- 
statue restored as Hygeia ; 8. Apollo with lyre ; 9. M. Aurelius ; 
10. Amazon; 11. Mars and Venus, found near Ostia ; 13. Athena. 
— Wall of egress : 14. Satyr; 15. Apollo; 16. Minerva; 17. Col- 
ossal bust of Trajan with civic crown. — Right wall: 21. Hadrian 
as Mars, found near Ceprano. The two columns adjoining the niche 
were found near the tomb of CasciliaMetella. In the niche: *Athena, 

220 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

ancient replica of an earlier original. 25. Amazon; 26. Apollo; 

27. Mercury; 28. Old nurse, probably from a group of the Chil- 
dren of Niohe ; 30. Ceres (?). — Entrance-wall: 31. Colossal bust 
of Antoninus Pius ; 33. Hunter with a hare ; 34. Harpocrates, god 
of silence, from Hadrian's villa. 

IV. Room of the Philosophers. On the wall valuable *Reliefs, 
five from the frieze of a temple of Neptune , with sacrificial im- 
plements of parts of ships (all marked A) ; over the entrance, death 
of Meleager (B); on the wall of the egress, an archaic Bacchana- 
lian relief by Callimachus (M), etc. — In the centre the sitting 
consular *Statue of M. Claudius Marcellus ('?), conqueror of Syra- 
cuse, B. C. 212, from the Giustiniani collection, formerly in the 
Museo Chiaramonti. Also 93 *Busts of celebrated characters of 
antiquity , to some of which arbitrary names are affixed. 1. Vir- 
gil (?); 4, *5, 6. Socrates; 9. Aristides the orator; 10. Seneca (?); 
13. Lysias (?) ; 16. Marcus Agrippa ; 19. Theophrastus ; 20. Marcus 
Aurelius; 21. Diogenes the Cynic; 22. Sophocles (not Archime- 
des); 23. Thales; 24. Asclepiades ; 25. Theon; 27. Pythagoras ; 

28. Alexander the Great(?); 30. Aristophanes (?) ; 31. Demosthe- 
nes; 33, 34. Sophocles; 35. Alcibiades (? certainly not Persius) ; 
37. Hippocrates ; 38. Aratus (?) ; 39, 40. Democritus of Abdera ; 
41, 42, 43. Euripides; 44, 45, *46. Homer; 47. Epimenides ; 
48. Cn. Domitius Corbulo , general under Claudius and Nero ; 
*49. Scipio Africanus , recognisable by the wound on his head 
which he received when a youth at the battle of Ticinus, whilst 
saving his father's life ; 52. Cato the Censor; 54. Minerva ; 55. Cleo- 
patra(?); *59. Arminius(?), erroneously named Cecrops ; 60. Thu- 
cydides(?); 61. .-Eschines ; 62. Metrodorus ; 64. Epicurus; 63. Epi- 
curus and Metrodorus ; 68, 69. Masinissa ; 70. Antisthenes ; 72, 
73. Julius the Apostate; 75. Cicero; 76. Terence, according to 
others C. Asinius Pollio ; *82. zEschylus (?). The names of the 
busts by the window-wall are unknown. 

V. Room of the Busts of the Emperors. Reliefs by the 
entrance-wall : over the door, /. Mercury, Hercules, Graces, Nymphs 
carrying off Hylas ; H. *Endymion asleep, beside him the watchful 
dog ; F. *Perseus liberates Andromeda ( these two belong to the 
eight reliefs in the Pal. Spada, p. 204). E. (above the door of 
egress): sarcophagus-relief, Muses (a cast, original in the Louvre). 
Then, above the windows, more reliefs: B. Triumph of the youth- 
ful Bacchus , A. Circus games, Bacchanalia, D. Calydonian hunt 
(this last modern). The collection of the emperors' busts is one of 
the most complete in existence; the names are for the most part 
verified by coins. In the centre : *Sitting female statue , believed 
to be Agrippina, daughter of M. Agrippa, wife of ^ermanicus and 
mother of Caligula. The numbering of the busts commences in the 
upper row, to the left of the entrance-door. 1. Julius Ca?sar ; 
2. Augustus; 3. Marcellus, nephew of the latter (?); 4, 5. Tibe- 

The Capitol. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 221 

rius ; 6. Dmsus the elder; 7. Drusus, son of Tiberius ; 8. Antonia, 
wife of the elder Drusus , mother of Germanicus and Claudius ; 
9. Germanicus; 10. Agrippina, his wife; *11. Caligula, in basalt; 
1'2. Claudius, son of Drusus; 13. Messalina, fifth wife of Clau- 
dius ; 14. Agrippina the younger, daughter of Germanicus, mother 
of Nero ; 15. Nero; 17. Poppaea, Nero's second wife ; 18. Galba ; 
19. Otho; 20. Vitellius (_"?"); 21. Vespasian; 22. Titus; 23. Julia, 
his daughter; 24. Domitian ; 26. Nerva (modern?); 27. Trajan; 
28. Plotina, his wife; 29. Martiana, his sister; 30. Matidia , her 
daughter; 31, 32. Hadrian; 33. Sabina, his wife; 34. yElius Cte- 
sar, his adopted son ; 35. Antoninus Pius ; 36. Faustina the elder, 
his wife ; 37. M. Aurelius as a boy ; 38. M. Aurelius , more ad- 
vanced in life; 39. Faustina the younger, daughter of Antoninus, 
wife of Aurelius; 41. Lucius Verus; 43. Commodus; 45. Perti- 
nax; 50, 51. Septim. Severus; 53. Caracalla ; 57. Heliogabalus ; 
60. Alex. Severus; *92. Maximin; 63. Maximus, son of Maximin; 
64. Gordian Afr. ; 65. Gordian ; 76. Gallienus; 80. Diocletian (?) ; 
82. Julian the Apostate. We next enter the — 

VI. Corridor. At the left end : No. 76. a beautiful marble 
vase on an archaic *puteal with the 12 gods : Jupiter. Juno, Min- 
erva, Hercules, Apollo, Diana, Mars, Venus, Vesta, Mercury, 
Neptune, and Vulcan. Then, the back of the visitor being turned 
to the window : (1.) 72. Trajan ; (1.) *71. Pallas, found at Velletri, 
exactly corresponding to the statue (No. 114) in the Braccio Nuovo 
of the Vatican ; (1.) 70. M. Aurelius, as a boy ; (r.) *69. Bust of 
Caligula ; (1.) *73. Head of Silenus ; (1.) 66. Augustus ; (1.) 64. Ju- 
piter, on a cippus with relief: Claudia Quinta drawing a boat con- 
taining the image of the Magna Mater up the Tiber ; (r.) 61. Venus ; 
(r.) 56. Female draped statue. (The door opposite leads to the 
Venus-room.) Left, 55. Head of Apollo ; (r.) 54. Antinous ; (1.) 
53. Psyche; (r.) *48. Sarcophagus with representation of the birth 
and education of Bacchus; (r.) 44. Selene; (1.) 43. Head of 
Ariadne. Here and in the following compartments , on the right, 
are immured the inscriptions from the columbarium of Livia (found 
in 1726 near the church of Domine Quo Vadis). Right: 40. Child 
of Niobe ; (1.) 39. and (r.) 38. Venus ; (1.) 37. Marble vessel with 
Bacchanalian scenes ; (r.) 36. Copy of the discus-thrower of Myron 
(Pal. Lancelotti, p. 192), incorrectly restored as a warrior; (1.) 
33. Flute-playing Satyr ; (r.) 32. Muse; (1.) 29. Octagonal ciner- 
ary urn with Cupids in the attitudes of celebrated statues; (r.) 
28. Sarcophagus with the rape of Proserpine ; (r.) 26. The child 
Hercules with the snakes; (1.) 22. Archaic relief, a lute-player (?); 
(1.) 20. Old woman intoxicated; (r.) 16. Sitting draped statue. 
Opposite the entrance to the Room of the Doves : (1.) *13. Cupid 
bending his bow (after Lysippus) ; (r.) 12. Flute-playing Satyr; 
(1.) 9. Recumbent lion; (r.) 5. Silenus ; (r.) 3. Septim. Serverus ; 
(1.) 2. Faustina; (r.) 1. M. Aurelius 

222 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Capitol. 

VII. Room op the Doves , so called from the *mosaic on the 
right wall : Doves on a Fountain-basin , found in Hadrian's Villa 
near Tibur, copy of a celebrated work by Sosus of Pergamum, men- 
tioned by Pliny. Below it, a sarcophagus : 88. Prometheus forming 
man , whom Minerva inspires with life , in a style showing the 
transition to the Christian period of art. Farther on , by the right 
wall, a mosaic with several masks. Under them : *60. Sarcophagus 
with Selene and Endym-ion. The busts 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, on 
the narrow wall, are particularly good. By the left wall, in the 
2nd window, 25. the Ulan Tablet, a small relief in palombino, a 
soft kind of marble , with the destruction of Troy and flight of 
jEneas in the centre , and many other incidents from the legends 
of the Trojan war, explained by Greek inscriptions, probably de- 
signed for purposes of instruction, found near Bovillae. 

VIII. Room of Venus. Adjoining the gallery is the Venus 
Room, which contains the ** Capitoline Venus, unquestionably the 
workmanship of a Greek chisel, and the most admirable of all the 
existing copies of the Aphrodite of Cnidus by Praxiteles (p. xxxiii), 
the perfect type of feminine grace. The statue was found almost 
uninjured in a carefully walled-up niche between the Viminal and 
Quirinal. — Left, Leda with the swan, a mediocre work ; right, 
*Cupid and Psyche, found on the Aventine. 

On the S. height of the Capitol, called the Monte Caprino 
(to which a flight of steps ascends to the right at the back of the 
Palace of the Conservatori, comp. p. 213"), stands the so-called 
Casa Tarpeia with the Protestant hospital and the new German 
Archaeological Institute , erected in 1874-76 by Laspeyres, at the 
cost of the German government. In the garden (custodian, Monte 
Caprino 130) is shown the Rupe Tarpeia, or Tarpeian Rock. If 
this really be the rock from which the condemned used to be thrown 
by the ancient Romans, its height and abruptness must have been 
greatly diminished since that period; and as, moreover, it is by no 
means certain that it was situated here, a visit to the spot may well 
be omitted. Ancient substructions of solid stone, which were dis- 
covered in the garden of the Pal. Caffarelli (p. 210) in 1866, be- 
long to the temple of the Capitoline Jupiter. 

Of the buildings which covered the Capitol in ancient times the 
only existing relics are the imposing ruins on which the Senatorial 
Palace has been erected. (Entrance by the gate in the Via del Cam- 
pidoglio , comp. p. 212; we then enter the door to the right with 
the superscription 'Tabularium'; rules as to admission th same as 
in the case of the Capitoline collections, p. 213.) This was 
the Tabularium , erected in B.C. 78 by the consul T utatius 
Catulus for the reception of the state archives, and resthi^ ■ the 
massive substructions which surround the hill. It consisted of a 
five-fold series of vaults , the last of which opened towards the 



Wj^nuMt. L-ifiii 

120 130 jjtg ISO 

iio 130 iao %° ° 

Forum Romanum. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 223 

Forum in the form of a colonnade with half-columns in the Doric 
style, which are still visible. The vaults were used in the middle 
ages as a public salt magazine, and the stones have been much 
corroded by the action of the salt. From this point there is a beauti- 
ful *View of the Forum. The rooms contain architectural fragments 
from the neighbouring temples and other buildings, and a valuable 
collection of amphorae found on the Esquiline within the last few 
years. An ancient flight of steps, now partly restored, descended 
hence to the Forum, where, to the left of the temple of Vespasian, 
the archway where it issued is observed. 

The Forum Romanum. 

(Comp. Sketch- Plan.) 

In the most ancient times the Capitol and Palatine were sep- 
arated by a deep and marshy valley. The pavement by the col- 
umn of Phocas still lies 38 ft. only above the level of the sea, and 
22 ft. above the level of the Tiber, but 13 ft. lower than the height 
of an ordinary inundation. In consequence of the lowness of this 
valley , it was , as may well be supposed , a difficult and tedious 
task to raise the level and drain the marsh . For this purpose Tar- 
quinius Priscus, the fifth of the kings, is said to have constructed 
the Cloaca Maxima, which still renders good service (p. 250); and 
several canalicolae , or tributary drains which fell into the main 
channel, have recently been discovered. Tradition makes this hol- 
low the scene of the conflict of the Romans under Romulus against 
the Sabines under Titus Tatius after the rape of the Sabine women. 
After the hostile tribes were amalgamated into a single state, they 
chose the Forum as its centre , and it was here that some of the 
most famous scenes in the history of the Roman Republic were 
enacted. On the N. side (S. Adriano) lay the Curia Ho stilia , or 
council-hall , which is said to have been erected by King Tullus 
Hostilius ; while on theS. side, at the foot of the Palatine rose the 
Temple of Vesta (S. Maria Liberatrice) , with its eternal Are, and 
the Regia, or dwelling of the Pontifex Maximus, the president of 
the Roman hierarchy. The Comitium, or open space in the centre, 
was the place where popular assemblies were wont to be held. The 
Forum was bounded by streets , the most important of which was 
the Via Sacra ascending to the Capitol. In the Forum and its en- 
virons building operations and various changes have been taking 
place at intervals for upwards of two thousand years, and it is there- 
fore not to be wondered at that a number of topographical questions 
regarding it are still unsolved, and that the imagination of scholars 
has indulged in the most extravagant flights with regard to this 
spot more than any other in Rome. It is , however , ascertained 
that the Forum extended from the foot of the Capitol , sloping 
downwards towards the E., although it has sometimes been erron- 
eously supposed that it extended from N.^ to S. The Basilica 

224 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Forum Romanum. 

Julia marks the 8. boundary of the Republican Forum, but the 
E. boundary has not yet been discovered. Along the sides of the 
Forum were ranged the tabernae veteres and novae, or shops, which 
were originally occupied by butchers and other craftsmen, and 
afterwards by money-changers and goldsmiths. In the course oi 
time a number of temples, public buildings, and monuments were 
erected here. Of those still existing the most ancient is the Career 
Mamertinus (p. 231), or well-house , situated on the slope of the 
Capitol, the foundation of which reaches back to the period of the 
kings. Soon after the temple of the Capitoline Jupiter (p. 209), were 
founded the Temples of Saturn (B.C. 491) and Castor and Pollux 
(484). The Temple of Concord (366) commemorates the termination 
of the protracted struggle between the patricians and the plebeians. 
At the period of the Samnite "War , which resulted in the exten- 
sion of Rome's supremacy over the whole of Italy, we are informed 
that the Forum underwent many embellishments. At last, howe- 
ver, as it was only 150 yds. in length, its area became too confined 
for the important and multifarious business transacted within its 
precincts ; for it was not used for political and commercial pur- 
poses only, but for the celebration of the funerals of the nobility, 
for the gladiator combats which were introduced about the year 
2(34, and on other public occasions. The first expedient for gaining 
space was the erection of basilicas , or quadrangular courts sur- 
rounded by colonnades, adjoining the Forum, with a view to draw 
off a portion of the traffic. In 184 Cato erected the Basilica Porcia 
on the N. side; in 179 followed the Basilica JZmilia, and in 169 
the Basilica Sempronia. The task was prosecuted with the utmost 
energy by CassAR , who extended the Forum by the addition of the 
Forum Julium (pp. 238, 239), and appears to have projected a 
cutting through the hill which connected the Capitol with the 
Quirinal in order to facilitate communication with the new quarter 
which was rapidly springing up in the Campus Martius. He also 
restored the Curia Hostilia, and erected the spacious Basilica Julia 
on the S. side of the Forum. Augustus proceeded to carry out the 
plans of his uncle, and to that emperor is chiefly due the arrange- 
ment of the Forum which the present excavations are bringing to 
light. All the edifices of the Republic were restored by him and 
his successors , whose energetic building operations extended over 
the first four centuries of the Christian era. They thus endeav- 
oured , as it would appear, to compensate their i-ubjects by ex- 
ternal magnificence for the loss of liberty they had sustained. 
Five new fora , constructed between the time of Ca?sar and that oi 
Trajan, adjoined each other on the N. side of the old Forum, thus 
connecting the central point of the original city with the palatial 
buildings of the Campus Martius. By these new fora the Forum of 
the Republic would have been well nigh eclipsed, but for the glor- 
ious traditions connected with it, to commemorate which it wa« 

Forum Romanum. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 225 

profusely adorned with gilded bronzes and rare marbles , with 
columns, triumphal arches, statues, and works of art , while its 
history was recorded by innumerable inscriptions. 

These ancient buildings were restored for the last time in the reign 
of king Theodoric, in the first half of the 6th century, and the last new 
monument erected in the Forum was the Column of Phocas , dating from 
608, but the rudeness of the architecture distinctly betrays the degraded 
taste of the period. As early indeed as the first half of the 6th cent, had 
begun the war of extermination waged by the Middle Ages against 
paganism. Ancient temples were transformed into churches, such as those 
of S. Giuseppe, S. Luca, S. Adriano, S. Lorenzo, SS. Gosma e Damiano, 
S. Francesca, and S. Maria Liberatrice. These were afterwards frequently 
altered and restored , while others of the same class, like a church of 
SS. Sergio e Bacco in the temple of Concord and another at the S.E. 
corner of the Basilica Julia, have entirely disappeared. Interspersed with 
these churches were the towers and castles of the Roman nobility, erected 
among the ruins of the 'ancient buildings in the style best adapted for 
the prosecution of their perpetual feuds. In most cases, the dimensions 
of the monuments of antiquity, were far too vast to admit of their being 
used for mediaeval purposes, but another mode of utilising these immense 
masses of building materials readily suggested itself. Throughout a 
thousand years the edifices of ancient Rome were employed as quarries, 
from which churches and secular buildings alike derived their columns, 
their blocks of solid stone, and, owing to a still more destructive pro- 
ceeding, their supplies of lime also from the burning of marble. The fact 
that in the Basilica Julia alone there have been discovered lime-kilns and 
stone-masons 1 yards at three different places will convey an idea of the vast 
quantity of marble, bearing valuable inscriptions and artistic enrichments, 
which must have been destroyed in this way; and it need hardly be observed 
that the bronzes of antiquity were still more eagerly appropriated in an 
age when metal of every kind was scarce. This accounts for the miser- 
ably small number of statues and inscriptions which modern excavations 
have yielded. After the systematic destruction of the Forum, its remains 
were gradually buried beneath the rubbish and debris of some four 
centuries, so that the ancient pavement is at places 40 ft. below the present 
level of the ground. Down to the 8th cent, the ancient level was unal- 
tered. In the 11th and 12th centuries the Forum was thickly covered 
with towers and fortress walls, which closed up the old streets, and when 
these were demolished about the year 1221, the ground appears for the 
first time to have been covered with an accumulation of rubbish. Fresh 
deposits were afterwards made when the new buildings on the neigh- 
bouring heights were in course of erection. This was particularly the 
case in 1536, when Paul III. constructed a triumphal street from the Porta 
S. Sebastiano through the arches of Constantine and Titus, and around 
the N. side of the Capitol (on which occasion the new approaches to 
the latter were formed, p. 210). He caused 200 houses which stood be- 
tween the arches of Titus and Severus to be demolished, and he constructed 
on their site the piazza as it stood until recently. The large buildings 
erected by Sixtus V. probably also contributed to the raising of the level 
of the ground. 

In the middle ages, and down to the present day, the Forum was 
popularly known as the Campo Vaccino. Its desolate area was covered 
with the teams of buffaloes and oxen of the peasantry, and smiths and 
carpenters established their workshops around it, while a few isolated 
columns, protruding from the rubbish, alone formed a reminiscence of its 
departed glory. And thus it remained until the 19th century. As early 
as 1519 Raphael had indeed formed a plan for restoring the ancient city, 
and especially the Forum, by means of extensive excavations; and during 
his lifetime, and subsequently, particularly in 1546-47, the work was 
begun in the neighbourhood of the temple of Castor and Faustina. The 
object in view, however, being merely the discovery of monuments and 
works of art, the excavations were soon filled up again, and in the 17th 

226 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Forum Romanum. 

and 18th centuries were entirely discontinued. At length, during the present 
century, the plan was revived by the modern spirit of investigation. In 
1803 the arch of Severus , in 1813 the column of Phocas , and in 1816-19 
the Clivus Capitolinus with its teraple3, were disinterred under the super- 
intendence of Carlo Fea , while the French during their occupation of 
Rome appear to have directed their attention to more productive loca- 
lities. In 1835, and during the republic in 1848, part of the Basilica Julia 
was excavated by Canina, but from that year down to 1871 the work was 
discontinued. The Italian government resumed the excavations again 
with considerable energy; and by these last operations the Basilica, the 
temples of Castor and Csesar, and a great part of the Comitium and 
the neighbouring streets have been brought to light, and an admirable 
clue to the arrangements of the whole locality has thus been obtained. 
The excavations are carried on by Cav. Lanciani under the superintendence 
of Senator Fiorelli, but serious obstacles are presented to the work by the 
growing requirements of modern business. It is hoped, however, that the 
undertaking, which was planned and begun when the Renaissance was at 
its zenith and has since been so frequently resumed, will ere long be finally 
and satisfactorily completed, and that the most memorable spot in the 
history of Europe will at length be fully brought to light and purged of 
the unseemly accumulations of the rubbish heaped upon it by the neglect 
of centuries. 

The Entrance to the excavations (open daily till sunset; no fee) is 
at the back of the temple of Castor. — The following description is in 
the order of the buildings when approached from the Capitol. 

Descending from the piazza of the Capitol through the Via del 
Campidoglio to the right, past the Senatorial Palace (comp. p. 213), 
we enjoy from the lower end another good *Survey of thb Fokum. 
The excavated portions are divided by the modern street into two 
halves. The smaller to the left below contains among other relics 
the temple of Saturn, to which the eight imfluted columns belong, 
the three columns of the temple of Vespasian, the arch of Septimius 
Severus, and immediately below in the corner the colonnade of the 
twelve gods. The second division comprises the column of Phocas, 
the three columns of the temple of Castor, the great Basilica, the 
Comitium with its enclosure of brickwork, and the bare walls of 
the temple of Caesar. Beyond these, to the left, is the temple of 
Faustina now converted into a church, then the huge arches of the 
basilica of Constantine, the Colosseum, the arch of Titus, and to the 
right the ruins and gardens of the Palatine. 

Here, on the S.W. slope of the hill (Clivus Capitolinus), an- 
ciently descended the Via Sacra, the basalt pavement of which is 
visible below. 

The first building facing us, of which eight granite columns are 
still standing on a basement 16 ft. high, is the * Temple of Saturn, 
originally consecrated by the consuls Sempronius and Minucius, B. C. 
491, and restored by Munatius Plancus (B. C. 44?). From the ear- 
liest times this was the seat of the Mrarium Publicum , or public 

The inscription , Senates populusque Romanus incendio consumptum 
restituit, refers to a later restoration , undertaken hastily and without 
taste, the columns being of unequal thickness and placed at irregular 
Intervals. Of the lofty flight of steps by which the portico was approached 
there are now but scanty traces. The back is concealed by the street. 

Forum Romanum. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 227 

In the 15th cent., according to Poggio's statement, the ruin was In much 
better preservation. 

Below the temple of Saturn, but concealed by the modern road, once 
rose the Triumphal Arch erected in A.D. 16 to the emperor Tiberius, to 
commemorate the defeat of the Germanic tribes and the recovery of the 
Roman insignia which had been lost at the battle of the Teutoburgian 
Forest. Fragments of the arch and inscriptions still lie scattered about. 

Below the Tabularium (p. 222j, of the upper gallery of which 
one arch only now stands, and in the angle formed with it by the 
street , lies the Schola Xantha with the Colonnade of the Twelve 
Gods (deorum consentium) , whose images were erected here in 
A.D. 367 by Vettius Agorius Praetextatus, the prasfectus urbi, and 
one of the principal champions of expiring paganism. The struc- 
ture was destined for the use of scribes and notaries. The name 
Schola Xantha is derived from a certain Fabius Xanthus by whom 
it was once restored. In 1858 the ruin was much modernised. 

To the right of this the Tabularium is adjoined by the Ruin of 
the Three Columns, or * Temple of Vespasian, erected under Domi- 
tian, and restored by Septimius Severus. 

The inscription ran thus : 'Divo Vespasiano Augusto Senatus populusque 
romanus imperator Caesar Severus et Antoninus Pii Felices Augusti 
restituerunt.' 1 Of this a part of the last word only is preserved. The 
columns and entablature display excellent workmanship. In front the 
temple had six columns, 49 ft. high, and 4V2 ft. in diameter at the base. 
An egress of the Tabularium (p. 222) through the back of the cella has 
evidently been built up. 

Farther on, to the right, and with its back to the Tabularium, 
is the Temple of Concordia, founded in B.C. 366 by M. Furius 
Camillus, and rebuilt on a larger scale by Tiberius, B.C. 7. It was 
dedicated to Concord to commemorate the termination of the pro- 
tracted struggle between the patricians and plebeians. 

The smaller projecting rectangle of the raised substructure was the 
temple itself, while the larger edifice behind, projecting on both sides 
of the temple (but concealed on one side by the ascent to Aracoeli), was 
the Senate-Hall, the threshold of which is still distinguishable. On the 
ruins of this temple was erected the church of SS. Sergio and Bacco, 
which was taken down in the 16th century. 

In front of the temple of Concordia, and above the Via Sacra 
(Clivus Capitolinus), rises the * Triumphal Arch of Septimius Se- 
verus, 75 ft. in height, 82 ft. in breadth, with three passages. It 
was erected in honour of that emperor and his sons Caracalla and 
Geta in A.D. 203, to commemorate his victories over the Parthians, 
Arabians, and Adiabeni, and was surmounted by a brazen chariot 
with six horses, on which stood Severus, crowned by Victory. Ca- 
racalla afterwards erased the name of his brother Geta, whom he 
had murdered. The letters were, as was usual with inscriptions of 
this kind, originally inlaid with metal. 

Above the arches are figures of Victory; at the sides, crowded scenes 
from the wars of the emperor. Side next the Forum : (1.), Raising of the 
Siege of Nisibis in the Parthian war; (r.), Treaty with Armenia, Siege of 
Atra. Side next the Capitol: (r.), Siege and capture of Babylon ; (1.), 
Conquest of Ctesiphon and Seleucia. On the bases of the columns, 
Captive barbarians. All these figures are in the degraded style of the 
sculpture of that period. In the middle ages the arch was temporarily 

i fS * 

228 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Forum Romanum. 

converted by the ruling powers into a kind of castle, and was deeply 
imbedded in rubbish, but was unearthed by Pius VII. in 1803. 

The arched wall by the arch of Severus is the remains of the Rostra, 
or orator^s tribune, a name derived from the iron prows of the war- 
ships of Antium with which the tribune was adorned after the capture 
of that town in B.C. 338. At the end of it was the Umbilicus urbis 
Romae , or ideal centre of the city and empire , the remains of which 
are recognisable. At the other end, below the street, are a few traces 
of the Miliarium Anreum, or central milestone of the roads radiating 
from Rome, erected by Augustus in B.C. 28. It is, however, doubtful 
whether these names are correctly applied to these remains. 

From this part of the excavations, passages lead under the mo- 
dern street to the second division, which embraces the excavations 
made in 1848 and those of a recent period. 

The visitor should lirst notice the direction of the Streets, in 
order to obtain an idea of the topography of the ancient forum. 
On the S. side, between the brick pedestals and the basilica, there 
descends from the temple of Saturn a street to which another cor- 
responded on the N. side, where the excavations have not yet been 
begun. At the lowest part of the ground, where it begins to slope 
upwards towards the Velia and Palatine, the longitudinal street is 
intersected by a cross-street coming from the Tiber, which separates 
the Basilica from the temple of Castor, and must also have inter- 
sected the northern longitudinal street near the temple of Csesar. 
This was the busy Vicus Tuscus, which led from the Forum to the 
Velabrum and to the cattle-market by the river (p. 250J. The lowest 
part of the Forum was at the point where this street entered it. A 
second parallel transverse street, also coming from the river, ran be- 
tween the temple of Saturn and the basilica, and was called the 
Vicus Jugarius. 

Thus was formed the Centre of the Forum , an oblong rect- 
angle , bounded by four streets , from which it is distinguished by 
being paved with slabs of travertine instead of blocks of basalt, 
and being a little raised above the streets and approached by steps. 
This in all probability was the Comitium, or space set apart for 
public, assemblies and other important business. On the S. side of 
this rectangle, at equal distances , are seven square pedestals of 
brick, which were once covered with marble, and were probably con- 
nected by railings or chains for the purpose of separating the comi- 
tium from the street. 

In the comitium, on the W. side, rises the — 

*Column of Phocas, 54 ft. in height, which was erected in 608 
in honour of the tyrant Phocas of the Eastern Empire, by the exarch 
Smaragdus, having been taken by him from some older building 
for the purpose. It was formerly crowned with a gilded statue of 
Phocas. For a long period this column formed the distinctive mark 
of the Forum ('the nameless column with a buried base': Byron): 
but it was at length disinterred in 1813 at the cost of the Duchess 
of Devonshire. 

To the right of the column of Phocas are two.ReWe/s(';uiaglypha'), 

Forum Komanum. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 229 

which weTe formerly built into the walls of a mediaeval tower. They 
were discovered in 1872 and left undisturbed, after the removal 
of the tower. They aTe of topographical value as they hear reference 
to the different localities of the Forum. 

The Rostra recurring in both reliefs, the 'ficus ruminalis 1 , or fig-tree 
under which the she-wolf reposed, and the statue of Marsyas identify the 
scene of action as the Republican Forum. The first relief (next the Capi- 
tol) alludes to Trajan's 'alinienta', or institution for poor children: on 
the right, is the emperor, in front of him is Italy, holding a child by the 
hand (destroyed) , -and another in her arms to which Trajan hands a 
'tessera', or ticket; on the left is a magistrate with his lictors, proclaiming 
his edict from the rostra. The second relief represents the remission of 
arrears of succession-duty, the records of which are being set on fire in 
Trajan's presence. On the inner sides are a wild boar, a ram, and a 
bull, the victims sacrificed at the public celebration of the Suovetaurilia. 

The main arm of the Cloaca Maxima (p. 250) , discovered in 
1872, runs under the Basilica Julia, at the B. end of the comitium.. 

The *Basilica Julia was founded by Caesar with a view to enlarge 
the Forum, and inaugurated in B. C. 46, after the battle of Thapsus, 
but before its completion. Augustus extended it, but did not witness 
its completion, as it was destroyed by a fire The building was again 
twice injured by Are towards the end of the 3rd century. It was 
restored several times, the last being in A.D. 377. The building is 
mentioned in history for the last time in the 7th cent., and it was 
probably destroyed in the 8th. After several partial excavations, it 
was entirely extricated in 1871, when remains of a mediaeval church, 
limekilns, and human bones at no great depth were discovered. 
This spot had formerly been the burial-place of the adjoining hos- 
pital della Consolazione. 

The Ground Plan of the basilica is a rectangle, about 111 yds. long 
and 53 yds. wide. A flight of six, and at places nine, steps ascended to 
the basilica from the street. Along the four sides were double aisles 
which enclosed a Central Space, about 90 yds. by 17 yds. , paved with 
variegated African and Phrygian marble, and separated from the aisles 
by iron railings. The greater part of the pavement has been restored, 
a few fragments of the original only having been preserved. The valuable 
material of which the pavement was composed renders it probable that 
this space was covered with a roof. The sittings of the tribunal of the 
Centumviri, in four different sections, took place here. The Aisles were 
paved with white marble , on which are still seen a number of circles, 
and occasionally writing , scratched on the surface by visitors. These 
were used by them in playing a game resembling draughts, to which the 
ancient Romans were as devoted as the modern. The aisles were separated 
by a triple row of Columns, sixteen on each side, and ten at each end, 
constructed of brick and encrusted with travertine. On the side next the 
street the pillars were adorned with Doric half-columns built against 
them. Ten only of the ancient pillars, up to a height of about 16 ft., 
are now preserved at the S.W. corner of the building. All the other trunks 
of pillars which are seen here have recently been reconstructed, partly 
with the original materials. The pillars supported arches, which have 
also been restored, but their original spring is still clearly distinguishable. 
The building had an upper story to which the steps still traceable on 
the °. side ascended. On this side the basilica was adjoined by older 
buildings, constructed of tuffstone, which seem to have been 'tabernae', 
or shops, but have not yet been thoroughly excavated or explored. 

To the E. of the Basilica, and separated from it by the street, is 

230 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Forum Romanum. 

the * Temple of Castor and Pollux, dedicated to the twin gods out 
of gratitude for the aid which enabled the Romans to defeat the La- 
tins at the battle of Lake Regillus in B.C. 496, and inaugurated in 
484. It was afterwards rebuilt by Tiberius and re-consecrated in 
A.D. 6. This was one of the most famous temples of the Republic, 
and was often used for meetings of the senate. 

The basement of the cella rises to a height of 22 ft., and was ap- 
proached hy a flight of 18 steps, with two lateral flights, of which that 
on the E. side only is preserved. The building was mainly constructed 
of concrete, which was faced with blocks of tufa, and around these were 
placed the blocks of travertine which supported the enclosing colonnade. 
These blocks, however, as well as the steps on the W. side, have entirely 
disappeared (although the impression made by them on the concrete is 
still visible), and the v. idth of the building has thus been diminished by 
about one half. On the E. side stands a fragment of the Stylobate, with 
three columns of Parian marble, which are among the finest of the kind 
now existing (height 46 ft., diameter 5 ft.). The Corinthian capitals and 
the architrave are both in a very superior style of workmanship. The 
temple had eight columns in front and probably thirteen on each side. 
The length, however, has not been precisely ascertained, the posterior 
part being still covered by the modern street. Remains of the mosaic 
pavement of the Cella are still to be seen, lying about 3 ft. below the 
level of the portico and the surrounding colonnade. This peculiarity was 
probably occasioned by the alterations made by Tiberius. 

Towards the E. of the temple of Castor are remains of the pave- 
ment of an ancient street, with fragments of ancient and mediaeval 
buildings, the purpose of which cannot yet be ascertained. A ring 
here, provided with a runlet, is supposed to be a remnant of the 
Puteal Libonis, or the enclosure of a spot which had been struck 
by lightning. Copious springs arise in this locality, with which the 
drainage descending from the Palatine unites. 

On the E. side of the Forum, and facing the Capitol, is situated 
the Temple of Ceesar, on the spot to which Caesar, besides other 
alterations, transferred the tribune of the orators (Rostra Julia). It 
was from this tribune, at the funeral of the murdered dictator on 
19th or 20th March, B.C. 44, that Mark Antony pronounced the 
celebrated oration which wrought so powerfully on the passions of 
the excited populace. A funeral pyre was hastily improvised, and 
the unparalleled honour accorded to the illustrious deceased of being 
burned in view of the most sacred shrines of the city. A column 
with the inscription 'parenti patriae' was afterwards erected here to 
commemorate the event. Augustus afterwards erected this temple 
in honour of 'Divus Julius', his deified uncle and adoptive father, 
and dedicated it to him in B.C. 29, after the battle of Actium. At 
the same time he adorned the Rostra with the prows of the captured 
Egyptian vessels. 

The foundation of the substructions of the temple , consisting of 
concrete, were discovered in 1872, but their covering of solid stone has 
been removed. In front of the temple there are the remains of a plat- 
form, still partly paved with slabs of stone, which is believed to have 
been the rostra of imperial Rome. Its present form appears to have 
resulted from subsequent alterations. 

Between the temple of Caesar and that of Faustina to the E of 

Forum Bomanum . ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 231 

it are several ruins of late Roman and early mediaeval buildings 
with Temains of pavement in marble mosaic. The temple of Faustina, 
now completely excavated, is again connected with the rest of the 
Forum. In front of the temple runs an ancient street, the Via Sacra 
(comp. p. 226), with the ruts of wheels still visible , whence the 
temple is approached by a flight of steps interrupted in the middle 
by a projecting platform. 

The * Temple of Faustina, of which the portico (with ten co- 
lumns, six of which form the facade) and part of the cella are still 
standing, was dedicated by Antoninus in 141 to his wife, the elder 
Faustina, and re-dedicated to that emperor himself after his death. 
The first line of the inscription, Divo Antonino et divae Faustinae 
ex S.C., was then added. In the interior of the temple is the church 
of S. Lorenzo in Miranda. 

The portico was excavated in 1807 and 1810. (In front of it once 
stood the Arcus Fabianus, erected in honour of Fabius Maximus, the con- 
queror of the Allobrogi, in A.D. 123.) The columns are of cipollino, or 
marble of Eubcea, and are 46 ft. in height. The cella is of peperine, the 
marble incrustation of which has entirely disappeared. — The year of the 
foundation of the church is unknown, and the earliest record of it dates 
from 1430. The facade was erected in 1602. The entrance is at present 
in the Via di S. Lorenzo in Miranda, on the S.E. side. 

To the left of the Via dell' Arco di Settimio Severo ascending 
to the Capitol, at the entrance to the Via di Marforio, we observe 
the small church of S. Giuseppe de' Falegnami. Below it (entrance 
in the first-named street, '/2 &•) i s tne Career Mamertinus, one of 
the most ancient structures in Rome. It was originally built over a 
well, named Tullianum, and thence traditionally attributed to Ser- 
vius Tullius, and it was afterwards used as a prison. 

It consists of two chambers, one below the other, of very ancient 
construction. The upper is an irregular quadrilateral, which was probably 
once adjoined by other similar chambers. An inscription on the front 
records that the building was restored in B.C. 22. The lower chamber, 
which was originally only accessible through a hole in the ceiling, is 
19 ft. long, 10 ft, wide, and 61/2 ft. high. The vaulting is formed by the 
gradual projection of the side walls until they meet. It contains a spring, 
which, according to the legend, St. Peter, who was imprisoned here under 
Nero, miraculously caused to flow in order to baptise his jailors. The 
building has therefore been named S. Pietro in Garcere since the 15th 
century. In this dungeon perished Jugurtha after having been deprived 
of food for six days , Vercingetorix, and other conquered enemies. 
Sallust, in recording the execution of Catiline's confederates, describes the 
prison thus: — 'Est in c;>rcere locus, quod Tullianum appellator, circiter 
duodecim pedes humi depressus. Eum miniuiit undique parietes atque 
insuper camera lapideis fornicibus vincta; sed incultu tenebris odore 
foeda atque terribilis ejus facies est.' 

Nearly opposite stands the church of SS. Lucae Martina, erected 
on the site of an ancient building. It consists of an upper and 
lower church ; the latter being of very ancient origin, and the former 
erected in the 17th cent, by Pietro da Cortona. 

On the opposite side of the Via Bonella, which leads to the Aca- 
demy of S. Luca (p. 238) and the Forum of Augustus (p. 239), is 
the church of §• Adriano, with its unadorned facade, uninteresting 

232 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Velia. 

like the last-mentioned, and also occupying the site of an ancient 
edifice, probably the Curia Hostilia, which was subsequently re- 
erected under the name of Curia Julia by Caesar and Augustus, and 
was used as an assembly-hall by the senate. The church was erected 
by Honorius I. in the 7th cent, and afterwards restored. 

The Velia. 

The Colosseum. Baths of Titus. 

A hill, named the Velia in ancient times, connects the Palatine 
and Esquiline, its highest point being marked by the Arch of Titus 
(97 ft.). The excavations which took place here in 1879-80 are 
separated from those of the Forum by a street, but the description 
of them forms a continuation of those already mentioned. 

Beyond the temple of Faustina (p. 231) we next come to — 

*SS. Cosma e Damiano (PI. II, 20, 5), built by Felix IV. (526- 
30), having been incorporated with an ancient circular temple erected 
by the Emp. Maxentius to his son Romulus, and sometimes errone- 
ously called a temple of the Penates. Owing to the dampness of 
the soil, Urban VIII. raised the level of the pavement so much in 
1633, that an upper and a lower church were formed. The entrance, 
with the antique columns of porphyry and bronze doors, formerly 
lay considerably higher, and has only been connected with the lower 
church since the excavation of the surrounding soil. 

The Lowes Chukch, which presents little attraction, contains the tomb 
of SS. Cosmas, Damianus, and Felix, an ancient altar, remains of an an- 
cient pavement, and somewhat lower a spring, said to have been called 
forth by St. Felix. 

TJprEE Chukch. On the arch of the choir and in the tribune are in- 
teresting ''Mosaics of the 6th cent., the period of the founder, perhaps the 
most beautiful of their kind at Rome, but freely restored about 1660 (best 
light towards evening). Those on the arch, which has been shortened 
during a restoration, represent the Lamb with the Book and seven seals, 
according to Revelations iv. ; adjoining these the seven candlesticks, four 
angels, and two of the symbols (angel and eagle) of the Evangelists. The 
arms with wreaths, below, belonged to two prophets. In the tribune: 
Christ, to whom the saints Cosmas and Damianus are conducted by Peter 
and Paul; on the left side St. Felix with the church (new), on the right 
St. Theodoras. Beneath , Christ as the Lamb , towards whom the twelve 
lambs (apostles) turn. 

At the back of the church were found the remains of an ancient 
plan of Home (p. 218), other fragments of which were discovered in 1867- 
68. The ancient wall to which the plan was affixed belonged to Ves- 
pasian's Temple of Peace. — The two cipollino columns to the right of 
the church probably belonged to the ancient circular temple. 

In front of the church (Temple of Komulus) passes the recently 
excavated continuation of the Via Sacra, on the S. side of which 
many remains of brick walls, evidently belonging to private dwel- 
ling-houses, have been brought to light. Some of these remains lie 
above still older ruins, the well-executed mosaic pavements of which 
still exist (e. g., opposite the Temple of Romulus, in the corner 
next to the Palatine). Buildings of a later period (about the 8th 
cent.) have also been found here, such as a vaulted chamber entered 

Basilica of Constantine. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 233 

from the ancient street, opposite the Temple of Romulus, and a 
well-preserved porch. Opposite the latter is an ancient exedra, 
opening towards the old street, with marble pavement still partially 

We next reach the three colossal arches of the *Basilica of Con- 
stantine (PI. II, 20, 23), erected by Maxentius, but afterwards 
altered by his conqueror Constantine. The entrance originally faced 
the Colosseum, but afterwards the Via Sacra. It was a basilica of 
three halls, with vaulting of vast span, which has served as a model 
to modern architects, as in the case of St. Peter's, where the vault- 
ing is of the same width. 

The Ground Plan is rectangular in form, about 100 yds. long and 
88yds. wide. The principal apse, opposite the entrance from the Colos- 
seum, now forms part of a granary. After the opening of the second 
entrance on the side next the Palatine, a second apse was added. The 
tunnel vaulting of the S. aisle has been preserved; width 66 ft., depth 
54 ft., height 78 ft. The span of the nave was about 80 ft. ; its height 
112 ft., and its width 66 ft. In front of the central pillars stood eight 
huge Corinthian columns of white marble; the only one now existing 
stands in front of S. Maria Maggiore (p. 177). 

The traveller should not omit to ascend to the summit for the sake 
of the magnificent ""Panorama of ancient Rome which it commands. 
We follow the street between the Temple of Faustina and S. Cosma e 
Damiano to the end, traverse a lane to the right, and proceed by the Via 
del Tempio della Pace to the left into the Via del Colosseo. At the 
corner here, immediately to the right, is No. 61, an institution for poor 
girls (visitors ring; 1 fr.), from the garden of which we ascend a flight 
of steps. A window adjoining the stairs affords the best view of the 
Colosseum , to the left of which are the Thermse of Titus on the Es- 
quiline; to the right the circular S. Stefano ; nearer, S. Giovanni e Paolo 
with the new dome, both on the Cselius. Beyond the Colosseum the 
Alban, and to the left the Sabine Mts. To the S. the Palatine with the 
ruins of the imperial palaces and two monasteries, and the opposite bank 
of the Tiber with the Villa Pampbilj. Towards the W. the Capitol; to 
the right of it, between the domes of two churches, Trajan's Column is 
visible; above the latter Monte Mario; farther to the right the Torre di 
Nerone and the Quirinal. Towards the N. the church of S. Pietro in 
Vincoli with its magnificent palm, and S. Maria Maggiore, recognised 
by its two domes and Romanesque tower, both on the Esquiline. 

Adjoining the basilica of Constantine, and partly occupying the 
site of a temple of Venus and Roma (see below), is the church of — 

S. Francesca Romana (PI. II, 23), or S. Maria Nuova, standing 
on the site of an older church of Nicholas I. founded about 860, re- 
erected after a fire by Honorius III. about 1216, and modernised 
by Carlo Lombardo in 1615. Festival, 9th March. 

Interior. On the right, 2nd Chapel i (r.) Monument of Card. Vulcani 
(d. 1322) and that of the papal commandant and general Antonio Rido (d. 1475). 
3rd Chapel : Miracles of St. Benedict , altar-piece by Subleyras. In the 
Tribune mosaics of the 12th cent, (lately restored) : in the centre Madonna, 
(1.) SS. John and James, (r.) Peter and Andrew. Over the high-altar an 
ancient Madonna, traditionally attributed to St. Luke, which is said alone 
to have escaped destruction in the conflagration. To the right of the apse : 
monument of Gregory XI., who transferred the papal residence from Avignon 
to Rome (d. 1378), with a relief by Olivieri. Here on the right, built into 
the wall, are two stones on which Peter and Paul are said to have knelt 
when they prayed for the punishment of Simon Magus. In the Confessio a 
group of the saints with an angel, by Meli. Under the tribune (closed, but 

234 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Arch of Titus. 

the sacristan escorts visitors with a light, if desired) is the tomb of the saint, 
and over the altar a marble relief by Bernini. — Sacristy. On the left wall 
a Madonna with four saints, by Sinibaldo Ibi, a pupil of Perugino, 1524. ■ — 
The sacristan now shows a Coukt behind the church , with the well-pre- 
served western *Apse of the Temple of Venus and Roma (fee '/a fr.). 

Adjoining the church , on the summit of the Velia , and at the 
foot of the Palatine, rises the *Triumphal Arch of Titus, commem- 
orating the defeat of the Jews (A.D. 70), and dedicated to him 
under his successor Domitian in 81, as the inscription on the side 
next the Colosseum records : Senatus populusque Romanus divo Tito 
divi Vespasiani filio Vespasiano Augusto. The arch is embellished 
with fine *Reliefs (p. xxxviii). 

Outside : On the same side as the inscription, is a sacrificial procession 
on the frieze. Inside : Titus crowned by Victory in a quadriga driven by 
Roma; opposite, the triumphal procession with the captive Jews, table 
with the show-bread , and candlestick with seven branches. — In the 
middle ages the arch was used as a fortress by the Frangipani, and 
strengthened with battlements and new walls. When these were removed 
in 1822 under Pius VII., the arch lost its support, and had to be recon- 
structed, as stated by the inscription on the other side. The central part, 
in marble, is therefore alone ancient; the restored parts are of travertine. 

The street now descends, passing the remains of private dwel- 
ling-houses, to the Colosseum. On the left is the double apse of the 
Temple of Venus and Roma, or Templum Vrbis (PI. II, 20), erected 
by Hadrian from a plan by himself in A.D. 135, and restored after 
a fire by Maxentius in 307. This was one of the most superb temples 
in Rome. The gilded bronze tiles were removed to St. Peter's by 
Honorius I. in 626. 

There were evidently two temples under the same roof, entered from 
the sides next the Colosseum and next the Capitol. The cellse were 
adjacent, so that there was a niche on each side of the central wall for 
the image of a god. One half is built into the monastery of S. Fran- 
cesca Romana (p. 233) ; the other towards the Colosseum is open. The 
vestibules of the cellse had each four columns in front. Around each 
ran a colonnade of ten columns at the ends, and twenty at the sides 
(length 120 yds., width 58 yds.). This colonnade was enclosed by a second, 
of about 200 columns, 180 yds. long, and 110 yds. wide, and" projecting 
as far as the street, where it was supported by massive substructions. 
To this colonnade belonged the granite shafts scattered about here. The 
cellse were encrusted with the rarest marbles. 

Descending hence to the Colosseum, we observe the remains of 
an extensive square Basis of masonry to the left below. Here once 
stood the gilded bronze Colossal Statue of Nero, as god of the sun, 
surrounded with rays, and about 117 ft. in height, executed by 
Zenodorus by order of the emperor himself, to grace the golden 
palace which he erected with lavish splendour after the burning of 
Rome in A.D. 64. The palace fell to decay soon after the emperor's 
death fin 68), and the statue was removed thence by Hadrian to 
this pedestal. In the space occupied by an artificial lake in the 
gardens of Nero, Vespasian founded the — 

**Colosseum (PI. II, 24), originally called the Amphitheatrum 
Flavium , the largest theatre, and one of the most imposing struc- 
tures in the world , completed by Titus in A.D. 80. It was in- 

The Colosseum. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 235 

augurated by gladiatorial combats , continued during 100 days, in 
which 5000 wild animals were killed , and naval contests were ex- 
hibited; and it contained seats for 87,000 spectators. The building 
has been known since the 8th cent, under its present name, derived 
probably from the colossal statue of Nero which once adorned it. 

Having been injured by fire in the reign of Macrinus, it was restored 
by Alexander Severus. In 248 the Emp. Philip here celebrated the 1000th 
anniversary of the foundation of Rome with magnificent games. In 405 
gladiator-combats were abolished by Honorius as inconsistent with the pre- 
cepts of Christianity, but wild-beast fights "were continued till the time of 
Theodoric the Great. In the Middle Ages the Colosseum was used by the 
Roman barons, especially the Frangipani, as a fortress. In 1312 the Anni- 
baldi were obliged to surrender it to Emp. Henry VII., who presented it 
to the Roman senate and people. In 1332 the Roman nobility again intro- 
duced bull-fights. After this period, however, the destruction of the Colos- 
seum began, and the stupendous pile began to be regarded as a kind of 
quarry. In the 15th cent. Paul II. here procured materials for the con- 
struction of the Pal. di S. Marco (di Venezia), Card. Riario for the Can- 
celleria , and Paul III. (1534-49) for the Palazzo Farnese. Sixtus V. pro- 
posed to establish a cloth-factory here, and Clement XI. actually used the 
building for the manufacture of saltpetre. Benedict XIV. (1740-58) was 
the first to protect the edifice from farther demolition by consecrating the 
interior to the Passion of Christ, owing to the frequency with which the 
blood of martyrs had flowed there ; and he erected small chapels within 
it, which were removed in 1874. The following popes, particularly 
Pius VII. and Leo XII., have averted the imminent danger of the fall of 
the ruins by the erection of huge buttresses. The steps in the interior were 
restored by Pius IX. 

The Colosseum is constructed of blocks of travertine, originally 
held together by iron cramps, and tufa and bricks have also been 
used in the interior. The numerous holes were bored in the middle 
ages, for the purpose of extracting the then very valuable iron. 
According to the most trustworthy statistics the external circum- 
ference of the elliptical structure measures 576 yds., or nearly one- 
third of a mile, the long diameter 205 yds., the shorter 170 yds., 
the arena 93 yds. by 58 yds., and the height 156 ft. Above the 
arena rise the tiers of seats, intersected by steps and passages, most 
of which are now in ruins and only partially accessible. 

The exterior of the still preserved N.E. portion, on the side 
next the Esquiline , consists of four stories, the three first being 
formed by arcades, the pillars of which are adorned with half-columns 
of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian order in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 
stories respectively. A wall with windows between Corinthian 
pilasters forms the 4th story. Statues were placed in the arcades of 
the 2nd and 3rd stories, as appears from the representations on 
ancient coins. At the ends of the diameters are the four triple 
Principal Entrances , those next to the Esquiline and Cajlius 
being destined for the emperor, the others for the solemn proces- 
sion before the beginning of the games, and for the introduction 
of the animals and machinery. On the side next the Esquiline are 
seen traces of the stucco-decorations, which were restored under 
Pius VII., and were once used as models by Giovanni da Udine, 
the pupil of Raphael. The arcades of the lowest story served as 

236 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. The Colosseum. 

entrances for the spectators, and were furnished with numbers up to 
lxxx. (Nos. xxiii. to liv. still exist), in order to indicate the stair- 
cases to the different seats. Below, on the exterior , are two rows 
of arcades , and then a massive substructure for the seats. Every 
fourth arch contains a staircase. 

Part of the Tiers op Seats is still distinguishable ; the foremost, 
called the Podium, was destined for the emperor, the senators, and 
the Vestal Virgins. The emperor occupied a raised seat, called the 
Pulvinar, and the others had seats of honour. Above the Podium 
rose three other classes of seats, the first of which was allotted to the 
knights. The humbler spectators occupied the last division , in a 
colonnade , on the roof of which were stationed sailors of the im- 
perial fleet for the purpose of stretching sail-cloth over the whole 
amphitheatre to exclude the glare of sun. Apertures are still seen 
in the external coping, with corbels below them , for the support of 
the masts to which the necessary ropes were attached. 

Under the Akena , and adjacent to the foundations of the inner 
wall , were chambers and dens for the wild beasts. More towards 
the centre were found a number of walls, pillars, and arches, partly 
required for the support of the arena , and partly connected with 
the theatrical apparatus employed in some of the performances. 
Since 1874 excavations have been made with a view to disclose all 
these arrangements, in the course of which fragments of columns, 
marble slabs (some of them bearing combats of wild beasts and glad- 
iators scratched on them) , and other architectural relics have been 
discovered. The precise uses of the various chambers are not yet 

Although one-third only of the gigantic structure remains, the 
ruins are still stupendously impressive. An architect of last century 
estimated the value of the materials still existing at IY2 million 
scudi, which according to the present value of money would be equi- 
valent to at least half a million pounds sterling. The Colosseum has 
ever been a symbol of the greatness of Rome, and gave rise in the 
8th cent, to a prophetic saying of the pilgrims : — 

'While stands the Colosseum, Rome shall stand, 

"When falls the Colosseum, Rome shall fall, 

And when Rome falls, with it shall fall the World!' 

The Uppeb Stoeies should be visited by those who desire to obtain 
a distinct idea of the character of the structure (custodian found at the 
entrance next to the Palatine ; fee y 2 fr.). We ascend a new stone stair- 
case to the first story. Of the three arcades here we follow the inner- 
most as it affords a survey of the interior. Over the entrance from the 
Palatine a modern staircase of 48 steps ascends to the 2nd and then to 
the left to a projection in the 3rd story. The "View from the restored 
balustrade to the right in the 4th story , to which 55 more steps ascend 
is still more extensive. It embraces the Cselius with S. Stefano Rotondo 
and S. Giovanni e Paolo; farther off, the Aventine with S. Balbina in 
the background S. Paolo Fuori ; nearer, to the right, the Pyramid' of 
Cestius; to the right the Palatine, to which the arches of the Aqua 
Claudia approach. 

Arch of Constantine. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 237 

The Colosseum is profoundly Impressive by Moonlight , or when 
illuminated (e.g., by Bengal lights; comp. p. 115). The traveller should 
avail himself of a fine moonlight night for the purpose. The custodian 
is then generally to be found at the entrance next the Capitol, on the 
right side. The Flora found among the ruins of the Colosseum once 
comprised 420 species, which were collected by an English botanist, but 
most of them have disappeared owing to an over-zealous system of puri- 

Quitting the Colosseum by the same gate , we perceive on the 
left , in front of the edifice , the so-called Meta Sudans, the partially 
restored fragment of a magnificent fountain erected by Domitian. 
Farther on, to the left, between the CbbIius and Palatine, spanning 
the Via Triumpkalis which here joined the Yia Sacra, stands the — 

* Triumphal Arch of Constantine (PI. II, 24), the best-preserved 
structure of the kind, erected after the victory over Maxentius at 
Saxa Rubra, near the Ponte Molle, in 311, when Oonstantine de- 
clared himself in favour of Christianity. The inscription runs thus : 
Imp. Caes. Fl. Constantino Maximo pio felici Augusto Senatus Po- 
pulusque Romanus , quod instinctu divinitatis mentis magnitudine 
cum exercitu suo tarn de tyranno quam de omni ejus factione uno 
tempore justis rem publicum ultus est armis arcwm triumphis insignem 
dicavit. The arch has three passages. The greater part of the orna- 
mentation and the admirable *Sculptures have been brought from 
a triumphal arch of Trajan which stood at the entrance to Trajan's 
Forum, contrasting strongly with the rude additions made in the 
age of Constantine. 

From the Arch or Tkajan : Above, the captive Dacians (ancient; 
one entirely, but the heads and hands of the others are new). Beliefs 
(facing the Colosseum, to the left): 1. Trajan's entry into Rome; to the 
right of it, 2. Prolongation of the Via Appia; 3. Trajan causing poor 
children to be educated; 4. Trajan condemning a barbarian. On the 
other side, to the left: 5. Trajan crowning the Parthian king Parthamas- 
pates ; 6. Soldiers bringing two barbarians before Trajan; 7. Trajan 
addressing the army; 8. Trajan sacrificing. The eight Medallions below 
these reliefs represent sacrifices and hunting-scenes ; on the narrow sides 
two battles with the Dacians ; below the central arch , the vanquished 
imploring pardon, and Trajan crowned by Victory. — The marked con- 
trast between the two different periods of art is exhibited by the smaller 
reliefs inserted between the medallions, representing the achievements of 
Constantine in war and in peace. In 1804 Pius VII. caused the arch to 
be thoroughly excavated. In the 10th cent, it was converted into a castle, 
and afterwards belonged to the Frangipani. 

On the opposite side, a few hundred paces from the Colosseum, 
in the ViaLabieana, first gate to the left (whence the Via della Pol- 
verieia ascends to the left between walls in 5 min. to S. Pietro in 
Vincoli, p. 184), are situated on the Esquiline the — 

*Thermse of Xitus (PI. II, 26; open daily from 9 till dusk ; adm. 
1 fr. ; on Sun. gratis). Maecenas once had a villa here (p. 184), 
which was afterwards incorporated with the golden palace of Nero. 
On the site of the latter, in A.D. 80, Titus hastily erected his 
sumptuous Thermae , which were altered and enlarged by Domitian, 
Trajan, and others. The extensive ruins are scattered over several 
vineyards, and a small part only, excavated in 1813, is accessible. 

238 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Forum of Nerva. 

The earlier structure of Neko is easily distinguished from that of 
Titus. The long vaulted parallel passages first entered belong to the 
Thermse. They form together a semicircular substructure, the object of 
which is not clearly ascertained. Most of the chambers beneath, which 
were filled up by Titus in the construction of his baths, and re-excavated 
at the beginning of the 16th cent., belonged to the golden palace of Nero. 
A suite of seven rooms is first entered here ; to the left, near that in the 
centre, are remains of a spring. Traces of the beautiful Paintings, which 
before the discovery of Pompeii were the sole specimens of ancient deco- 
ration of this description , and served as models for Giovanni da Udine 
and Raphael in the decoration of the loggie, are still observed. Colon- 
nades appear to have flanked both sides of these rooms. A passage leads 
hence to a bath-room. To the left, at right angles with this suite, are 
a number of small and unadorned rooms, probably the dwellings of the 
slaves; to the left again, opposite the first suite, is a passage once lighted 
from above, the vaulting of which was adorned with beautiful frescoes 
still partially visible. 

Fora of the Emperors. Academy of St. Luke. 

In the plain to the N.E. of the Forum of the Republic lay the 
Fora of the Emperors, which were erected rather as monuments to 
their founders and ornaments to the city than for political purposes, 
and were chiefly used for judicial proceedings. The chief edifice 
in these fora was always a temple. The Forum Julium , the first 
of the kind , was begun by Csesar and completed by Augustus ; the 
second was built by Augustus ; the Temple of Peace (p. 232) of 
Vespasian is often mentioned as a third ; a fourth was founded by 
Domitian, and another, the most magnificent of all, by Trajan. We 
enumerate them in their order from the Temple of Peace , which 
probably lay on the site of the basilica of Constantine, to the Forum 
of Trajan, as they all adjoined each other within this area. 

Adjacent to the Temple of Peace lay the Forum of Nerva, foun- 
ded by Domitian and completed by Nerva, sometimes called the 
Forum Transitorium from having been intersected by an important 
street. Here stood a temple of Minerva, taken down by Paul V. in 
order to obtain marble for the decoration of the Fontana Paolina on 
the Janiculus, and a small temple of Janus. Remains of the external 
walls exist in the so-called *Colonacce, two half-buried Corinthian 
columns , with entablature enriched with reliefs (representing the 
practice of the arts, weaving, etc. , which were specially protected 
by the goddess ; casts of them in the collection of the French 
Academy, p. 142); above them is an attic with a Minerva. This 
fragment , situated at the intersection of the Via Alessandrina and 
Via della Croce Bianca, at the E. comer (PI. II, 20), is well cal- 
culated to afford an idea of the former grandeur of the structure. 

The following cross-street is the Via Bonella, in which, No. 44, 
not far from the Forum, is the — 

Accademia di S. Luca (PI. II, 20), a school of art founded in 1595, 
and re-organised in 1874. The first director was Federigo Zucchero. 
The picture-gallery of the Academy (daily, 9-3), a second-rate col- 
lection, contains few works of importance. 

Accademia di 8. Luca. ROME. IV. Ancient Rome. 239 

We ascend the staircase, into the walls of which are built a few 
casts from Trajan's Column (disfigured with whitewash). On the first land- 
ing is the entrance to the collection of the competitive works of the pupils 
(closed): KesseVs Discus-thrower reposing, in plaster; Christ on the Mt. of 
Olives, drawing by L. Seitz ; reliefs by Thorvaldsen and Canova; Ganymede 
watering the eagle, by Thorvaldsen, and several casts from the antique. 

We ascend another staircase, and ring at the entrance to the — 

Picture Gallery (Vz fr.). A small Ante-Chambek (with engravings, etc.) 
leads to the I. Saloon, lighted from above. Entrance-wall: Berghem, Land- 
scape; Tempesta, Wharf; Old Dutch Sch., Madonna and Descent from the 
Cross ; Rubens , Venus crowned by graces ; Van Dyck , Madonna ; Titian, 
St. Jerome ; Jos. Vernet, Wharf. Short wall : G. Poussin , two Landscapes. 
Second wall : Ribera, Scribes disputing ; P. Veronese, Venus ; Van Dyck (?), 
Portrait; Titian, Portrait; Vanity; Claude Lorrain, Coast Landscape; Jos. 
Vernet, Wharf. On the second short wall, busts of Betti, Tenerani, and 
Thorvaldsen. — The saloon is adjoined on one side by a Small Room, 
principally containing portraits of artists; among them, on the pillar, 
Virginie Lebrun ; on the short wall , Byron ; in the upper part of the 
right short wall, second row, to the right Angelica Kauffmann; below, by 
the entrance, Salvalor Rosa , Concert of cats. — On the other side is 
the II. Saloon, also lighted from above. On the entrance-pillars : Cana- 
letto, Architectural design; Maratta, Madonna; on the back of this picture 
there is a "copy , by Marc Antonio , of the first design of Raphael's Trans- 
figuration (figures nude; original supposed to have been lost). Left wall: 
Titian, Discovery of the guilt of Calisto, inferior to the other mytholo- 
gical pictures of this master; Guido Reni, Fortuna; "Raphael, Boy as 
garland-bearer, being a relic of a fresco in the Vatican, sawn out of the 
wall, and freely retouched; Guido Cagnacci , Lucrezia, an admirable work 
of this master , a painter of no great note of the school of Guido Reni ; 
Guercino, Venus and Cupid (al fresco). Short wall : Bronzino , St. Andrew ; 
Venet. Sch. , Portrait; Guido Reni, Cupid; Raphael (?), St. Luke painting 
the Madonna, beside him Raphael observing him, entirely disfigured by 
retouching , and a work which must have been of little value even when 
it was in better condition, as the want of uniformity in the colouring shows 
that several different hands have been engaged upon it (originally an 
altar-piece in St. Martino); Tintoretto, Portrait; After Titian, Tribute-mo- 
ney. Right wall: Poussin, Bacchanalian dance; Pellegrini, Hebe; Galatea, 
copy by Giulio Romano from Raphael; J. Vernet, Wharf; P. Veronese, 
Susanna; Guido Reni, Bacchus and Ariadne. Round the upper part of this 
saloon is a double row of portraits of artists. 

The Via Bonella is terminated towards the N. by an ancient wall 
with a gateway. In front of the latter, to the left, are three hand- 
some and lofty *Corinthian columns with entablature, which belonged 
to one of the sides of the Temple of Mars Vltor in the Forum of 
Augustus (PI. II, 20). The forum was enclosed by a lofty *Wall of 
peperino blocks (a grey volcanic rock), part of which, about 160 yds. 
long , is seen near the temple , and still better by passing through 
the gateway (Arco de' Pantani). This wall was adjoined by the back 
of a temple erected by Augustus in B. C. 2, in consequence of a 
vow which he made during his war against Oaesar's murderers. The 
forum is now occupied by the nunnery of the Annunziata. The 
original level is about 16 ft. below the surface. This locality was 
a swamp ('pantano') in the 16th cent., whence the modern name. 

Between this and the ancient Republican Forum lay the Forum of Cae- 
sar, or Forum Julium, with a temple of Venus Genetrix. Scanty remains of 
the outer tufa wall lie in the court (to the left) of 18 Vicolo del Ghettarello, 
a street diverging to the right between Nos. 47 and 46 Via di Marforio. 

We now ascend to the left through the Arco de' Pantani by the 

240 IV. Ancient Rome. ROME. Forum of Trajan. 

huge wall which now forms part of the nunnery , and a little farther 
on descend to the left by the Via di Campo Carleo (in the court 
No. 6, wall of Trajan's forum, see below) to the busy Via Ales- 
sandrina, whence immediately to the right we enter the — 

* Forum of Trajan (PI. II, 19), which adjoined the Forum of 
Augustus. This was an aggregate of magnificent edifices , and is 
said to have been designed by Apollodorus of Damascus (111-114). 
By means of a huge cutting between the Capitol and the Quirinal, 
Trajan effected a convenient communication between the Fora of the 
ancient city and the Campus Martius (p. 224). His Forum must 
have measured about 220 yds. in width , and was probably of still 
greater length ; and it was considered the most magnificent in Rome. 

Ammianus (16, 10) thus describes it on the occasion of the visit of 
the Emp. Constautine in 356: — 'Verum cum ad Trajani forum venisset, 
singularem sub omni caelo structuram, ut opinamur, etiam nuniinum 
adsensione mirabilem, haerebat adtonitus per giganteos contextus circum- 
ferens mentem nee relatu effabiles nee rursus mortalibus adpetendos'. 
According to a legend of the 7th cent., Gregory the Great, while admiring 
the ancient splendour of the forum one day, and saddened by the thought 
that so just and benignant a monarch as its founder should be condem- 
ned to everlasting perdition, succeeded by his prayers in obtaining the 
release of Trajan's soul from purgatory. In the 10th cent, this forum lay 
in ruins, and the church of S. Nicolao had been erected by the column. 
This was succeeded by other churches. In 1587 Sixtus V. crowned the 
column with a bronze statue of St. Peter. At length, in 1812-14, the 
French government caused two nunneries and other buildings to be de- 
molished, and thus partially brought to light the centre of the forum. 

In the part already excavated (about 120 by 50 yds.) are seen 
the foundations of four rows of columns, belonging to the five-hailed 
Basilica VLpia, which lay with its side* towards the end of the pre- 
sent piazza. The central hall was 27 yds., and the whole building 
61 yds. in width. The pavement consisted of slabs of rare marble. 
It is uncertain whether the remains of granite columns which have 
been found and erected here are in their original positions. — Bet- 
ween this Basilica and the Forum of Augustus lay the Forum Tra- 
jani properly so called, part of the S.K. semicircular wall of which 
is still seen in the court of No. 6 Via del Campo Carleo, two stories in 
height. The chambers of the ground floor were probably shops. In 
the centre of this forum stood Trajan's equestrian statue. 

The custodian, who is generally inside (entrance at the S. end, by the 
narrow door; '/a fr-J, conducts visitors to the (2 min.) ancient Baths in the 
Via di Campo Carleo, adjoining the (Quirinal. The unworn state of the 
ancient pavement indicates that driving was not allowed here. 

On the N. side of the basilica rises **Trajan's Column, con- 
structed entirely of marble, the shaft of which is 87 ft. high, and 
the whole, including the pedestal and statue, 147 ft.; diameter 
11 ft. below, and 10 ft. at the top. Around the column runs a 
spiral band, 3 ft. wide and 660 ft. long, covered with admirable 
*Rulikfs from Trajan's war with the Dacians, comprising, besides 
animals, machines, etc., upwards of 2500 human figures, the height 
of those below being 2 ft., and gradually increasing as they ascend. 
(Coinp. p. xxxviii ; see also the cast of the reliefs in the Lateral! 

S|>iogazionr do numeri. 
I . Scalone ti ' uujresxo . 

'd . _T fu SCO - 

3. Clivo del I a Vittorta 
\. Par-fa Romano. . 
•>. Aayuratorio- 
ti . Cfcsa di Liria . 


8 .Jrtpto/>orlico. 


10. lahlijto del Palazzo. 

VX.Atrio u.ssid festiotdo. 

12. Ternpio di Ci